This canister is only present on California bikes due to more strict regulations than the rest of the states. As such, the canister was added by Harley as more of an afterthought and the connected hoses are secured by exposed zip-ties. Removal of this unnecessary component cleans the appearance of the bike noticeably. This does not affect performance in any way.
The resource I used as a guide for this process was on a HD forum here:
-- Disclaimer! -- The purpose of this canister is to filter your gas tank's vapors before releasing them into the atmosphere. I am not sure how well regulated having this component is in California. Currently, motorcycles do not require smog checks so I do not know how I could ever get in trouble for removing the canister. I will post up on here if anything happens.
Step 1: Tools and Materials
Harley P/N 27296-04A: TUBE, VALVE TO ATMOSPHERE
Harley P/N 10113: CLIP, DOUBLE HOSE
Harley P/N 90383-98: CAP PLUG, INDUCTION MODULE
The links are go to the Chicago Harley site and the total was not too bad even with the shipping to the west coast. I actually did not use the retaining clip but I suppose it may be useful for some models. You can probably procure these parts locally for less money or find alternative parts at a hardware store.
In addition, you will need some metal snippers or equivalent for cutting zip-ties, some metal grips or pliers, and a set of Allen keys.