Introduction: Purification of Copper Sulfate
In this instructable I am going to show you how to purify copper sulfate. The reason that I am doing this is because the type you get at the hardware store for cleaning drains has a fair amount of impurities in it. The stuff I got has about two percent impurities in it. This may not seem like very much, but when you are doing precise chemistry experiments it is really to impure to be used directly.
Now, there are several ways of purifying this stuff, but I am going to show you how to do it by recrystallization. The reason that I am going to show you this way is because it is the easiest way to do it in a home laboratory. The way this works is that all of the impurities will sink to the bottom of the beaker. the copper sulfate however will stay in solution and as the water evaporates the copper sulfate will crystalize on the seed crystal. This means that we can collect the crystals without getting the inpurities that have sank to the bottom.
DISCLAIMER: Copper Sulfate is dangerous. It can be harmful to you and can also be harmful to aquatic life if it gets is spilled and gets into water tables.
Step 1: What You Need
- Beaker (I used a 400ml beaker but you could use a larger one if you want.)
- Spoon or Magnetic Stirrer
Here are the materials I used:
- Copper Sulfate
- Popsicle Stick
And that's all you need.
Step 2: Setting Everything Up
Now that you have all of your supplies together you can start getting things set up. The first thing to do is to measure out 400 milliliters of water. This is assuming that you are using a 400 milliliter beaker like I am, if you aren't measure out the appropriate amount of water to fill your beaker or jar to an inch bellow the top of the beaker.
Once you have your water measured out you need to assemble the string with your seed crystal. In my experiment I used a crystal that I had previously made as a seed crystal, but you can just use a string if you want. The seed crystal should be tied to a popsicle stick and suspended in the jar so that it is hanging in the middle. It is important that it is in the middle otherwise as the crystal grows it will bump into the sides of your beaker.
Step 3: Making the Copper Sulfate Solution
Now that your seed crystal is ready we are going to create the copper sulfate solution. But first I need to explain what a super-saturated solution is. A super-saturated solution is a solution that is holding as much of a dissolved substance as it can. In this experiment that substance is copper sulfate. One of the nice things about a super-saturated solution is that as soon as any of the water in the solution evaporates crystals will form. That will mean that in our super-saturated solution as soon as the water starts to evaporate copper sulfate crystals will form and we can collect these crystals because they are purer than the copper sulfate that we put in the solution.
Now that you understand how all of this works we are ready to create our super-saturated solution. Make sure that your seed crystal isn't in the beaker and then poor in your 400ml of water. After pouring in your water slowly add the copper sulfate one spoonful at a time. The solution will slowly get darker and darker blue. Keep adding and stirring until no more copper sulfate will dissolve. Once no more copper sulfate will dissolve the solution is super-saturated. Now put in your seed crystal and put it all somewhere that it won't be disturbed.
Step 4: Waiting
Now you need to put away your solution and forget about it. The solution will take several weeks to evaporate, but putting it next to a fan will help speed things up a little bit. I recommend putting the solution in a undisturbed place and letting it sit for a month.
Step 5: The Finished Product
After a month most of your solution should have evaporated. Now you are ready to collect your purified copper sulfate. Once your solution is evaporated the seed crystal should have grown considerably. There should also be a considerable amount of crystals formed in your beaker. The seed crystal is pure and so are the crystal on the sides of the beaker. When you are getting the crystals from the side of your beaker make sure not to accidentally get any from the bottom as they are impure.
Once you have collected all of the crystal that are pure you can st them out on a plate or watch glass to dry. And now you have purified copper sulfate.
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This is not pure copper sulphate, it is most likely the pentahydrate. Anhydrous CuSO4 is white.