Instructables
WORD OF WARNING, THIS IS LONG.

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Anyway, Electronics, as stated before by many of my comrades around the globe, have all become the most important things in our daily lives. Cell phones, computers, TV's, keyboards, mice, speakers, everything all uses electricity and of course, SEMICONDUCTORS.


You could easily try and open up your phone, or your xbox, and there's hundreds of big, small, tiny, and huge black things lurking inside them. Those things have silicon, among other metals mashed together inside of them.

Asking around, and getting some odd looks, almost no one knows how a transistor works, a mosfet, or anything except for the most basic of electronic components, and even then that's a stretch.

This guide/bible to the almighty semiconductor will serve you well, hopefully.


Yeah, I wanna win a 3-D printer...(and maybe the laser pointer, but i won't be greedy or lie) I'd like to make encasements and parts for electronics, and not just make 3-D bunnies and boxes all day long like some other guy probably would. I'd like to actually put the thing to work, and make some decent cases out of it! Although my instructable isn't as great as Grenadiers one on HV, I hope that we'll both be able to interest the average person back into electronics and bring back the electrical curiosity that nearly everyone had back then, even if he didn't win. We'll hopefully find a way to do it. And, yes, I do know him, and he was okay with me doing this guide.

All I can really say is thank you for taking your time to read this, if you do. I put quite a bit of time into this instructable guide.

Please try and spread this guide around as much as you can!


And, I know fairly well that many of you instructable users won't be too interested in this because it's not ..."cool". And, I understand your point, to an extent. But, learning all of this allows you to DO cool stuff! It allows you to DESIGN your own cool stuff! Think about it; wouldn't you feel fantastic if you just discovered a new type of semiconductor, or a new way to use an existing one? What are semiconductors used for? Everything. High voltage is just one flashy thing, but seriously, you could make a new ...anything. A new transistor. And believe me when I say this ; anything new and amazing in the electronics world will be here to stay for a long. long. time.

That's why this guide is here. ^^


 
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labernache22 days ago

"Some packages have different pinouts. Usually it is wise to look up the datasheet of a particular semiconductor, to check the pins and see what leads where."

You said this very early on in your excellent treatise (more that than an Instructable, but the benefit to the readers is the same and quite substantial, Thanks for that!

The reason I quoted your statement is that I think it should probably be stated in Bold & Italics, because no matter how experienced you become, there are so man different packages out there, with new and different ones popping up every day, that it is guaranteed to bite you in the Southern Parts if you don't pay strict attention to those data sheets.

I am an engineer of approximately 35 years experience, and although retired, I still help out the occasional project minded friend with my expertise in PCB Layout (that is about 25 to 30 of those years!), and I recently inverted the X and Y dimensions in an SC70 package (it was late ;-( ), rendering the connection of some 8 chips in a complicated design useless and impossible to assemble. We didn't find out my error until the boards were being fabricated and assembled, a costly process. This amount of Egg on my face, well, let's just say I could do without.

So, I'll quote it again:

"Some packages have different pinouts. Usually it is wise to look up the datasheet of a particular semiconductor, to check the pins and see what leads where."

And by all means, don't do a Martian fly-by and screw up the dimensions (ok, the analogy might be a little off, I did properly adhere to the metric system, just reversed the X & Y coordinates).

But it clearly is important to pay close attention to those data sheets, and if you find yourself doing layout and creating a PCI board design decal ( an image with silk-screen and copper contact pads enabling a soldered connection to the circuit), it's even a good idea to have an actual sample or two of the part to compare to that data sheet. They have been known to be wrong!

My intention here is not o scare anybody off. Electronics is a fascinating study and can be a rewarding career path. This Instructable should be commended for its completeness and inexhaustible detail of the basic building blocks to be applied in the study and application of electronics, especially in the Maker arena.

All in all, the author has already gained my vote and a place in my Favourites List with an excellent tutorial.

Good job, well done!

