Introduction: Scanning Laser Microscope With Arduino

Picture of Scanning Laser Microscope With Arduino


I'd like to share my latest project, a scanning laser microscope with you.

Some words concerning the principle: The pinciple is quite simple. The laser beam is focused on the object and the reflective light is being measured with a photodiode (in my case a BPW34). To focus right the current through the focusing coil is varied. The position of the object is changed by two Speakers, which are driven with different voltages. The speaker-membrane is moving and therefore the object-table, which is connected with the membrane is moving too. With this way of moving head you can reach movements down to µm.

Step 1: The Cd-drive

Picture of The Cd-drive

A Commercial cd-rom-drive is ideal for our purpose. It combines everything we need, a laser-Diode, a lens with variable Focus and a photodiode. In my case I've changed the build in photo Diode with a lot of Pins against a single BPW34 with just two Output-Pins. Older cd-drives are suitable for the laser microscope because they aren't so miniaturized like modern drives. I use a cd-rom-drive instead of a DVD- or bluray-drive, because in the early days of this technology the pins have been larger and more separated than in modern drives...

You'll have to find out the two Pins for the vertical coil and the laserdiode. If you replace the built-in photodiode against a larger model you'll have no problems with soldering.

The laser-Diode needs a constant current, about 80mA. This can be easily realized with a LM317 and some resistors.

Step 2: The Speakers for the X/y-movement

Picture of The Speakers for the X/y-movement

You'll have to look for suitable speakers with little movement. I took some small ones with a resistance of 24 Ohm. A metall bar is glued to the membrane. At the end of the bar a small piece of copper-foil (0.5 mm thick) is soldered with the bars.

To drive the Speakers I use a MCP4922-DAC. It offers two voltages between 0 and 5V. With some resistors and a Transistor I'm able to vary the current through the Speakers up to 250mA. With a potentiometer the magnification of the microscope can be changed. The larger the value of the potentiometer, the higher the magnification.

Step 3: How to Focus

Picture of How to Focus

Focusing right is a difficult work because we are speaking about µm.

Usually cd-drives use photo-diodes with more than 4 areas (ABCD in the Picture). With those signals you're able to find out the Focus quite easily. It's in the focus, when the Signal (B + C) - (A + D) gets zero.

Using a single photodiode we just get one signal. But don't worry, there's another way to find the right Position of the coil. Changing the current through the focuing-coil you'll see, that the Output-voltage of the photodiode first increases, going through a Maximum and then decreases. Exactly in that maximum the laserbeam is focused right. To make this easier, you should use a 10-turn-potentiometer (in my case a 100Ohm-type parallel to a fixed 100Ohm-resistor to get 0-50 Ohm).

If no object is on the moving-table, I get voltages in the range of 0.2V. If something is lieing on the table, the voltage slightly increases. The arduino is able to read voltages between 0 and 5V. Therefore we first have to eliminate the Offset (0.2V) and second we have to amplify the signal up to 100 times. For this purpose I use a LM358. Before scanning I turn the gain-potentiometer to get voltages as high as possible.

Step 4: The Visualization of the Data

Picture of The Visualization of the Data

You'll have two ways of visualization, with the Software processing or with a TFT-display. I recommend a 480x320 Display (no touch), which you can get on ebay for less than 10 USD.

If you prefer processing you'll have to send the data in the following way:






Using the TFT-Display you'll need the UTFT-library. Just search for "rinky-dink electronics" ( There you download the UTFT-library for arduino.

Step 5: The Complete Setup & Code

Picture of The Complete Setup & Code

Finally everything is mounted on a wooden plate and all the outputs and potentiometers are mounted too. The only additional parts you'll need are a multimeter for controlling the photodiode-voltage and a power supply (9V, 0.6A). If you want you can take a 7.4V lipo and a DC DC step up module to work everywhere you want without the need of a Computer or power supply.

Step 6: The Calibration

Picture of The Calibration

To be able to estimate the magnification I bought a cheap calibration slide on ebay. The finest scale is 0.01mm, so 10µm. With this slide put on the moving-table you can easily find out the magnification.

Step 7: The Results

Picture of The Results

Luckily I found a piece of a waver with very tiny structures. But the main Goal of my Project was to visualize the pit-structure of a compact disc. For this project I had to cut an old windows-CD into pieces (so window's isn't quite worthless ;-) ).

Voila', there are the 0's and 1's. To get this resolution I had to increase the resistance of the potentiometer nearly to the maximum.

I hope you've enjoyed my work. Maybe you'd like to take a look at my YouTube-channel (

and I'd be very happy if you could vote for me in the microcontroller-contest :-).


zposner (author)2017-05-09


psicopato (author)2017-04-10

Very nice project! Kudos to you!

hansthegoodknight (author)2017-03-05

Hi. I am a beginner. Can you please explain to me how are speakers used for xy movement? Thanks

Because of the current through the Speaker, the Membrane is moving outwards (or inwards if the current direction is turned around)...

losmilosmi (author)2017-02-21

nice idea, cool project!

StefanB54 (author)2017-02-18

Fascinating project, thumbs up :-)

MarceloN (author)2017-02-15

Tienes mi voto !

