So your Xbox got the dreaded Red Rings of Death... What to do? The way I look at it you can do one of three things. 

1) Send your console in to a big corporation, wait a month, and get a console that'll break in another month.
2) Throw it out or try and sell it. You could make $40 or so and put it towards a new console.
3) Try and fix it yourself. Now there are several paths you can take to "fix" your box, and hopefully this instructable will make this task less daunting (and explain the right way to do it)

So lets get started!

Step 1: Fixes That DONT WORK

The problem behind the Red Rings (9 times out of 10) has to do with cracks, whiskers, and other issues with the solder balls under all of the BGA chips on the 360 MoBo caused by constant heating/cooling cycles. 

The Towel Fix-
People think that by wrapping their 360 in a towel and running it for excessive periods of time, the internal components will reach the melting point of lead-free solder (217C), and the bad joints under the BGAs will reflow, fixing the problem... I'm not even going to explain what's wrong with that picture. 

The Penny Fix-
By putting pennies underneath the GPU heatsink/on top of the RAM chips, the extreme pressure on the RAM BGAs will (in some cases) push the chip down enough that the bad joints make connections. Now this is all good and dandy save the fact that neither the solder balls nor the RAM were meant to take that kind of pressure, and this fix will only lead to more broken joints.

The "X-Clamp" Fix-
This fix utilizes the same basic principle as the penny fix. By removing the stock heatsink clamps, you can hold the CPU and GPU heatsinks on with machine screws. The idea is that you can over tighten the bolts causing the heatsinks to exert more pressure on the processors, pressing the broken solder joints down until they make connections. The issue with this is that more pressure inevitably leads to more broken joints... which leads to more pressure, which leads to more broken joints... the vicious cycle continues until you get micro fractures in the chips and your console is dead for good. 

Step 2: The Fix That DOES WORK

A Reflow-
Easily the most reliable, and effective fix is performing a reflow. By re-melting the solder balls in a BGA any imperfect joints will be fixed when they re-harden. This instructable will cover hot air reflowing, but other methods are available (albeit more expensive). Now some people claim they can reflow their Xbox using a heat gun or an oven, but to reflow properly you need the proper equipment. 

Step 3: Equipment/Materials

Here's what you need to perform a successful and professional quality reflow. This is my setup, so you don't need the exact same things (i.e. you could get a different model reworking station than I have)
-Aoyue 968 Reworking Station
-Rework Nozzle #4141
-Modified Presto Griddle (It needs to have 8 m5 bolts running up from the bottom. These serve to hold the mother board about 1/4 inch off the griddle during the reflow)
-Makeshift stand for the Aoyue Hot Air Gun
-A flat-head screw driver
-A torque screwdriver (The Xbox has both t8 and t10 screws, I just use a t9 bit.)
-A small, pointy object (You need this to disassemble the box)
-Q-tips (Lots of them!)
-Goo Gone (This stuff works miracles on thermal paste)
-Isopropyl Alcohol (It should be at least 70%)
-Rosin Flux (This is optional, and I don't use it in my reflows...)
-Pipettes (If you use Flux)
-Arctic Silver Thermal Paste (I buy mine at RadioShack. One tube usually lasts for 10 boxes)

Step 4: Starting the Repair

Before we disassemble the console, we want to know exactly what the problem is with it. In my case, the box had an e74 error. If there is no video though, you want to be able to target the specific component in the box that is responsible for the Red Rings. So here's what you do to find the Secondary Error code.

1) Turn the box on and wait for the Red Rings to come up. 
2) Hold down the sync button, you need to be pressing this for the entire time.
3) Hit the eject button once. Note the number of lights around the power button.
4) Do this three more times.
5) You should now have 4 different numbers, in my case it was 1 light, 4 lights, 2 lights, 2 lights.
6) To convert this into "Xbox error code" just take those numbers, but change any 4s to 0s. So my error code would be 1022. 

Now that you have the code, you can look here to find out what the exact problem with your board is. My error was a result of a GPU problem, so that's the component I need to reflow. 

Step 5: Disassembling

I'm going to assume that if you're able to reflow your console, you can take your xbox apart. If you don't know how to, follow this instructable.

Step 6: Remove the X-Clamps

So you've got the MoBo out, and now you need to remove the heat sinks. Flip the Xbox upside down, and you should see two X-shaped clamps. To take these off, put a flat head screw driver into the part of the clip that curls back. Now turn counter-clockwise and lift up. You HAVE TO rotate the screwdriver, otherwise you'll bend the clamps. You need to be very careful when you're removing them because if the screwdriver slips it could destroy components around it. After you remove them, set them off to the side because we're going to put them back on in the end. 

