These are instructions on how to create a motor using simple household items.
It's recommended that you look through all pictures and steps before attempting, as this will resolve any confusion you may have.
Step 1: Materials
From left to right, the required materials are:
2 paper clips
3 rubber bands
1 D-Cell battery
1 piece of sandpaper
34 inches of magnet wire
Step 2: Tools
The two tools you need from left to right are:
Step 3: Making the Coil
Wrap the magnet wire tightly around the D-cell battery until you have 10 inches of magnet wire left.
Step 4: Securing the Coil
Leave 1 1/2 inches of magnet wire on one end of the coil (creating a short "tail"), while still having 10 inches of magnet wire on the other end (creating a long "tail"). Wrap the 1 1/2 inch of magnet wire around the coil twice to secure it's shape like shown above.
Step 5: Adjusting the Coil
You should have one end of the coil "tails" 1 1/2 inches long, while the other is 10 inches long. Wrap the 10 inch "tail" around the coil as many times as you wrapped the other "tail". This will keep the coil from easily changing shape. After this is done, use the wire cutter to make the second "tail" 1 1/2 inches long.
Make sure that the "tails" are on the opposite sides of the coil, as shown above, or else the motor will not work!!!
Step 6: Reinforcing Shape
Use the remaining 10 inches of magnet wire and wrap it around the entirety of the coil. You can repeat this as many times as you want, as each time will reinforce the circular shape of the coil more. The coil pictures above had wire wrapped around it's entirety twice. After you're done cut any excess magnet wire off with the wire cutters.
Do NOT wrap wire around the "tails"!!!
Step 7: Using Sandpaper: Part 1
After creating the coil with two "tails", you're going to need to use sandpaper to rid the "tails" of the enamel coating. Choose one tail and use the sandpaper to remove only one side of the "tail's" enamel. The finished product of this shaving of enamel should result in one side of the "tail" shaved and one side of the "tail" unshaved and should have the enamel intact. The technique you should use to do this is to place the coil on a piece of regular paper and just stroke downwards on the "tail" with the sandpaper until one side of the "tail" is copper colored. Try to get as close to the coil as possible without removing enamel on the coil itself.
Do NOT shave off all enamel on this tail as removing all enamel from this tail will cause the motor to drain the battery and the motor will not work!
Step 8: Using Sandpaper: Part 2
This part wil be easier. Take the other "tail" and grab it with the sandpaper as shown above. Then just shave off all of the enamel on this "tail". Try to get as close to the coil as possible without removing any enamel off of the coil itself.
Step 9: Finished Coil
This is what the finished coil should look like.
Step 10: Bending Paper Clips: Part 1
Bend both paper clips as shown in steps 10-14. You may want to use the needle-nose pliers to bend the paper clips easier, however this is not necessary.
Step 11: Bending Paper Clips: Part 2
Step 12: Bending Paper Clips: Part 3
Step 13: Bending Paper Clips: Part 4
Step 14: Bending Paper Clips: Part 5
Step 15: Securing the Paper Clips
Secure the paper clips to the positive and negative sides of the battery by wrapping a rubber band around the length of the battery.
Step 16: Adding the Magnet
You may want to wrap two more rubber bands around the width of the battery to help it from rolling around. Howver, this is optional. Then, place the magnet on top of the battery as shown above.
Step 17: Finishing Touches
Place the magnet wire coil you made on the paperclips as shown above. This will create a magnetic field and your motor should be working.
Step 18: Finished!
You're done! If your motor is only moving a little bit, try applying a bit of force with your hand in order to get it started. If the magnet wire isn't a good enough circle, it will be more likely to not work. Keep adjusting and tweaking until you've gotten it to work. If you are having difficulty getting it to work, you can try troubleshooting it in these ways.
1. Lower the coil of magnet wire to get it closer to the magnet (this can be done by pushing the paperclips down or bending them so that the coil can get closer to the magnet).
2. Make sure there are no remnants of the enamel coating on the "tails" where there shouldn't be.
3. On the "tail" with only half of the enamel shaved off, you can shave off slightly more than half.
4. Make sure the tails are straight. If they are not, it can make the coil move around and affect the motor.
5. Adjust the placement of the magnet, moving the magnet around can help to make the motor spin.
6. Play around with the shape of the coil to see if you can get it to work better.
7. Change the battery, the battery you are using may not have sufficient charge left in it.
Step 19: Improvements
Once you have gotten your motor successfully working, you can improve on your basic design to make it even better!
1. Add another battery to make it spin faster (y