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I had a bunch of 2x4 material sitting around the shop and the yard from removing an old trellis after I moved into my house. After a quick internet browse for inspiration I knew I wanted to use the material for a laminated bench seat. I didn't want a plain rectangle seat though so I took the project to another level by sculpting the seat and the edges for a smooth and comfortable seating experience.

The base was made from steel square tubing and finished with an acid treatment causing the surface to take on an aged look. Then the steel was all sealed in with a water based finish.

See how I did it in the following Instructable.

Step 1: Start With a Sketch

I always start my projects with a rough sketch. I draw the base, refine the shape, and continue until I have a style I am happy with. Then the top was drawn and the overall style and part began to take shape.

Here is the YouTube video I made as an overview of the building process. Use it as a guide along with these instructions or just as entertainment.

Step 2: Cut the Bench Parts to Rough Length

I begin with the bench seat. The amount of 2x4 material is what will dictate the size of my bench as that is the limiting factor in my materials. I cut the 2x4s into 13.5" lengths at the miter saw. Be sure to calm your parts to the saw table to prevent them from catching and kicking back. Chances are if you are using reclaimed 2x4 material the boards are very warped. More on this in the next step.

Step 3: Plane the Parts

Before you run the boards through your planer be sure you have removed all nails and staples. Reclaimed boards are hard on tool blades due to dirt and weathering but nails and staples can really mess up your machines.

Because the parts are cut to 13.5" lengths nearly any warp (twist, cup, bow) will be minimal and the parts will only need planing. Jointing isn't necessary. I planed the parts until all the faces were clean for a good glue surface.

Step 4: Glue and Clamp

Arrange and set all the boards on edge. Lightly dampen the glue surface with water if you decide to use Polyurethane Glue, such as Gorilla Glue. If you use TiteBond 3 that is not necessary but thinning the glue with a little water wouldn't hurt as this is a long glue up and you don't want the glue to set up before you apply the clamping pressure.

Squeeze on the glue, roll it evenly on the surface, replace the board, and repeat until all the pieces have been glued.

Apply clamps in alternating pressure, example: 2 clamps on one side and 2 on the other. If you clamp the boards all on one side the bars will flex the lamination causing a bow in the seat. This needs to be flat. Squeeze the lamination tight until the excess glue squeeze out stops and all the joints are tight. Note: Gorilla Glue expands a lot and is really sticky. Use gloves and wax paper to keep the mess under control. If you get glue on your hands use acetone to remove the adhesive.

Step 5: Mark the Steel for the Base

I used square steel tubing for the base. All the joints were cut at 45 degree angles where the 90 bends met. Mark these locations clearly and in accordance with the initial sketch. It can be tricky so triple or quadruple check to be certain you are cutting the proper angle on the correct face of each piece.

Step 6: Cut the Steel

I used an angle grinder but a metal cutting chop saw or band saw would be a better option for a cleaner and more accurate cut. Be sure to wear proper protection when cutting with high speed tools. Sparks go everywhere and you do not want them in your eyes.

Step 7: Lay Out the Base

Place the base parts on a flat surface and make spacers to hold the leg parts apart and square during welding. Parts move during the welding process. Mark the pieces that will be joined together and be sure the joint line up. If they don't, take the time to clean these now with a grinder.

Step 8: Weld the Miters

Start by tack welding all the leg joints being sure the parts remain spaced and square. Once all the leg miters have been tack welded at each corner, then run the final weld over the tack welds to fix the leg joints. Chip the slag and brush the welds to clean them up. Do this for both U-shaped leg assemblies. Then attach the long bottom stretcher to join the legs. The last main pieces for the base are the bench supports. I only used one 1" angle iron in the middle of the two legs at the top to attach the bench. Two would be ideal for a bit more strength and balance. Be sure to weld these flush to the top. You could also attach small angle brackets to use lag bolts to screw into the under side of the bench seat. Finally, cut some small square pieces of steel to cap the open ends of the two vertical leg pieces. Tack the corners, chip and brush the slag, then run (weld) your final beads.

Step 9: Prepare the Seat

Remove the clamps from the laminated bench seat. Gorilla Glue is nice in the sense that the excess foam squeeze out scrapes away easily with a putty knife or paint scraper. Then, using a belt sander with a 60-80 grit sanding belt, run the sander side to side at a constant pace to prevent sanding too deep in one spot. These sanders are aggressive and will quickly remove material so be careful. Do this to both the faces of the lamination.

Now with a track saw or circular saw with a cutting guide if you have one, make a cut to straighten one long edge. If your lamination is too thick for the depth of your circular saw you can flip it over and line up the cut for a pass on the opposite side.

At the table saw, set the fence to the final width of the lamination (I set mine to 13"), raise the blade to half of the thickness of the bench seat. This puts less stress on the saw and it is a little safer than cutting with the blade raise to the max height. Make a full nonthrough cut then flip the seat end for end and finish the cut. The seat should have two parallel long edges.

