Step 3: Water and Salt

Water alone is not a very good conductor. You need to add some sort of electrolyte. Regular old table salt works fine. Add as much as will dissolve into the water, and don't worry about it if there is some sitting on the bottom, it really doesn't matter. Pour this salt/water solution into your med. container, and also fill your 1 or 2 gas collecting containers
<p>think you may have the positive and negative terminals around the wrong way.</p>
My goodness I feel like I lost two years off my life from all that arguing. Your wrong no your wrong no ones wrong no we're all wrong who cares it's all in the name of science just learn from others mistakes as well as your own and aim for the greater good! and to think such a nice instructable became a battleground for talk about nuclear submarines and theoretical car enhancements that have already been made, and no I will not be arguing with anyone who says that nuclear submarines are a myth or that the government will kill us all for experimenting with alternate energy. Future comes even if your mad about it. Sticks and stones people. Sticks and stones.
<p>I'll second the production of hydrogen and chlorine gasses with table salt (sodium chloride). It has to do with the preference of half-reactions. See the Wikipedia article for &quot;Electrolysis of water&quot; for details. Sodium hydroxide, a.k.a. lye, would apparently work very well, but of course, that's caustic and therefore somewhat dangerous. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) will work OK as others have suggested.</p>
<p>I dont wanna divert the topic, but you can charge your blood with oxygen using food grade Hydrogen peroxide diluted to 3% in distilled water and drink it.</p>
<p>Internet says average person consumes 3.15 <br>mL. of oxygen per kilogram of body mass each minute while asleep.</p><p>8hours=480minutes</p><p>480minutes*3.15ml=1512ml~1.5lt</p><p>1.5lt*kg/night</p><p>for 50KG=75L/night</p><p>for100KG=150L/night</p><p>120 scfh O2 requires 1050 <br>ADC(2 or 12V?)</p><p>SCFH = standard <br>cubic feet per hour<br>35cubic feet=0.99109cubic meter</p><p>@~1000A------------------------------------------<br>120cubicfeet/hour=3.39802cubic <br>meter/hour ~3.4cubic meter/hour<br>3.4*8hours=27.2 cubic <br>meter/night<br>~30cubic meter/night<br>---------------------------------------------------------</p><p>for50KG person<br>75/30=2.5X simply means it needs 2500Ah</p><p>for100KG person<br>150/30=5X simply means it needs 5000Ah<br><br>So according to this, you can't even replace what you breathe at night.<br></p>
<p>I would not advise breathing the Oxygen generated by electrolysis of water:</p><p>1) Unless it is separated from Hydrogen, even then it may contain 20% Ozone for the first 30 minutes.</p>
<p>You divided liters by cubic meters there. One cubic meter == 1000 liter. So your result is off by a factor of 1000.</p>
<p>Damn! you are right! How did I make such stupid mistake?!<br><br>then if werecalculate it:<br>@ 1000A<br>30cubic meter= 30000lt/night<br><br>for 50 KG person<br>75/30000=0.0025Ah=2.5mAh or<br>30000/75=400 nights<br><br>For 100KG person<br>150/30000=0.005Ah=5mAh or<br>30000/150=200 nights<br><br>so,<br>for 1 night for 100KG person:<br>1000A/200nights=5A/night is enough!<br>but then the question is:<br>How many Volts?</p>
<p>Electrolysis in itself doesn't require more than a volt or two to start, but depending on the current you want you might need a bit extra to overcome internal resistances in the system. Much easier to think current source than voltage source for electrolysis. Luckily nowadays there ARE current sources available, as dimming LED drivers. Up to 10A seems plausible with eg an LT3756-2 and some discrete components. This could even run several electrolysis cells in serial, as it's a current regulator and doesn't give a rats ass how many volts it puts out (within limits).</p>
Can I use an engine's gas tank (lawnmower) as the hydrogen reservoir? How would I collect the hydrogen directly in the gas tank?<br><br>Can I hook up a motor to the driveshaft of an engine to generate the electricity instead of a battery?<br><br>Does hydrogen require oxygen to burn?<br><br>How many volts are required to create a decent amount of hydrogen? What contributes to how fast the electrolisys process is: volts, amps, or watts?
