Here we explain in a very broad sense how an infrared remote control works.
There is at least 1 infrared LED (or Infrared Emitter, IR LED, IR Emitter) inside every infrared remote control, including the one you use to control your TV set. When you press a button on the remote, the IR LED will give out a certain series of "LOW"s and "HIGH"s which represents a series of "0"s and "1"s. (To be strict, it is common that a "HIGH" and a corresponding "LOW" consist of a "0", and another combination of "HIGH" and "LOW" with different period represents a "1".) Different series of "0"s and "1"s can mean different things, for example maybe "1100100000111" can mean "Turn Off the TV", and "001101011100" can mean "Volume Down".
Infrared is also cast by light and heat sources all around you: light bulbs, sunlight, heaters, even people. Therefore the remote control needs to have a distinct method of sending out infrared code to the receiving device (TV set, helicopter, car, etc.). That's why infrared normally transmits with "carrier" - a high frequency square wave
sequence (normally 36kHz, 38kHz and 40kHz). So, if you were to capture and zoom in on an infrared signal, you would find each "HIGH" consists of a sequence of square waves
rather than a continuous "HIGH" voltage level.
Check out Wikipedia:Infrared Remote Control
for more information about infrared remote controls.