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Simple and intuitive web interface for your Raspberry Pi

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     The Raspberry Pi is an amazing 35 dollars mini-computer. It allows you to do everything you could do with a regular Linux computer (Connecting to the internet, watching videos, launching applications, ...) but also to interact with the world surrounding it, just like an Arduino. That's why I qualify it as a mix between a computer and a micro-controller.
     That's also why I chose it for this project. I'm going to show you how to control LEDs with your Raspberry Pi. Firstly directly from the Raspberry Pi itself, then from any device in your house like your Smartphone or your tablet.
 
Here is a very good example of what you can achieve after reading this Instructable: http://www.instructables.com/id/Web-Controlled-8-Channel-Powerstrip/. Thanks to Rleddington for his amazing project.

 
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Step 1: The electronic part

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     The electronic part is nothing special, it's only 8 LEDs with their protecting resistor. The only hard part is to connect the LEDs to the good pin on the Raspberry Pi. Indeed, I'll be using later a library called Wiring Pi made by Gordon Henderson (You can visit his website at: http://wiringpi.com/) and the pin's numbers used in this library aren't the same than the ones on the Raspberry Pi. See this page for matches: http://wiringpi.com/pins/ (just be careful about your Raspberry Pi revision, the pinout isn't exactly the same). I'll be using Wiring pins 0 to 7.
     Concerning the resistors, they should be 270Ω but since I don't have this precise value, I'm using 560Ω resistors (LEDs are just less bright).
     Finally, I've made two schematics to make it simpler. The first one (with the complete Raspberry Pi) is showing you the real pins as they are shown on the board. The second one is a simplified version, it's showing you only the useful pins and their matches in the Wiring Pi library (GPIO Wiring number/Actual number on the board).

Step 2: Installing and using the Wiring Pi library

     As said before, Wiring Pi is a library. It simplifies a lot using the Raspberry Pi GPIOs (one command instead a long process). It also means that you can use it in any of your C codes. However, we won't build and use a C program but the Gpio utility. It's a software made by Gordon and coming with the library. It allows you to control the GPIOs in a bash script or directly in a command line. Using this utility is however a lot slower than a C program.

     We first need to install it. Gordon himself is explaining it very well on his website: http://wiringpi.com/download-and-install/. You just need to download it from GIT then to build it using the ./build command.
     You should now be able to use the Gpio utility, type the "gpio mode 0 out" command to test it out. If nothing special appears, everything's fine. Else, if the board is printing "command not found error" or something like that, be sure that you've followed the guide and build the library.

     Let's turn on and off the first LED (Wiring pin 0). You first need to set the pin as an output. Use the "gpio mode 0 out" command to do so. "0" is the wiring pin number and "out" simply stands for output. Now, use the "gpio write 0 1" command to turn on your LED. "0" is again the pin number and "1" is the status (1 for ON and 0 for OFF). If everything's fine you should see your LED shining. To turn it off, simply use the "gpio write 0 0" command.
     Just a little tip, if you want to use the actual pin number (GPIO-17) instead of the Wiring Pi number (0 is corresponding to GPIO-17), use the -g flag in your command. Ex: "gpio -g write 17 1" instead of "gpio write 0 1".

      There is also the "gpio read" command which allows you to read the pin's status. It may seems useless when the pin has been set as an output but it allows you to be sure of the pin's status when you can't see the LED. Using it is as simple as before, just type "gpio read 0" where "0" is the wiring pin number. The command is returning the pin's status (again 1 for ON and 0 for OFF).

     Finally the Wiring Pi library is containing a lot of other commands/functions but I'm not gonna cover them in this instructable since there are not useful here. See this page if you are more curious: http://wiringpi.com/reference/ (library's functions) and https://projects.drogon.net/raspberry-pi/wiringpi/the-gpio-utility/ or the "man gpio" command for the Gpio utility.