<p>No, you cannot use the gas tank as a 'reservoir' because of the danger of flashback.</p><p>Yes, Hydrogen requires Oxygen to burn.</p><p>2 Volts are required to split a water molecule.</p><p>Amps determines the speed of electrolysis.</p><p>Take a glass of water, stir in a teaspoon of baking soda then drop in a 9 volt battery. Hydrogen bubbles will stream up from the Cathode(-) post and Oxygen bubbles will stream up from the Anode(+) post.</p>
<p>yes! hydrogen need an amount of oxygen to combust.</p><p>i think greater amperes has a greater extraction of hydrogen. </p>
Yes, you can, just fill it with salt water and place it in the container, like you would a test tube. <br> <br>Anything that generates electricity can be used, really. <br> <br>The chemical reaction known as combustion always requires oxygen. <br>2H₂ + O₂ &rarr; 2H₂O + heat <br> <br>I am merely a high-schooler, but from what I know the watt is a unit of power. Also, the strength of the electricity is not relevant, as long it produces electricity.
<p>I know this post is old and you were a highschooler at the time, but I am impressed that you balanced the equation. On another fun note, I know the Ohio and Virgina class nuclear submarines use this same process to produce breathable air for the crew.</p>
<p>Hi, I just want to point out that your explanation of the electrolysis of water is incorrect. Water is not made up of ions held together by electromagnetic forces. That would be an ionic compound such as salt. Water is a covalent molecule held together by shared electrons in the covalent chemical bonds. During electrolysis, the molecule is reduced at the cathode to hydrogen gas and oxidized at the anode to oxygen gas. That's two different reactions going on, not one single splitting. There is no pulling apart as you describe it to the opposite electrodes. You should really, really edit this egregious mistake. Try this resource for an easier to understand explanation: http://www.nmsea.org/Curriculum/7_12/electrolysis/electrolysis.htm</p>
<p>I always thought that whit electrolysis of salty water you get hydrogen and chlorine gas</p>
<p>Yes, you do. You should never use salt, use baking soda, chlorine is very harmful.</p>
<p>The diagram drawing is wrong. The negative electrode is always called the cathode, &amp; the positive electrode is always the anode. This is an extremely dangerous error because Hydrogen is extremely flammable &amp; explosive. With the contradictory information, an experimenter could easily start a fire or get injured in an explosion. This should be removed until it is corrected so you don't wind up getting sued for injuries.</p>
No, its not. The anode is defined as the location where oxidation takes place, the cathode where the reduction takes place. If this was a galvanic cell you would be right. But this is an electrolytic cell. Do a google search on why if you're curious but this is correct.
<p>Nice project. Keep postin</p>
<p>how to make hydrogen gas not dangerous</p><p>kindly advise</p><p>regards</p><p>Ali</p>
Hydrogen is negative and oxygen positive.
<p>Yes, Dantex is correct. Seems that there are several of these instructables that claim hydrogen comes off the positive (anode), but its the cathode (negative). Someone needs to do their homework before writing these.</p>
Thank you dantex!I was beginning to have a bit of confusion because the diagram appears to be backwards in respect to the anode and diode
<p>Hydrogen bubbles are tiny it's the smallest atom</p><p>Oxygen Bubbles are larger if you don't see Oxygen switch to a pencil lead (Graphite) instead of wires into the fluid.as copper wires will give you a green muss at the bottom of your container as the oxygen leaves with some copper on board for the ride :)</p>
Do you mean their respective charges, or that oxygen comes off the neg. and hydrogen off the pos. ??
When you connect battery in electrolysis you get hydrogen on negative and oxygen on positive.
You're all missing the basics, and blindly following a nut that can't even get the polarity and labels right on a basic circuit will get someone killed! The diagrams above are wrong! Anode should be positive, and H2 comes off at the negative (cathode). Check check check! And be careful.
<p>Yep, he's right. This person did not do their homework, even though he states that the Hydrogen ions are positive, so of course they would be attracted to the negative electrode.</p>
One thing people need to keep in mind with this kind of setup is that you are not going to get the kind of flow required to do any kind of work that will help MPG. These HHO system type things are sold on ebay with plans etc. The amount of work and energy required to get a substantial amount of gas is...substantial. I don't have a degree in physics, but used to run a machine that was designed to make pure O2 for submarines. It required 1050 amps of DC current to produce 120scfh with double that for Hydrogen which we disposed of overboard. The amount of gas produced from a 12 volt source is not enough to help your car. It's a cool science experiment for school, but that's about it. Former MM2(SS) A-gang type. (google what that is. I also used to run the CO2 scrubbers and COH2 burners for atmosphere control.)