Step 7: Get Rid of the Thermal Paste

I'm incredibly proud of myself, because I think I've found the perfect method for removing thermal paste. 

1) Remove the big clumps of thermal paste around the dies on the chip. I use a cut up ID card to do this.
2) Take a Q-tip and lightly coat it in Goo Gone. Rub it around on the die and it'll remove a lot of the paste. Don't worry, this stuff is safe for use on the board, I've used it countless times. 
3) Take another Q-tip and dip it in rubbing alcohol. After you coat the chip in it, use the other end to dry up the excess liquid. 

Step 8: Pre-Heating the Board

Now we get started on the Reflow. It's incredibly crucial to heat any board from the underside while performing a reflow on it. I use a presto griddle, and it works amazingly well. I've drilled 8 holes in it, and I run m5 machine screws up through the bottom. There are two nuts and two washers just on top of the griddle that hold the bolts in place. These also keep the motherboard about 1/4 inch off the griddle during the reflow. 

Put your board onto the griddle, and screw a nut snugly onto every screw. This is one of the most important parts of the reflow process. They keep the motherboard from flexing during it, and allow the solder to reflow properly. The board should be sandwiched between two nuts, and NOT touching the griddle.

Turn the temperature up to 400F, the griddle will get very hot so use your common sense and don't touch it. I let my board preheat for 10 minutes.

Step 9: Setup for the Reflow

I set up my makeshift stand while the board is preheating. It slides under the griddle, and I clamp it down onto the table. An extension holds the hot air gun over the board. It should be very, very close to the chip, but NOT TOUCHING! Look at the picture that shows how high off the board it is. You'll also notice in this picture that I have the reworking station on a separate table. The unit vibrates a bit, and you don't want anything to move the board while the solder is in it's liquid state, or you could screw it up. 

Step 10: Reflowing!

So after ten minutes of pre-heating the board, I begin the hot air reflow. Make sure that the air pressure is at 5 1/2 (thats the dial in the bottom right of the unit). The lowest temperature the unit can go to is 90C, so after I turn it on I wait to time until the actual temperature (bottom number) reaches 90. You always wait for the unit to reach the temperature before you start timing. Note that the griddle is on at 400F for the whole time.

This is the heating profile that I follow (All temperature increases are in 3 deg/sec, which is one press of the up/down button on the unit a second):

- Turn on the unit and wait for it to reach 90C.
     - Hold for 60 seconds
- Increase the temperature to 195C
     - Hold for 60 seconds
- Increase the temperature to 291C
     - Hold for 40 seconds
- Increase the temperature to 350C
     - Hold for 20 seconds
- Increase the temperature to 381C
     - Hold for 20 seconds
- Decrease the temperature to 291C
     -Hold for 10 seconds
- Drop the temperature to 90C as fast as the unit will go.

When it reaches 90C, I turn the unit and the griddle off. At this point, it is incredibly crucial to not touch or move the board. You need to let it sit for at least 15 minutes without being disturbed.

*Another Note* These machines are not exactly the same, my 381C may actually be outputting air at 360C, where yours may be doing 400C. Its very beneficial to get a test board and figure out just how hot you need to go on your machine before the solder melts. This is called a BGA lift, and just follow this profile up to 350C. After that go up by 3 degree increments. Wait ten seconds, and try and lift the chip up with a flathead screwdriver. If it lifts, that's the temperature you need to hit. If not, keep going up until you can lift the chip.

Step 11: Reassembling

After the board sits for a period of time (it should be cool to the touch), remove it from the griddle. Now you need to apply new thermal paste. They say to apply a grain-of-rice sized glob of paste, I tend to use however much I need to cover the die. Squeeze some out of the syringe and use a cut up ID card to smooth it out. The paste should have a smooth surface before you put the heatsinks back on.

To replace the heatsinks, just put them back through the holes in the MoBo, and work in reverse. Slide the clamp back on, and press the "legs" of the X down until they clip on the heatsink bolts. You may need to use a screwdriver to pry them open a little bit while you're pushing them down.  

Now you can put it back in the housing and reattach the DVD drive and fan. 

Step 12: Testing!

At this point you can try the box out and see if your reflow worked. Plug in the power and video cable, and make sure the RF board is back in the front of the xbox. Turn it on, pray, and hopefully it'll boot right up.