     Now that you can use this utility, let's play a little bit with it. You can first, if it's not already the case, control remotely your Raspberry Pi with SSH. You can use Putty for Windows or ServerAuditor for your Smartphone. Then have fun with bash scripts such as this one which is turning on LEDs 0 to 7, waiting 2 seconds, then turning them off again:
 
#!/bin/bash

#set mode to output
for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7;
   do gpio mode $i out;
done;

#turn on LEDs 0 to 7
for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7;
    do gpio write $i 1;
done;

#wait 2 seconds
sleep 2;

#turn LEDs off
for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7;
    do gpio write $i 0;
done;

Step 3: Installing a web server then transferring your website to it

Picture of Installing a web server then transferring your website to it
     Controlling the LEDs remotely with SSH is pretty cool but the interface (console) isn't very user friendly and typing the commands every time is long and annoying. That's why we need a graphical interface for our project.
     Programming an app for each OS (IOS, Android, Windows phone, Mac, Linux, Windows,...) would be too long and would require to know a lot of different languages for nearly nothing. It would also require to do an application running on the Raspberry Pi. Making it this way would be overkill and time wasting.
     That's why a website is the best solution, it's compatible with all devices and you "only" need to know four languages: HTML (for the page's skeleton), CSS (page's style), PHP (interactions with the server) and JavaScript (interactions with the user).

     We indeed need to install a web server on the Raspberry Pi. In our case, we don't need a MySQL database, only a HTTP server and its PHP extension.
     After updating your Raspberry Pi with the "sudo apt-get update" command, type "sudo apt-get install apache2 php5 libapache2-mod-php5" to install Apache HTTP server and PHP5 extension. You can now test if your server is working by typing the IP of your Raspberry Pi in your browser. You should now see a "It works!" page with two other lines. If you don't, then check your board's IP, try re-installing Apache or rebooting your Raspberry Pi. This page is showing that your Apache server is working properly but not its PHP extension. To check it, navigate to your "/var/www/" directory by using the "cd /var/www/" command. If you use the "ls" command, you should have only one file named "index.html". This file corresponds to the "It works!" page. You can now delete it ("sudo rm index.html") and create another one called "index.php" (use "sudo nano index.php"). Then type the following text:
 
<?php
     phpinfo();

?>

     After saving it using ^o (Ctrl + o), exit nano editor with ^x (Ctrl + x). Now if you refresh your browser, you should see a long page with lots of information about your server and PHP. If you don't, check the index.php file, try re-installing PHP or try to understand the error displayed instead of the page (Google it if necessary).

      If both pages were correctly displayed, then you now have a fully functional Apache/PHP server but using nano every time is annoying and not very comfortable. We indeed need to transfer files from your computer to your Raspberry Pi. You may want to install a FTP server but it isn't necessary, you can already transfer files using the SFTP protocol. All you need is an SFTP client on your computer. I'm personally using  WinSCP for Windows but there are Cyberduck for mac and Filezilla for Linux. If you try transferring files before reading what's next, you'll probably have issues such as "access refused" or "cannot write here". It's due to the fact that the user pi isn't owning the www directory. Indeed, if you try the "ls -l /var/www" command, you'll see that only root (the super user) is owning the www directory. You can (like I did) use the "sudo chown -R pi /var/www" command to change it or create a group named www-data in which you place the pi user then use the "sudo chown -R www-data /var/www" command. The -R flag is standing for recursive, it means that the user/group isn't owning only the directory itself but also everything inside (index.php as example).
     You now have your server ready to work and to receive web pages. Have fun with it if know HTML, CSS and PHP.

Step 4: Controlling the LEDs with PHP

Picture of Controlling the LEDs with PHP

We now have a web server and a library, let' put them together.
PHP stands for "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor", It's a server side scripting language. It means that the PHP code is executed once (each time the page is requested) by the server and cannot be seen by the client. I used this language because it's the most popular (and that's the only one I know) but you have to know that they are other server side languages like Python, Ruby, Lua, Perl, ... However, I don't know if the functions we are gonna use have their equivalents in these languages.