Step 10: Optional Patina on the Steel Base

Please, wear eye protection, protective clothing, and have a neutralizer (baking soda) ready during this process. You are about to deal with a corrosive acid. To make the patina solution, fill a pump sprayer with 1 gallon of water and in a small plastic container (I used a pint or quart yogurt container) add 5 oz of muriatic acid. Strip a 12-15 inch length of 12-14 AWG copper wire, coil it around a dower rod (or pencil), and fully submerge it in the acid. Add a little more acid if it needs to cover the copper wire. After 5-7 days the solution should be dark green and the copper wire should be fully dissolved. Then pour the solution into the pump sprayer filled with water. Always add the acid to the water. This will make a pretty copper green liquid.

Pressurize the sprayer by pumping it up. Set the steel base on a dirt surface (or some other absorbent surface such as a large sheet of plywood or cardboard). Muriatic acid is used to clean cement so it will eat away at your driveway, sidewalk, or patio if you spray directly on it. Now spray the surface. What happens now is a really neat color change. It happens quickly so enjoy the show. Once it is dry it will be darker than it looks initially.

After some time (3-4 days) of the base drying out in the sun, I sprayed the surface with a PolyAcrylic water based finish to seal in the patina.

Step 11: Recess the Base

I didn't like the height of the bench and I though it looked a little too clunky sitting on top of the steel base. I placed the steel base upside down on the seat, centered it, and traced the outline with a pencil. I used a router with a straight bit to rout a channel for the base to set into. Keep in mind the direction that the bit is spinning (clockwise) and do not make climb cuts (direction of the spinning bit). The bit could catch the wood and get way from you causing damage to the work piece or worse, yourself. This gave the top a bit more of a sleek look and lowered the sitting height to the depth of the routed channel.

Step 12: Profile the Underside

Using a large roundover bit in the router, profile all the outer edges of the underside of the bench.

Step 13: Edge Shaping

This is where it starts to get fun and take on the shape you want. I marked a line 2.5" down from the top edge across the front edge and sides of the seat. The back remains square for now. Then connected approximately a 45 degree line from the top to the line drawn on the front ends. Tilt the table saw blade to 45 degrees and move the fence to cut at the line. With the bench seat face down on the table saw make the cut to remove the long triangular strip from the seat. Use a miter gauge to push the seat through the blade to make the end cuts. If the blade didn't cut cleanly or there was material left then use a block plane to clean the cut to the surface.

Step 14: Draw the Profile and Sculpt

Using a french curve draw the desired profile on the edge of the seat at both ends. Then using a carving disc in an angle grinder begin sculpting to the lines all the way across the seat. This could be done in a better more consistent fashion as I will out line now.

Mount a dado stack to the saw's max capacity for it's arbor. With the seat upside down on the table saw and on the outfeed side of the blade, raise the dado stack up to the profile line. Adjust the fence to line up the blade with the position of the profile and make the cut. Move the fence and lower/raise the blade as needed. This will give a more consistent cut through the seat than using the carving disc as I did in the video. I am confident in my sculpting abilities but if I were to do it again I would do this with the table saw at first and then clean up the lines with a block plane or belt sander.

Step 15: Sanding, Sanding, Sanding...and More Sanding

With 60 grit paper in a random orbit sander begin smoothing out the seat profile. This take a long time, go through the grits up to 220. Use pencil marks to guide your progress. Scribble on the surface and sand until the scribbles are gone then move to the next grit and repeat. Finally, using the router with the same roundover bit installed profile the top corner. Be careful not to gouge the seat by rocking the router.

Step 16: Add Some Oil

I chose Dark Walnut Danish Oil to color the seat. I like how the dark oil soaked into the softer grain of the douglas fir. To apply the oil simply pour some on the surface and rub it in with a cotton cloth. Wait 15 minutes for it to absorb and wipe off the excess. It is that simple. Now wait 24 hours for it to cure and apply the finish of your choice.

Step 17: My Finishing Process

I like to start with a glossy oil based polyurethane, such as Minwax wipe on polyurethane. I then pour some into a secondary container, thin it with an equal part of mineral spirits, then wipe it on with a clean lint free cotton cloth. The advantage of glossy finish is that when it dries it will show EVERY blemish in the finish. Dust, lint, fuzz, whatever. It will show. That is good because you now know where to touch up with a high grit sandpaper. I use 400 grit wet/dry sandpaper and a spray bottle of water. Lightly rub the blemished surface. It ususally takes one pass at this time. Then wipe the lint off the surface with a damp cloth, and continue with the glossy finish. It repeat this process 14 times only with a 3000 grit pad moistened with glossy finish instead of 400 grit paper. I do it this much because the finish is diluted to 50% strength. So that is really only 7 coats. The final coats (15-16) are a satin polyurethane. I wipe these on full strength with a light touch up between with a 3000 grit sanding pad.

The final rub down is done with a 5000 grit sanding pad and a 80/20 mix of mineral spirits to mineral oil. This gives the finish a super smooth and satin finish that is unmatched. The photos speak for themselves.

Step 18: The Final Result

The finish speaks for itself.

I encourage you to try this or some version for yourself. It is a fun process and a good seller (easy $1,200). Thanks for reading along!