If it doesn't, don't get discouraged, try reflowing different components, and checking your heat profile. Maybe you aren't going hot enough.

If it does work, finish putting the case back together, and you have a working Xbox 360!

If you're interested in a professional fix, but don't want to try reflowing it yourself, send me an email at nicwolf1@gmail.com. You can ship your console to me, and I'll reflow it for you.

Thanks for reading, and good luck!
<p>Umm you really should not to this!! unless you want to destroy it, 350 C is very very hot never mind 400C considering SnAgCu (lead free) has a melting temperature of 222&deg;C, compared to the regular SnPb (tin Lead) sphere of 183&deg;C going above these temps by more than 5 deg does not make the solder stick better.</p><p>Investing the 25 bucks for a cheap dual K type thermal couple temperature meter off eBay is well worth it and they are actually pretty accurate and a roll of kapton tape to adhere the thermal couples to the board with is a pretty good idea also</p><p>Stressing the components with those extreme temperatures you recommend in your profile will cause thermal fractures in the silicon substrate in just about every semiconductor on the board not to mention destroy the epoxy bond between the copper foil and the fiberglass which will cause the copper traces to lift. you should never pre-heat above 180C.</p><p>The use of proper flux is more or less mandatory as lead-free and lead-tin solder produce oxides from the air when heated causing very poor wetting of the joint and poor conductivity which results in high resistance and will cause the solder joint to fail</p>
Could I use this same process on a PS3?
Keep getting the RROD on my system. Funny thing is its not overheating because i dont get overheating code. Only time i dis when i didnt tighten the heat sync. But now i can get 4 hrs on a game and maybe a movie off Netflix. Im going to try this atleaat thw code look up since it is not throwing it.
Ok well ummm what do 2 rings mean?
I tried the similar technique to reflow the BGA on the PC mainboard and found that it was difficult to do the reflow correctly and consistently without sensing the temperature at the BGA. Now I use a MultiTC PID reflow oven / BGA rework controller ( http://multitc.is-best.net/en ) to do this. By sensing the temperature with K-type thermocouple and using preprogrammed reflow BGA profile the reflow process is simpler and the result is more consistent.
<p>how long to fix the xbox 360</p>
As for the thermal paste bit: I would say MX-3 (or when it becomes available, MX-4) is a better choice - unlike AS5, it's actually nonconductive and noncapacitive (no risk damaging your Xbox if it hits the SMDs around the die). Supposedly has better durability too, though I haven't seen tests on this one.
<p>I agree.</p>
Im from Germany and Im going to order this griddle from ebay.A Guide on how to prepare the Griddle would be helpfull for me.Thx.<br />
Hey, I'll get on that this weekend, I'll let you know when it's done!<br />
<p>Thank u!!!! I was able to finish my science project!!!!!</p>
<p>My papa was born in Germany I think. I know his mother was. I'm PART German, so my papa taught me some German words. Did you know Germany LOST World War 2?????</p>
Dont waste time using a heat gun or any of these towel or clamp methods on the chip - bad bad bad idea! <br> <br>Take the chip off the board - clean the board chip area and the chip itself completely of solder using a heat gun and some bga flux then use copper braid to get the last remnants off! <br> <br>It is then a matter of re-balling the chip using a stencil. <br>Putting it back on the board is slightly tricky getting it lined up but all thats left is to flux it and melt it back on. <br> <br>There is a good tutorial on the net from a bunch of guys who supply all you need for about &pound;30 - you will of course need a decent reflow solder station. <br> <br>If you are not prepared to do it right then hand it in to a specialist! <br>
Before commenting, consider actually reading the guide. He said not to do those things.
I'm going to do this soon, and most people advise to get a temp sensor (like with a thermocouple and the multimeter looking display) to be sure to not burn the board. What temperature should I use as a maximum to not go over? Thanks!
<p>you just need to use heatgun on full power for 4 mins over all main chips but heat back of board on low first.</p>
Sunset Overdrive White Xbox One Unboxing<p>http://xboxforsale2.blogspot.com/2014/10/sunset-overdrive-white-xbox-one-unboxing.html</p>
I only own a heat gun that has twelve heat settings on it. Is it okay if I don't use exact temps. I have never done this before, but I am planning on it.
i also tried this with my laptop and a crappy 2 temp heat gun. first temp was for 100 seconds, and the second was done incrementally closer to the gpu for 20 seconds, then 100 more seconds on low while backing away from it. to this day it is still working.