Executing applications with a PHP code can be done with two different functions: exec (for execute) and system. Firstly, the "system" function. It takes two parameters: "system ( string $command, int $return_var )", as you guessed it, the first parameter is the command to execute and the second one is the returned status of the executed command. The second parameter isn't compulsory. You can use this function if you don't expect an answer from the command executed. Thus, you can use it if you need to execute "gpio mode 0 out" or "gpio write 0 1" commands. Example:

<?php
     system ( "gpio mode 0 out" );
     system ( "gpio write 0 1" );
?>

Then, the "exec" function. This function is making exactly the same work than "system" but it reads and stores what the command printed. It takes three parameters: "exec ( string $command, array $output, int $return_var )", again $command and $return_var are the same parameters and the only difference is the $output array. As it's name says it will store the command's output in an array. Thus, you can use this function if you need what the command prints like with the "gpio read 0" command. Example:

<?php
     exec ( "gpio read 0", $status );
     print_r ( $status );
?>

You can now execute nearly whatever command you want but let's make a little PHP example to practice: We will turn on LEDs 0 to 7, then wait 2 seconds, then turn them off. Just like we did with the bash script. Edit the index.php file with the following code:

<?php
$status = array ( 0 );
//set pins mode to output
for ($i = 0; $i <= 7; $i ) {
     system ( "gpio mode ".$i." out" );
}
//turns on the LEDs
for ($i = 0; $i <= 7; $i ) {
     system ( "gpio write ".$i." 1" );
}
//reads and prints the LEDs status
for ($i = 0; $i <= 7; $i ) {
     exec ( "gpio read ".$i, $status );
     echo ( $status[0] );
}
//waits 2 seconds
sleep ( 2 );
//turns off the LEDs
for ($i = 0; $i <= 7; $i ) {
     system ( "gpio write ".$i." 0" );
}
?>


Step 5: Making the interface

We can now control our Raspberry Pi with simple PHP scripts but there is no interaction with the user and thereby we can't choose the LED to turn on/off. Let's make the interface!
It's composed of pictures I've found on Google images (search for "on/off button"). One was green and the other one red, I just added the number using The Gimp. Each picture/button is corresponding to its LED, so if you click on one of these, the corresponding LED will be turned on/off and the picture will be changed to its green/red version. The page's skeleton will be made with HTML, the server interactions and page's generation with PHP and at last JavaScript to manage interactions with the user and page's animation. If you don't know, JavaScript is a client side language and unlike PHP, it's executed not once, but continuously by your browser. That's why you can change the page's look without reloading it or accessing to an other. If you are wondering why I spoke about CSS before, it's just because we need it for some style and page-layout like the the black background. I didn't make a full .css file because it wasn't necessary here.
We first need an "index.php" file (extension is .php and not .html cause we will use PHP code, it helps the server to know if there is PHP to execute before sending the generated page). This page is the main page containing the 8 buttons. These buttons are first generated with a "exec ( "gpio read ".$i, $output );" in a for loop. Then we need to detect when the user is clicking on one of these buttons. That's where the JavaScript is useful, I put it in a separate file called "script.js" but it's still included in index.php. The script is simply adding an event listener to all of the eight buttons and each time one of these is pressed, it uses a function which is asking for gpio.php, receiving the answer then returning it. Finally, in function of this, the JavaScript changes the button to red (for OFF) or to green (for ON). Now, the last page: gpio.php. It contains the PHP code to turn on/off the LEDs in function of what the JavaScript function sent. The user shouldn't normally ask for this precise page but there is one golden rule when creating websites and you should always remember this one: "NEVER TRUST THE USER". In other words, never think the user is always gonna do what you think he's gonna do. Thus, I added some securities at the begin of the PHP code like making sure the user gave a correct value and not a letter as example. I made a small diagram to sum up all this text.

