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Overview
The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming increasingly important for traffic monitoring, smart homes, smart parking management and other industrial applications. With the continuous development of the IoT, more and more “things” will be able to access to the IoT. In this project, I have proposed an intelligent patients monitoring system to monitor the patient automatically with the help of IoT (more specifically connected sensors network) that collects the status information which include patient's heart rate, ECG, SPO2, body temperature, humidity, blood pressure, unexpected body movement etc. and sends these data to the cloud. As a result, patient's doctor and nurses can see his current health condition. In case of emergency if the patient's health condition is not stable (critical), the system automatically sends a push notification to doctors and nurses. This would help the doctor to monitor his patient from anywhere as well as helps the patient's relatives to view his (patient) health condition remotely(with limited access).

What is Patient Monitoring

Continuous measurement of patient parameters such as heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, blood pressure, blood-oxygen saturation, and many other parameters have become a common feature of the care of critically ill patients. When accurate and immediate decision-making is crucial for effective patient care, electronic monitors frequently are used to collect and display physiological data. Increasingly, such data are collected using non-invasive sensors from less seriously ill patients in a hospital’s medical-surgical units, labor and delivery suites, nursing homes, or patients’ own homes to detect unexpected life-threatening conditions or to record routine but required data efficiently.

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology which was first proposed to study RFID by Ashton, Professor of the MIT Auto-ID Center in 1999. IoT is a major drive to support service composition with various applications. It enables objects surrounding us with the ability to communicate each other through the Internet. The popular architecture of IoT is illustrated in Fig.1. It consists of three layers: Perception layer, Network layer and Application layer. Sensors, Actuators, RFID tags and other smart terminals are connected to the IoT from the perception layer. Network layer is responsible for the communication between “things” and human beings. Abundant applications are provided by the application layer.

Proposed System

The block diagram of the system shown in Fig.2. Genuino 101 (IoT Development Board) is used as a main controller of this system. All the others sensors are directly connected with it. An Ethernet shield is used for connecting the board with the cloud. All the hardware components of this system are listed in (things section). The thinger.io IoT platform is used for real time data streaming and visualization. Fig.3 shows the mathematical notation of sensors and threshold level and the mathematical model for emergency call of this system.

Step 1: Prerequisite

The Mobile application of this project has developed using Intel XDK. I have used Thinger.io Cloud Platform for IoT cloud. All the code is written using Arduino IDE.

Necessary software requirement

  • Arduino IDE
  • Intel XDK
  • Thinger.io Account
  • knowledge about Mobile application development
  • Internet Connection

Hardware requirement

  1. Arduino 101
  2. Arduino Ethernet Shield
  3. Power supply 12V
  4. Breadboard
  5. jumper wires
  6. Breadboard Power Supply
  7. Heart Rate Sensor
  8. ECG sensor
  9. Blood Pressure Sensor
  10. Push Button
  11. Buzzer
  12. LED
  13. Humidity sensor
  14. Temperature sensor
  15. Movement sensor

Step 2: Connection (Put Everything Together)

    Procedure
    Place Arduino Ethernet Shield on top of Arduino 101 Broad. Connect the Arduino's GND pin to Power Supply's GND pin (since I used external power source for powering the sensors). Please pay attention while connecting jumper cables.

    Sensors connection with Arduino 101

    1. ECG sensor
      1. VCC to 5V
      2. GND to GND
      3. Data to A0 (Aduino)
    2. Pulse Sensor
      1. VCC to 3.3V
      2. GND to GND
      3. SCL to SCL (Arduino)
      4. SDA to SDA (Arduino)
    3. BME280
      1. VCC to 3.3V
      2. GND to GND
      3. SCL to SCL (Arduino)
      4. SDA to SDA (Arduino)
    4. LED
      1. VCC to 5V
      2. GND to GND
      3. DATA to D8 (Arduino)

    5. Buzzer
      1. VCC to VCC
      2. GND to GND
      3. DATA to D7 (Arduino)

    6. Vibration Sensor
      1. VCC to 5V
      2. GND to GND
      3. DATA to D6 (Arduino)
    7. Push Button
      1. VCC to 5V
      2. GND to GND
      3. DATA to D8 (Arduino)

    Please connect all the sensors carefully with Arduino 101 board.

    Upload the Firmware to the Arduino Board

    Download all the Arduino lib and place it on the libraries folder (Arduino's lib folder), all the lib and the source code is available on my git-hub account.

    • Open the arduino_frimware.ino file using Arduino IDE
    • Put your credentials (thinger,io) and IP address of the Ethernet shield Upload it to the Arduino board.
    • Connect the Ethernet cable (RJ45 Jack) with Ethernet Shield.
    • Open your Thinger.io account and check whether the device is connected (use device tab or refer the thinger.io documentation)
    • It is possible to build the Real Time Dashboard on Thinger.io (please refer their documentation)

    That's all guys,.............. cheers.