Do you remove the gummy looking pads that cover the four chips on the underside by the x-clamps when you secure it to the griddle, or is ok to leave them on during the reflow?
I live in korea and It is nearly impossible to buy below items or alternative for following this repair guide. <br>Aoyue 968 Reworking Station <br>-Rework Nozzle #4141 <br>-Modified Presto Griddle <br> <br>I plan to do traditional soldering way(by hand BGA soldering), instead of doing this reflow process which require many equipments. <br>Is it possible only to use 30 watt soldering iron for resolering solder joints near or underneath of GPU chipset? <br>and this traditional soldering can take place of reflowing process? <br>I'm sorry for my weird English and double posting on step 10,and thanks any replies in advance.
No, <br> <br>As the joints that need soldering are mounted underneath the chip, in a matrix format, it wold be impossible to get your soldering iron under there and resolder every single joint.
My 360 doesn't even get the RRD. We get nothing at all. We had the power supply tested and it is working just fine. Anyone got any suggestions?
Maybe your connections from the socket for power to the board is busted <br>
the towel method DOES NOT MELT THE SOLDER, the lead free solder has a melting point that when doing my xbox mod, i had to buy a new solder gun because the one i used didnt get hot enough, what this does is it trips a temp sensor and turns off the console, this can also be done by opening the console and unplugging the fans, which i have personally done several times, or by putting some kind of non metal stick through the holes in the back to lock up the fans. if the console got hot enough to melt the solder, it would melt the plastic components of the console, as well as probably quite literally burst into flames.
I live in korea and It is nearly impossible to buy below items or alternative for following this repair guide. <br>Aoyue 968 Reworking Station <br>-Rework Nozzle #4141 <br>-Modified Presto Griddle <br> <br>I plan to do traditional soldering way(by hand BGA soldering), instead of doing this reflow process which require many equipments. <br>Is it possible only to use 30 watt soldering iron for resolering solder joints near or underneath of GPU chipset? <br>and this traditional soldering can take place of reflowing process? <br>I'm sorry for my weird English,and thanks any replies in advance.
thank for the inf
im with you i hate it
I cant get this to work. I bought all of the exact items. I have about 12 xboxes. I have tried 3 so far and nothing. still RROD. I check the error codes they have and all of them say CPU/GPU overheat. I cant figure out what I'm doing wrong. I even did a test motherboard and lifted the gpu off of one by up'ing the heat to 530. <br>out of the 3 that I've tried, I have tried each several times. 10 - 15 times total, so far. <br>I'm going to turn the air flow up and try hotter. and go from there.
Airflow rate makes a huge difference and varies between stations, another reason to just give it to a pro/specialist. Nice tut, but I would use slightly longer times and you make no mention of flux, once you have burnt that out (which might have already happened.. dam unleaded solder) then all the heat in the world wont fix ur box! But if I need to tell you that then you probably should just pay the 50dollars and give it to a pro and make it their problem, plus they should give u a warranty. If you follow this method (and this has to be one of the best ones I've seen) then you might get up to another year or so out of it, if it's done correctly you should NEVER get another RROD ever again! (at least not for 10-20 years by which time ur 3rd DVD drive has died anyways ;-)
Dude if you really have 12 xboxes and you cannot get one to work then you are definitely doing something wrong. email me you phone number and I'll take a few minutes out to show you how--I get 9 out of 10 xboxes fixed from 3 rrod (1 rrod is fixable with reflow but only last so long, eventually it will stop working for good). Email me @ staller519@gmail.com.
If you mess up ur x clamps, just replace them with bolts https://www.instructables.com/id/Fix-your-Xbox-360-360-MKII-x-clap-replacment/<br /> two fixes for the price of one!<br />
Bad idea!! Good way to kill a mobo, those X-clamps are tensioned for a reason!! Just give it to a (good) local pro.. I could go-on all-day why it's a bad idea to try this urself... money/time/health/xbox/sanity but don't listen to me.... Go ahead don't spend the one-off 50 or so dollars and get a warranty, waste it on tools etc.. that you will only use once if you get it right.. which isn't likely unless you have the qualifications/experience/methods etc.. Don't get me wrong, I'm all for DIY if you're studying specialised SMC techniques at tech-college etc then this is one of the better tuts I've seen, and if you read it properly you would know why using so-called 'x-clamp' kits are a bad idea..<br> Anyway.. GTG fix some DIY RROD stuff-ups... Good Luck :D