You can download the full project at: http://www.mediafire.com/download/1rgs4t52o8ptd5r/Web.zip or directly on this website below.

Web.zip701 KB

Step 6: Conclusion and ideas of improvements

This small but long explained project was fun and I learned a lot. I hope you did the same. However, controlling LEDs isn't very useful. That's why what we made is rather a tool than a real project. Christmas is soon (about one and a half months from the day I wrote this instructable) so why not replacing LEDs by relays and controlling lights around your house. There are some pretty good relay boards for the Raspberry Pi on Ebay and more generally on the Internet. Alternatively, and if you're not scared about working on your house, you can even control your house's lights, garage door, coffee machine, heating system, ... The only limit is your imagination.
There are also a lot of possible improvements like changing the interface, adding more LEDs via a shift register, using vocal recognition, ... In addition, with PHP, you are not limited to gpio write or read. You can use the full Gpio utility and thus interact with other devices with UART or any other implemented protocol. You can also use PWM (Pulse Width Modification) to control servos, ...
Writing this Instructable and sharing my little knowledge was a great pleasure for me and I hope it was the same for you to read it. I tried to keep it simple but at the same time to teach the most possible. I didn't want to do a simple and dumb step by step: "download this code, run it, you're done". I think that something is useless to learn until you understand how it works or why you do this and not that. Let me know if you think it's the good way or if I should do it otherwise.

PS: This is my very first instructable and English is not my native language so if you have any comment, advice, suggestion, idea, ... Just let me know, I'll be glad to answer you and of course to learn.

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dragons.n.s2 months ago

Hi TheFreeElectron,

its me again, i have finish this instructable and its woking perfectly, yet it still have problems; it only works in RPi's browser 'midori' it don't work in any other smartphones or any other PC's browsers. so plz help me with that

TheFreeElectron (author)  dragons.n.s2 months ago

Hi Dragon,

I'm glad to know that's it's "perfectly" working for you!

Concerning your problem, it's kind of weird. The fact that it is working only on the Rpi itself doesn't really makes sense. However I may see an option, sometimes my LAN network doesn't work, I can access the Internet but I can't access other computers of my network. Also if I type my computer's address (also used as a server with ip 192.168.1.24), it works. It's probably because the browser recognizes the address and then connects directly to the server without asking anything to the router. I usually turn off/on the router and it works again!

Else maybe that your server isn't configured to accept connection others than from localhost, you should search "put wamp/lamp server online" on google or something like that.

Finally, I see no other options, you should test your LAN network if none of everything over is working. See if this problem happens to other computers, if you can connect to them. Also, google is one of best friend if you still have troubles.

Hope I Helped,

TheFreeElectron

Hi TheFreeElectron,

thanks again!!!!!!!!!!!!!

TheFreeElectron (author)  dragons.n.s2 months ago

No problem, do not hesitate if you need something else.

hey, you know what! it finally works 100%. thank you for your help TheFreeElectron

dragons.n.s2 months ago

Hi TheFreeElectron,

its me again, i have finish this instructable and its woking perfectly, yet it still have problems; it only works in RPi's browser 'midori' it don't work in any other smartphones or any other PC's browsers. so plz help me with that

dragons.n.s2 months ago

Hi TheFreeElectron,

its me again, i have some doubts on the final step, about the three files index.php, gpio.php and the JavaScript file. should i place the files in the /var/www/ or i have to create a new directory in the /home/pi. and i have another doubt, can i simply access page by using the ip address. and one more thing I'm sorry if my English skills are bad, B'coz i'm from india

TheFreeElectron (author)  dragons.n.s2 months ago
Hi Dragon,

You have to place all of them in the /var/www directory. If you can, download the zip file and simply paste the content in /var/www.
After that, to access your Rpi, you need its local/LAN address. To get it, you can type the "ifconfig" command in the terminal or access your router's page, you usually need to type 192.168.1.1 in the URL bar. Once you have this LAN ip, simply type it in the URL bar and if you did everything well, you should have the home page with the buttons.