What is the height of the metal base as well as the overall height?
Overall height was 17". Since the 2x4 material was milled to 3" wide and on edge that makes the base 14" tall.
Do you think it is fine without threaded feet? If you made another would you add threaded feet for inconsistencies in someone's floor?
Gorgeous work :)
Thanks you!
<p>This is great. Love the finished effect and always good to see the doodles, sketches, etc</p>
<p>Thank you! And congrats on the garden house. It is awesome!</p>
<p>impesive</p>
Thanks, Paul!
<p>Impressive Artistic technology mixture, encompassing Woodworking with the finish surface preparation that exceeds <em>wonderstone shaping preparation to polish</em> and your tireless, <em>innovative to me</em>, stain to a blemish free polyurethane finish coupled to Metalworking with welding and the chemistry of patina is a delight to read...</p>
Your gregariousness is appreciated.
<p>Sorry to go on so much.</p><p>I do electronics, heliarc, mechanisms, geodes and envy your wood art skills.</p>
<p>No apology necessary. I found your comment entertaining and appreciated.</p>
<p>Outstanding. A job well done. Did you manage to make the top indentation following a uniform curve or is it a bit wobbly?</p>
<p>Thanks, the seat is quite uniform. i spent a lot of time sanding and feeling for high/low spots. There was a slight waviness on the front top curve in spots where the harder fir meets the soft redwood. That was difficult to avoid.</p>
<p>Great job, keep on :) </p>
<p>Thank you! I will.</p>
<p>I think this is great and shows serious craftsmanship.<br><br>I have a question regarding the profile of the bench as someone new to woodworking. Would it be easier to make a template, draw the template on each bench piece and then cut them with a scroll saw? Then when they are all glued it would just be a matter of sanding them smooth and even?</p>
Thanks! That certainly is an option. Another commenter asked the same question so you can see my response below. My issue was that I was designing on the fly.
<p>That's kind of how I build things.. on the fly, sometimes it works out for me. :)</p>
Gorgeous! I entered the reclaimed wood contest as well, but I think I might have to vote for your instructable rather than my own! :-) Excellent instructions.
Ha ha, thanks! There are a lot of good entries.
<p>FANTASTIC JOB!!!!!! I love woodwork. Thanks for sharing. It is wonderful.</p>
Thank you, John!
<p>That's really nice, really cool. Love the sculpted seat and gloss finish. Outside of my skill level but would love to have.</p>
Thanks, this can be made much easier than I had done with the carving disc. The table saw with a dado stack is a great option. You may be surprised at want you are capable of.
<p>This is fantastic! I'm impressed and inspired.</p><p>Excellent project, and a great instructable too. Can't wait to see more :)</p>
Thank you! I'm new to Instructables but I'll post more. Thanks for checking this out.
<p>Unreal, love the coloring...... Love the bench, excellent </p><p>Rietha South Africa</p>
<p>Excellent work! I will be trying to build this soon! Thanks for sharing. I voted for you!</p>
<p>Thank you! Please send me a photo when you do. I would enjoy seeing your style.</p>
Will do - thanks
<p>That is beautiful! Well done and good use of reclaimed wood</p>
Thank you!
<p>Good looking bench.</p>
Thank you!
<p>Absolutely beautiful! The sculpting part looks like it takes &quot;mad skilz&quot; as my 12 year old son would say. I may actually try this. I've never seen a sculpting disk as you show in your link.</p>
Ha ha. Yeah it takes practice. It is an intimidating blade to use but it is a fun process too. Thanks for checking it out!
<p>I saw this on my email feed and had to go to it. This is the most beautiful bench I have ever seen. It looks so comfortable too! Love it! Voted!</p>
Thank you! Yes, the client who bought it did it is very comfortable. Thanks for voting!
<p>very nice. looks amazing.</p>
Thank you!
Absolutely beautiful bench. I love the design as you go attitude. Some of my favorite projects started with &quot;I wonder if I could...&quot; Thanks for sharing
Thank you and thanks for checking it out!
<p>Very nice. I like it indeed. I have to ask though, wouldn't it have been a ton easier if you cut each 2 x 4 for the concave section before gluing them together? Then you could have just sanded it up a little for the final results making it a lot easier to build? Just a suggestion. </p>
<p>That's a great option too. If one were to do it like that I think some sort of alignment pins (dowels) would be needed to prevent the pieces slipping past one another during the glue up. But it is certainly feasible option to speed the shaping process. In all honesty, I started this bench build with the intent of a simple rectangular seat. The video shows that, then I put the caption &quot;I can do better&quot; after sitting on the bench. It was just too blocky and not comfortable enough for me without the shaping.</p>
<p>Ha, I know all too well about the &quot;design as you go&quot; phenomena. I usually do that myself. But you did make a nice project either way. Thumbs up for sure.</p>
Thank you!
<p>Looks great! what type(s) of wood are the 2x4's?</p>
Thanks, there is a mix of Douglas fir, Spruce Pine Fir (SPF standard studs from the big box store), and Redwood.

About This Instructable

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Bio: YouTube Woodworker/Content Creator/Podcaster (The Dusty Life) https://www.youtube.com/user/seanrubino
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