Self-Watering Plant

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Introduction: Self-Watering Plant



Plants liven up any space by adding a sense of airiness and life. That is - of course - when you don't forget to water them, and they shrivel up and die. I am very bad at remembering to water plants. That is why I built this self-watering plant to do it for me. Using a soil sensor, and an Arduino-controlled water pump, I have created a system that will never forget to do it. Instead of remembering to water my plants when the soil goes dry, I only have to remember to once and a while refill the water reservoir. In this way, I have decreased my obligation to these plants and put it off to a much later date. Perhaps further iterations of this device can be connected to a rain barrel so that I won't even have to worry about refilling my reservoir, and the entire system can be fully automated.

Step 1: Go Get Stuff

You will need:

(x1) 8" x 6" x 3" project enclosure (Radioshack #270-1809)
(x1) Multipurpose PC Board (Radioshack #276-150)
(x1) 5VDC SPDT micro relay (Radioshack #275-240)
(x1) 9V battery connector (Radioshack #270-324)
(x1) 9V battery holder (Radioshack #270-326)
(x1) 9V battery (Radioshack #23-853)
(x1) SPST micromini toggle switch (Radioshack #275-624)
(x1) 10K resistor (Radioshack #271-1126)
(x1) Size M coaxial DC power plug (Radioshack #274-1569)
(x1) Red and black 22AWG wire (Radioshack #278-1221)
(x1) 12AWG black wire (Radioshack #278-556)
(x1) Non-submersible electric water pump (via Amazon)
(x1) Water storage container with lid
(x2) 8-32 x 2.5" nuts and bolts
(x8) 4-40 x 1" nuts and bolts
(x1) 4-40 x 3/8" nut and bolt
(x4) 1/4" spacers
(x1) Wire nut
(x2) 3' - 5' plastic tubing
(x1) #8 Terminal Ring
(x1) House plant to water

Step 2: Trim the Pump

Trim away any unnecessary plastic mounting brackets from the front of the pump that may prevent it from being flush with the case (nozzles and corresponding hardware not included).

Step 3: Drill or Cut

Line up the water pump with the base of one of the 6" x 3" sides of the case.

Drill or cut a hole large enough to fit the nozzles through.

Step 4: Mark

Position the water pump, Arduino, 9V battery holder, and circuit board in the bottom of the case.

Make marks in each of their mounting holes.

The pump will probably not have a mounting hole, so just make a mark on each side such that it can easily be zip tied down.

Step 5: Drill

Drill all of the holes that you have just marked with a 1/8" drill bit.

You may need to widen the zip tie holes to 3/16".

Step 6: Drill More Holes

On the 6" x 3" side of the case that has yet to be drilled, drill two centered 1/4" holes about 1-1/2" apart.

Step 7: Fasten

Zip tie the water pump securely into the case.

Step 8: Cut the Cord

Cut the pump's power cord about 6" from the pump's body.

Step 9: Start the PCB

Solder the 5V relay to the board.

Solder a 10K resistor to one of the relay's coil pins.

Step 10: Attach Wires

Attach an 18" section of 12 AWG wire to the free pin of the 10K resistor. Solder a 6" section of black 22 AWG wire to this joint.

Attach an 18" section of 12 AWG wire to an unused part of the PCB. Solder a 6" section of red 22 AWG wire to this joint.

Step 11: Split the Wires

Pass the cut power cord into the box through the 1/4" hole closest to the water pump.

Split the power cord such that each conductor is its own separate insulated strand for about 6".

Repeat this process for the cord going into the water pump.

They need to be separated because each cable is being wired to a different spot.

Step 12: Wire the Power

Connect one of the strands from the water pump to the normally-open pin on the relay.

Connect one of the strands from the power cord to the common pin on the relay.

In this way, when the relay is powered up, AC power will be connected.

Step 13: Attach

Attach the circuit board to the project box using 1/4" spacers, nuts and bolts.

Step 14: Wire Nut

Attach the two free power cables from the pump and power cord together using a wire nut.

Step 15: Prep the Cords

Kink the power cable on the inside of the box and cinch it in place with a zip tie to prevent it from being pulled back through.

Tie a knot in the two 12 AWG wires such that when they are passed through the remaining 1/4" hole there would only be tension on the knot (and not the circuit board) when you tug on them.