<span class="short_text" id="result_box"><span style="background-color: rgb(235,239,249);" title="Oi para todos eu segue os passos mais meu xbox 360 ainda tem as tres luzes vermelha"><font size="5">Hi everyone I follow the steps to reflow&nbsp;&nbsp; my xbox 360 but&nbsp;still has the three red lights, </font> <div id="tts_button" style="margin: 2.0px 6.0px 0.0px 0.0px;display: block;float: left;" title="Listen to this translation"><font size="5"><object height="18" id="tts_object" width="18"> <param name="Movie" /> <param name="AllowScriptAccess" value="always" /> <param name="AllowFullScreen" value="false" /></object></font></div> <span class="short_text" id="result_box"><span style="background-color: rgb(235,239,249);" title="que estou fazendo de errado"><font size="5">am I doing wrong</font></span></span></span></span>
Trying to do it yourself... Seriously, there's a lot of good reasons to get this done by a pro, it's kinda like exhaust on a car, even if u spend years learning how to do it correctly (something that can't be even 50% covered in an internet tutorial) then you still have to pay for the equipment etc.. not to mention health issues all to find-out it's still not right.<br><br>This is one of the better tuts I've seen, but even if you work somewhere with all the BGA- re-work equipment, it's probably not worth it.<br><br> Find a good pro Xbox repaired locally and make it their problem, For 50 or so dollars it's just not worth the hassle plus u should get a warranty.
three red lights isn't the 'red ring of death'. it's some other internal failure. actually, maybe not. i remember one itme my friend's 360, i think we accidentally pulled out the controllers while playing a game, and three red lights came on. we panicked, but we said, 'it's not the ring, it's only 3 lights.' To make the 'red ring of death, ALL 4 LIGHTS have to be red. Best way to fix your problem, buy a PS3. Free online and better graphics. What's not to like?
red ring of death is 3 rings, I know this, 4 rings means either no AV cable detected(or it is inserted incorrectly), which is easily fixable, just unplug the video, and hit the on switch, tell me what it says, plug the video cable back in, and it works. 3 rings actually means &quot;General Hardware Failure&quot; they can be falsely triggered, as in your scenario(I can force a 360 to display RROD, the 3 rings, but I won't tell you how), but you did have RROD. <br><br>And I know it is RROD, I am on my 2nd 360, my first one 3 ringed on my, I also had a dead video cable once, it 4 ringed, and I have never had it overheat(which is 2 rings). 1 also is RRod, but generally is a different problem(usually involving the GPU).<br><br>So no, you are wrong, RRod Is 1 or 3.
I think we established that.....2 months ago. If you'd read the comments, you may have noticed hoihoi151 correcting me....now I don't mind being corrected, but another person stating the same thing 2 months after someone else, that's kind of annoying.
3 rings is RROD. you're going to hear it until the end of time :)
Wow.... way to argue your point....<br><br>Yes, RROD is 3-lights
Wrong bro.
3 lights is the ring of death. its hardware failure.
hmm, but it's not a ring, it's 3/4 of a ring. plus, my friends 360 put three lights because we accidentally did something to the controllers, but we plugged them back in and everything was fine, soo...........if 3 lights is the 'red ring', then they should really call it something besides the red ring.
yes its 3/4 ring. rrod is a slang term for it. they couldnt call it THE 3/4 RED RING OF DOOM/DEATH 1 red light. System error 2 red lights over heated 3 read lights general hardware failure (rrod) 4 read lights AV connector is unplugged. sourced directly from microsoft.
sometimes the rrod is not in fact overheating but a different internal issue, i have been fixing xbox's for 4 years now so i know a bit about them, if doing the re-flow does not work check your Hannah chip it is the large black chip located near the av port here is a link to a picture the red box is the Hannah chip http://i162.photobucket.com/albums/t259/option350z/f_360elitemobm_b1b37ef-1.jpg check for shorts or pins coming off, heat gun it too! if this still! doesn't work (which my personal xbox did) check your capacitors generally the 6.3v 2200 uf ones are the only ones that do this but check the tops of them if they are bubbling outwards replace them, and if this still does not work then you are just doing something completely wrong or there is an issue with your physical cpu/gpu chip or there is a problem with the etch happy fixing!! by the way great instructible! keep up the good work
Thank you.
What do you do if your hd only work intermitently but standard def works fine?
you open your xbox 360 and check the solder connections resolder it on anyway (heatgun it if you want) check connections again, check the etching. then put the xbox back together power it up see if it still malfunctions then get a new cable hope this works for you!!!

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