1050 amps = about 7 solar panels on a sunny day
Not true. You can't even flow 1050 amps down a regular home wiring because it only handles 20 amps.<br>Go study some more would ya
are you familiar with the inverse relationship between voltage and amperage? I can have a power source that is only a few volts that is 100 amps; or something could put out only a few amps that is 120 volt. Solar panels put out DC current which is typically converted to AC power and manipulated to usable 120volt/15 amp circuits. Your remark &quot;Go study some more would ya&quot; is meant to be inflammatory, and I don't appreciate it...
AMPS x VOLTS = Watts<br><br>100 amps x 10 volts = 1000 watts<br>10 amp x 100 volts = 1000 watts<br><br>Nothing you can do will change the relationship between amps and volts<br><br>Amps is NOT power<br>Volts is NOT power<br><br>In order to get power - you need both and they both are related.<br>
I aint tryin to do nothin, except maybe explain to you how amps and volts are inversely related (as you seem to demonstrate so well in your post above). you are the one who saw my post of 7 solar panels generating up to 1050 amps and became rude. You may want to add one (or 2) more lines to your example above for a group of 7 solar panels collectively generating 1050 amps: <br>&quot;100 amps x 10 volts = 1000 watts <br>10 amp x 100 volts = 1000 watts&quot; <br>1050 amp x 1 volts = 1050 watts Hmmmm... OR <br>1 amp x 1050 volts = 1050 watts <br>-now, go to your menards store and buy yourself an electricity book... <br>PS-the relationship between amps and volts is tweeked everyday in our world it is nothing new; If you think your public utility powerplant is producing 20 amps of 120 volt current to your house, so that it don't trip your 20amp breaker, then I aint got nothin more for ya; 'cept you might wanna go to your menards store and see what kinda books they got on the shelf there for ya.
I do understand that the utility company supplies lots of amps to your home - I also understand that a typical home IS FUSED at 100 or 200 amps. After those fuses, there are branches of 20 amp fuses.<br>A typical home requires 10KVA for peak and an RMS value somewhat lower in the 4KVA arena.<br>Your 1050 amps is crazy - Even if you had that, you would require a copper conductor with diameters in the range of 5 inches diameter.<br>YOU WILL NEVER GENERATE 1050 AMPS from your solar toys.<br><br>I design computerized weld controllers which control up to 25,000 amps at 10 - 5 volts. The conductors are very short and very large diameters. I also design Rogowski coils (you'll have to Google that since the detail is not available at Menards) to measure the high currents.<br><br>So, I hope you can realize that after 35 years in the electrical design arena, I know just a little bit about electricity.<br><br>Now, if you ever get off your high horse, I can even tell you how to design a solar system that actually works..
But you don't know enough to see that the diagrams above are incorrect. Anode is positive, not negative and H2 comes from the cathode!
<p><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CqxtDC-VAg8" rel="nofollow">https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CqxtDC-VAg8</a></p>
Hmmm, looking back on this; I am thinking I must have meant to say 1050 watts instead of amps. It makes more sense that way. Guess I better get on down to Menards and see if I can't find me an electricity book...lol
PS-how many amps you get out of 7 solar panels would depend on whether you lined them up in series or parallel. Just like flashlight batteries (also dc power), if they are all connected together like a train (in series) the voltage increases with each battery but the amps stay the same. If each battery is routed to the load separately (parallel) the voltage stays the same but the amps go up. Solar cells are a dc power source, they behave alot like batteries; and people who don't respect them get killed very easily because the amps do accumulate to dangerous levels. Didn't grace your post with a response sooner cause you teeed me off...
<p>grapenut -- just came across this post. Average Solar panel is rated 250 watts and around 30-40 volts. So the max amp you can get from one panel is around 8 amps. 7 panels will give you 56 amps. Amperage you can get depends on the source -- a 12 volt car battery can deliver over 400 amps for abort 30 seconds - known as cranking amperage . So alanwms is right in a way. </p>
<p>Thanks for the info LaksmanD. I am no solar expert for sure. You may enjoy reading all of the posts between alanwms &amp; I. In the end I conceded, I may have gotten amps mixed up with something else. </p>
OK then - Go ahead and flow 1050 amps down your house wiring. Should work fine with those 20 amp breakers. Maybe you can find 1050 amp breakers at Menards?<br><br>Amps drawn from a source are purely dependent on the load - For instance, if you connect nothing to batteries - regardless of how they are connected, nothing flows.<br><br>More current will flow from series devices assuming the same load, and in fact a double voltage creates a quadruple power since both the current and voltage are doubled. Amps x volts = watts.