    Now, Run the mobile application and see the real time data on your mobile. The Mobile application development is little bit hard if you are a beginner. Do some Google search and learn how to connect API with Mobile apps. Thinger.io is a REST API Engine (please refer thinger.io documentation for more details).

    The Git Repository for this project:

    https://github.com/Mohammadsalahuddin/genuino_contest

    All the source code including Mobile apps (source ) are there.

    Step 3: Mobile Application Development

    I have developed a Mobile application(Fig. 1 and Fig.2) for doctors/nurses for monitoring the patient based on sensors data(the data contains current condition of the patient) in real time. In case of emergency, the system automatically notifies doctors/nurses through push notification provided that, the emergency condition is determined by the equation (shown in Fig.3). I also developed another web based application for hospital in-charge personal for monitoring the patient constantly (possible to use the thinger.io dashboard for this purpose).

    Conclusion
    The proposed system provides better solution over traditional methods. It increases the quality of service as well as the capacity of ICU unit. The application of this system is not limited to ICU unit, it may extend as a portable health monitoring device for older people (who lives alone) as well as monitoring babies and people having cardiovascular disease.

    Appendix

    • IoT in short of Internet of things.
    • SpO2 stands for peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, an estimate of the amount of oxygen in the blood.
    • Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG*) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle's electro-physiologic pattern of depolarizing during each heartbeat. It is a very commonly performed cardiology test.
    • Dashboard – a control panel displaying various data.

    Reference

    • What is Intensive Care?, http://www.ics.ac.uk
    • What is an ICU, http://www.wisegeek.org
    • Intensive care unit, http://www.wisegeek.org
    • A. Whitmore, A. Agarwal, and L. Da Xu, The Internet of Things—A survey of topics and trends,Information Systems Frontiers, vol. 17, pp. 261-274 (2015)
    • S. Li, L. D. Xu, and S. Zhao, The internet of things: a survey,Information Systems Frontiers, vol. 17, pp. 243-259 (2015)

    Step 4: Step by Step Video Tutorials

    Download all the source from my GITHUB and follow the Video instructions. In this tutorials I used only one sensor. Do the same procedure for other sensors as well (all the references and the final_frimware are available on github).

    You are free to asked me any questions about this project.

    The video tutorials channel is

    Video tutorials Channel

    Please follow them step by step.

    Similar projects that uses another micro-controller (linkit Smart DOU)

    https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLSa2IEYZMmZRLv0DYwaYTgC0aEQm0H3-k

    -and GIT Repository

    https://github.com/Mohammadsalahuddin/linkit_smart_dou.git

    Bests,

    <p>Hey can I use an arduino mega in place of that arduino 101.And have you provided all your source code on your github account.Thanks for your reply.</p>
    <p>please share your Pin Diagram of sensors (where you connect the sensors as well as Ethernet shield ).</p><p>Best,</p>
    <p>I think this might just be the coolest instructable I've ever seen, and not even because my grandfather could probably use one; I just think this could be a game changer out in the field after a large-scale incident. Imagine if you could have a few trained medics and first responders supervising a group of laymen volunteers like construction foremen. It doesn't matter if the volunteers have no idea what systolic blood pressure is or even how to properly apply a bandage; all they need to be able to do is stick the probes in the right spots and hit the send button on their phone so the pros can swing by to do their part if necessary. Not only do you get more done when you've got 50 people taking vitals instead of 5, but you're taking a huge load off the people who should be running IVs and doing triage because nobody else knows how. Probably better for the little guys too if they're kept busy in a safe zone and given a sense of purpose, instead of being left to wander around a disaster area :)</p>
    a lot of thanks Mohammad. I'll try for it as soon as I can. Well done!
    <p>You are welcome.</p>
    <p>Nice one&gt; During my engineering final year i made Smart ambulance patient care,in which i used GSM module for sending sms of patient body parameters such as heart rate,body temperature etc. </p>
    <p>Thanks Sam :-)</p>
    Arduino 101 er daam koto Bd te??
    nice project.
    <p>Thanks :-)</p>
    <p>I don't know exactly. </p>
    The most interesting instructable i've ever seen. Where can I see the code?
    <p><a href="https://github.com/Mohammadsalahuddin/genuino_contest">https://github.com/Mohammadsalahuddin/genuino_cont...</a></p><p>The Arduino source code will be available on 25 March 2017. </p><p>(sorry for late)</p>
    <p>I am unable to share the Mobile apps source code (source code contains my own user credentials and Its only connected with my IoT Cloud Account), APK file not works if my device is not running. I will share the Arduino source on my git repository as soon as possible. keep eyes on it.</p><p>Best, </p>
    Github username: I cannot find your github acount. I tried for uddin_bangladesh, mohammad salad uddin (from youtube). Can you tell me your github usrrname please?
    Ok, I see it. Well done and very interesting!

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