Cheers,

Labernache

3vlL.PK3 months ago

Awesome way of telling. Nice work.

wizard7221 year ago
I maintain plasma etchers and see naked CPUs every day I work, but sometimes I still catch myself looking at the wafers in awe, scratching my head, also baffled at how so many transistors can be put in put into such a small space. The transistors are so small the gaps refract light, causing that "rainbow" effect around the billions of components on each die.
Very nice. It has been over 20 years since I have been involved in this stuff. Served to shake up a few gray cells and served as an excellent survey of semi conducting devices. So many thanks for an excellent and informative article.
jukees1 year ago
No mention of the beloved bc547 transistor, it's commonly used in my opinion.
Trickynekro2 years ago
That´s a nice and accurate presentation that you made here!!! Congrats mate.

Still, I have to ask something that I may didn´t know. At the totem pole page.
I didn´t know that a typical push-pull configuration is also a totem pole...
Usually totem pole circuits incorporate two or three transistors and a diode...

The description about totem poles is right, but I have a small scruple about calling a push-pull circuit a totem pole... Theoretically it´s not wrong, but totem pole circuits aim digital electronics whereas a push-pull is a current amplifier for analog circuits.

Anyhow mate! Nicely done! I liked that you covert almost everything!!!
Best Regards,
Lefteris
waldosan2 years ago
instead of using a dedicated negetive voltage regulator couldn't yu use a positive regulator and simply switch the incomming and outgoing leads?
waldosan2 years ago
this instructable is beyond fantastic i'm learning so much about, well, STUFF! i seriously had my head up my arse-nal about how a transistor worked until i read this instructable.
Inducktion (author) 3 years ago
@ begradoo, A zener diode is basically just a very precise voltage dropper.

If there's 12 volts, and your zener diode is 6 volts, it'll drop 6 volts off of 12 volts. If you have a 5.6 volt zener, and your voltage is 6 volts, you'll get .4 volts out.
It will then burn out, because you haven't limited the current.
Tinkerteem2 years ago
SPEECHLESS... THANK YOU SO MUCH SIR!!! LIKE A TSUNAMI FOR YOU..
UATradition3 years ago
Great Job ! I've been looking for something like this. You say Grenadier has something similar ? I'm gonna check his out also. I appreciate this !
lordl99993 years ago
could you please take a look at my question? :)
looks like you could help me :)

http://www.instructables.com/answers/basic-wiring-for-a-home-made-benhtop-injection-m/
A magnetron is NOT a diode.
The implication of your section on tunnel diodes is that they oscillate all by them selves - they don't.

Modern Mosfets have all the current handling of IGBTs, lower forward drop, and are easier to drive, and work at higher frequencies. IGBTs are being increasingly sidelined in high power switchers for that reason.

MOSFETS also have a positive temperature coefficient.
duggerpato3 years ago
Yeah it's never good to "let the smoke out". It's got to stay inside the component or it won't work right :)
This is handy! I was actually looking for Zener Diode info and this help alot.

One thing I am confused on is you mention "6 volts, then the zener diode will begin conducting, and will drop 5.6 volts off of that voltage, even if it's 100 volts, it will still drop 5.6 volts. "

So if it is a 6v source the zener drops it to .4v? OR does is always drop it to its regulated voltage. In other words 6v battery + 5.6v Zener = 5.6v output?
magnet183 years ago
CO2 lasers aren't diodes.
[/Content Nazi]
Inducktion (author)  magnet183 years ago
Twas' a simple misunderstanding, but I fixed it so it's more clear.

Thanks for reading by the way. :)
It's very informative, you did a good job, hope you win :)
I was going to put one up about plasma but never got around to it, maybe the next good contest...
Inducktion (author)  magnet183 years ago
The odds of me winning are so slim, I've given up trying, but thank you for your support good sir. :D

It's just that no one really wants to learn about this stuff. So, in all honesty, I might as well have posted a textbook. And who wants to read a textbook in their free time?


I wouldn't. Not unless it was something really really cool.
Text books are full of good information, unfortunately, they're boring :P
I only open one if I think I can figure out how to use the information to do something cool. Like blow it up. ;)
jensenr303 years ago
I LOVE Electrical Engineering inside jokes! lol, magic smoke!...
Vyger3 years ago
If you want to see what IC's look like on the inside you can see my instructable.
You might find it interesting.

http://www.instructables.com/id/Getting-In-Touch-With-Your-Inner-Chip/