&quot;OK then - Go ahead and flow 1050 amps down your house wiring. Should work fine with those 20 amp breakers. Maybe you can find 1050 amp breakers at Menards?&quot; <br>-I already explained this below; but solar panels are not wired directly to circuit breakers. The power has to be converted from DC to useable 15amp 115volt circuits before going to the breaker box. You do not seem to be well informed enough, to be so critical... Who's goin to menards now? <br> <br>&quot;Amps drawn from a source are purely dependent on the load - For instance, if you connect nothing to batteries - regardless of how they are connected, nothing flows.&quot; <br>-interesting that you choose to use a battery as your analogy. I challenge you to get more than 2 amps out of a short circuited, single, C cell, battery. Likewise a solar panel will only put out what it will put out, I don't care what you or the &quot;load&quot; want to take from it. Your logic/theory about amps drawn being &quot;purely dependent on the load&quot; is probably taught in tech schools across the land for people working off the grid which is a seemingly/relatively limitless source of power. -Who's goin to menards now?? <br> <br>&quot;More current will flow from series devices assuming the same load, and in fact a double voltage creates a quadruple power since both the current and voltage are doubled. Amps x volts = watts.&quot; <br>-OK now you introduce another word into the discussion; &quot;current&quot; without clearly defining it. Current is the flow of electrons typically among electricians referred to in volts, but more scientifically referred to in amps. It can be ACurrent or DCurrent. Anywhoo; you aint gettin 4x the current(energy) out of a battery unless you are usin 4x the batteries. 4, 1.5vdc batteries in series will give you 4x the volts or 6 volts. <br>4 batteries in series=4x the volts <br>4batterries in parallel=4x the amps <br>which of course equals alan goin to menards to get whatever kind of batteries he is talkin about ...
LOL,<br><br>A home is 60-100 amp, a branch circuit off the main is 15-30 amps. <br><br>I cannot say study more because youd need an electrical license but your point is vaild, it most likely makes .01 microamps.
I have to disagree with you. I have worked with HHO for 7 years. Our engines receive 14.7 parts of air to each part of fuel vapor. The oxygen content of that is is 20% or less. That is not enough oxygen to burn all of the hydrocarbons. The result is carbon monoxide and a few other greenhouse gases. Adding more oxygen content --- to the metered air --- will increase the burn so that more of the metered fuel is burned and less metered fuel makes it out the exhaust. Oxygen is an oxidizer, without it, the chemical process of combustion will not produce a flame. The more oxidizer, the hotter the flame. People that are using HHO in their vehicles have near zero greenhouse emissions. The engines run smoother, have more power, oil changes are fewer, fuel economy follows -- if and only if the government mandated vehicle computers allow it. They are programmed to maintain 14.7 parts of air for each part of fuel vapor. There lies the problem with fuel economy. The added oxygen, from HHO, does make a positive difference. The added Hydrogen is only a small amount of fuel, but it too makes a difference.
Disagree with ME all you like. You CAN'T disagree with the laws of physics and chemistry. What company do you work for? What degree do you have? 7 years? I ran these machines for the U.S. Navy for 12 years as a Machinist Mate. Don't take it from me, here's a link that will dumb down the physics/ chemistry for you. http://www.aardvark.co.nz/hho_scam.shtml and this http://www.aardvark.co.nz/hho_scam2.shtml Now, I'll gather that your going to reply and state that &quot;no, no, no, you've got it wrong.&quot; Okay, what's your source? What are the numbers you are going to give us? Consider this as well. Hot rodders use nitrous to have gains in horsepower. Of course, they add more fuel to the available oxygen, but the pitfall is that there is limited amounts of it stored under pressure. When the bottle runs empty, there goes your source. Reread my initial post. If these things were really that efficient, the Navy would use them on submarines for life support. Not just to get more MPG in your car. The company that makes the machines for the Navy is calld Treadwell and their upgraded machines pump out a whopping 225 cubic feet per HOUR. A car is rated in cubic feet per MINUTE. Big difference even in usage. Also, look at that machine and what it takes to make it work. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/treadwell-supplies-oxygen-generator-components-for-nuclear-subs-2-04690/ If you have a device that puts out that amount of CFM, sell it to them and make millions and I'll be quiet. Until then people, these things are nothing more than a cool experiment to show kids. Here's one more great article totally debunking this. http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/alternative-fuel/gas-mileage/4310717
<p>you don't understand what was just said. HHO does not provide the engine with the oxygen and fuel mixture to run, but instead it helps the fuel used burn more efficiently. so much energy is wasted in common cars because the fuel may not get a complete burn.</p>

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