Step 16: Prepare the Probes

Strip the end of each 12 AWG wire and clamp a terminal ring to the end.

Pass a bolt through each and fasten them in place firmly with the corresponding nuts.

Step 17: Wire the Power

Solder the red wire from the 9V battery connector to one terminal of the SPST switch. Solder a 5" red wire to the other terminal of the SPST switch.

Unscrew the cover from the M-type plug and slide the cover onto the end of the remaining red and black wires.

Solder the black wire to the outer ground connection on the plug. Solder the red wire to the inner power connection.

Screw the cover back on.

Step 18: Install the Switch

Drill a 1/4" hole in the 8" x 6" hole opposite the water pump.

Mount the switch into the hole using the mounting hardware.

Step 19: Program

Plug in your Arduino and upload the following code:


Keep in mind that you may need to adjust the trigger threshold for your particular plant setup.

Step 20: Install

Fasten the Arduino to the base of the project enclosure with nuts and bolts.

Step 21: 9V Clip

Attach the 9V battery holder securely to the bottom of the project enclosure with a 4-40 x 3/8" nut and bolt.

Step 22: Plug It In

Plug in the battery, and secure the battery in the battery holder.

If the Arduino lights up when you plugged in the battery, toggle the switch on the outside of the case to turn it off.

Step 23: Wire It Up

Now is time to plug everything into the Arduino.

Plug the black wire from the circuit board to the ground socket on the Arduino.

Plug the red wire from the relay coil into digital pin 12 socket on the Arduino.

Plug the red wire connected to the 10K resistor to analog pin 1 socket.

Plug the red wire connected to the soil probe into the +5V socket.

Step 24: Case Closed

Put the lid on top of the project enclosure and use the hardware that came with it to fasten it shut.

Step 25: Drill

Drill a 3/8" hole in the top of the water container's lid.

Step 26: Tubing

Cut the tubing in half.

Plug a tube into each of the pump's connector valves.

Step 27: Probes

Insert the probes into your plant's soil about an inch apart.

Step 28: Place Tube

Place the tube from the output of the water pump onto the top of the plant's soil bed.

Step 29: Insert Tube

Fill your water container and insert the tube into the hole that you have previously drilled in the top.

Step 30: Turn It On

Flick the switch to turn it on.

You should never have to water your plant again.

Now you just need to remember to refill the water reservoir.

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  • Nice instruction. Th...-zocker22

    zocker22 made it!

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173 Comments

May i ask? What voltage or wattage of Non-submersible electric water pump will i use? Is it okay to use a submersible water pump instead of non-submersible water pump? THANKYOU! I am hoping for someone to answer :)

how much money is it for me to buy a self watering plant

how much money for i make this self watering plant

Could you include a schematic for the electronics layout?

Can we use Arduino to program a chip so we don't have to leave Arduino in the box? Thanks

wired up and everything but doesn't seem to work. Just flashes number on the serial from very high to very low rapidly. Also Relay doesn't seem to work even when i wire it up differently and force it to work, I can hear the internal switch clicking but the pump just stays on. I made sure non of my wires or solders are crossed.

Hello All,

Completed this project. I have a complete working project running off solar power (which is pretty awesome, just connects the usb from the Arduino to the usb port of a Goal Zero nomad 7).

My previous relay in me last comment was faulty so I got a new one. Please note that as far as I know, the above will not control the relay as it would appear. Instead of what he has above, I connected the 5v to one pin of the relay coil, and the other pin to the Arduino. I then have a wire from that 5v across the pc board and out to one of my sensors. The other sensor is hooked up totally separately from the relay with a gourd the pc board, a 10k resistor to a wire that connects to A0 (on the Arduino) and a wire to the other sensor that that junction.

hopefully this helps to those who are not having success. I am not comfortable making a circuit diagram to show what I did as I have no idea my self how to read them. I can send pics, or explain better how I did things to anyone who asks.

could you please can send me understanding pictures to my mail psaucedon1@gmail.com

Hey, would you mind sending me pictures of how you did this a.k.a. the PCP board and where the wires go to. I would really like to do this project, but the pictures and instructions aren't very well detailed. If you could email it to river@riveralexander.net that would be great. Thanks for the help!

thanks 4 de tip, it worked just like you said..