Gran Trabajo !

stoppi71 (author)MarceloN2017-02-16

Muchas gracias ;-)

eljonco (author)2017-02-15

Well done. At the expense of doubling your scan time, you might be able to increase image quality by unidirectional scanning. After a left-to-right scanline, increase y position and move too far left for the x=0 position. Then fly in from the same side every time and scan your x positions. This likely rids you of the interleaved looks of your images.

stoppi71 (author)eljonco2017-02-16

Hi! Thank's for that advice. I've already noticed the "steps" in my pictures too. I'll try out just scanning from one side....

tswaehn (author)2017-02-14

ziemlich cooles Projekt. Daumen hoch für den Contest :)

stoppi71 (author)tswaehn2017-02-15

Danke, danke ;-)

Venkes (author)2017-02-14

It seems that we were developing an LSM on about the same time. You also managed to nail it! Well done!

There are indeed differences in approach between our LSM's. Both work well but both has pro's and con's naturaly. Where mine ( " for the interested!) has the freedom to use different lasers, yours is probably slightly easyer to build.

Just a thought, I think you can get sharper images if you should use a DVD pick-up (red laser), or better, a blu ray pick-up (uv laser) instead of a cd pick-up( ir laser). Where a blu ray pick-up uses uv light, the shortest wavelength, and a cd pick-up ir light (in your design), the longest wavelength. The shorter the wavelength, the smaller the lightspot can be and will produce, theoretically, the sharpest image. These differences in sharpness can you see in my results were images are taken with red, green and uv lasers.

I really want to congratulate you with this result because I know what a long way you have traveled, just as I did.

I am allways looking for ways to improve my builds (probably you do to!), so I'm gonna take a closer look at your photodiode solution as that is maybe a better way to detect the reflected light!

Mine does half an hour to complete one (256x256) image. What I really want to know is: how long take an image with your LSM to complete?



stoppi71 (author)Venkes2017-02-14

Hi Venkes!

Thank's for your kind words. I started with this Project around christmas with buying used cd-drives... Concerning the laser-colour (the lower the wavelength the sharper) I have my doubts, because when I'd use f.e. a bluray-diode I should use bluray-disc's too, because they are coordinated with each other (reflective colour and so on). And if I do so, I wouldn't have an advantage, because the distance between the pits on bluray-disc's would be smaller too. Can you say something about using red laser not for DVD's but CD's (which are tuned to infrared-laser) or blue laser not for bluray-disc's but CD's? If you get better results than I'll try at least DVD-heads...

Cheers Christoph

Venkes (author)stoppi712017-02-15

Hello stoppi71,

In my opinion only the (re)writable ones are doped with a corresponding colour: bluish for DVD, reddish for blu-ray. If you lay a few readymade different types with the label side down on a table its hard to tell wich is wich, they are all silvery. I have used four different (red, green, blue and uv) lasers to magnify a cd, and the uv-type (shortest wavelength) has the sharpest picture (see my samples below). Which is on the opposite side of the optical disc spetrum.

So look at my results and judge for yourself if it is worth to try, if it's not to much of an effort, to put in a DVD pick-up instead of a CD pick-up!

The differences I get with an LDR are: (LDR without a pinhole) 4,2 V when in focus 1,1 V when nothing in the light path. (LDR With a pinhole): 3,6 V in focus and 0,3 V with nothing in the light path. I don't eliminate any offset



CD samples: Both a cd, 1st with uv, 2nd with red. I think also that the optical quality of my red laser's collimating lens isn't really good (what partially should explain the difference in image quality). In a laser pick-up however it must be excellent.

stoppi71 (author)Venkes2017-02-15

Thank's for that Information, Ron. I'll try it with a DVD Pick-up ;-)

stoppi71 (author)stoppi712017-02-14

one further question: Do you get great differences with your LDR? I have to eliminate the Offset of the photodiode (about 0.2V, when nothing is placed on the objective table) and then amplify the signal with a gain of 40. Even with this amplification the signals don't vary a lot...

stoppi71 (author)stoppi712017-02-14

...between the maximum of 5V and the minimum of approximately 3-4V

meahdi (author)2017-02-14

thanks for share this project

great work

the amazing project

rafununu (author)2017-02-14

I love these creative projects. Small speakers are a very good solution for pan & tilt scan. This can be precise enough provided frequency and amplitude are well managed. Just one point regarding the first opamp polarity voltage, to me 82k and 10k are too high regarding the 100k bridge. Either increase the 100k resistors or decrease 82k/10k couple, maybe you could add a small capacitor on the + input as well. You don't write about the supply, where do yo find the -9V ? Why not working with a higher voltage, let's say 12V or 15V ?

stoppi71 (author)rafununu2017-02-14


You're absolutely right concerning the voltage-devider, but I didn't have a 1 kOhm 10 turn potentiometer. Therefore I used the 10 kOhm but I'll replace it...

The negative-voltage (-9V) is supplied by an ICL7660, which has 10V as the maximum input voltage. Therefore I take +9V to get -9V ;-)

eggert (author)2017-02-14

great build, how long does a scan take?

stoppi71 (author)eggert2017-02-14

This depends on the Resolution you choose, but f.e. for 240x152 Pixels just about 5-10 minutes

Project Hero (author)2017-02-13

Here I am thinking I've tackled some pretty complicated projects, but this is just insane, congrats

stoppi71 (author)Project Hero2017-02-13

Thank's, the next projects are already waiting...

Tominaz (author)2017-02-13

truly a work of love and art. I appreciate you inventiveness

stoppi71 (author)Tominaz2017-02-13

I do my best ;-)

mach1950 (author)2017-02-13

Ingenious! Voted!

stoppi71 (author)mach19502017-02-13

Thank's a lot

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