Hope I helped,
TheFreeElectron

Hi TheFreeElectron,

Thanks for the reply it helped me a lot. and thanks again!!!!!!!! =)

TheFreeElectron (author)  dragons.n.s2 months ago
No problem! ;)
TheFreeElectron (author)  dragons.n.s2 months ago
No problem! ;)
Hayaalsh3 months ago

Hello TheFreeElectron :)

Thank you for this amazing tutorial!
but I have a question. One of the members said that they
can control the LED lights from New-Zealand! However, I cannot control the pi
unless the pi and my Smartphone are connected to the same network.

Is there any way to control the pi
from any place in the world without the need of being connected to the same
network?

I hope you get what I mean.

Hayaalsh Hayaalsh3 months ago

please answer me :(

TheFreeElectron (author)  Hayaalsh3 months ago

Hi Hayaalsh,

Sorry for responding so late but I haven't been noticed of your comment. Maybe, the mail alert messed up or I just simply deleted unintentionally the message.

In fact, If you want to control your pi from all over the world, you need to connect to the wan ip of your box/router instead of the lan ip of yout pi, a lot of websites are giving you this ip. After that, you need to forward the http port (80) to your pi. It means that all the requests sent to your box/router won't be blocked anymore but instead, they'll be sent to your pi. Therefore you can access your home server from all over the world! There are plenty of tutorials on the web, search for "home web server", "port forwarding" or "making your pi accessible from the internet".

To answer the question of your other comment, the pi is in fact pretty much limited when it comes to powering something. These ports are rather meant to communicate with other boards. Thereby, to control something that is asking for more power you better be creating a separate second circuit which would be able to deal with more power, you can easily do this with relays or transistors. There's a link in the first step that will send you to another 'Ible in which you see how to control light bulbs or such things.

I hope I answered your questions and again, I'm really sorry.

TheFreeElectron

Thank you so much. That was very helpful!

I will try what you said and let you know what happens :)

stupidmachine made it!2 months ago

A really great instructable!

I made a little remote control car with a RPi, a USB Battery, a NiCd battery, an old RC car that didn't work anymore, a wi-fi dongle and transistors. Your tutorial helped me a lot. Now I can connect to my RPi's own wi-fi and control my car on a HTML page, with the arrow keys or with the accelerometer if I use a mobile device.

PS: Sorry for my english...

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TheFreeElectron (author)  stupidmachine2 months ago

Hi Stupidmachine,

Thank you for your feedback. Your project looks really interesting and amazing, why not writing an Instructable?

Why not, maybe when I've got a little spare time.

I've already done some kind of instructable because it's a project for school but it's in french so I'll have to translate it.

TheFreeElectron (author)  stupidmachine2 months ago

Don't worry, I'm french too (now it makes no sense to keep speaking in english but let's allow everybody to understand us ;) If you only need to translate, google traduction is one of your best friend (believe me) or you can even ask your english teacher. I'll be looking forward for your 'Ible and doubtless giving it a link in the first step!

Actually I'm from Switzerland.

I should be able to translate it but I just lack time these days... But I'll do it.

TheFreeElectron (author)  stupidmachine2 months ago

Excuse me, I couldn't know. Take your time and if I may ask, which grade are you in?

There's no need to apologize, it's not like it was bad to be french. ;)

I'm finishing the highschool this year and I'll be at the EPFL (école polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne) next year in microtechnology.

TheFreeElectron (author)  stupidmachine2 months ago

I'm also in last year of highschool but I won't be able to know where I'll be next year until the end of June (That's one drawback of being french ;). I just have a question, why did you do a project for school, is it something specific to your highschool/section or more generally to all Switzerland?

For the last year of highschool, we have to choose a specific option, and I choosed IT. We're in a small class and it's really fun. We learnt some web languages and we're now doing stuff with the RPi. We could freely choose a project to do with it and that's why I did that...

TheFreeElectron (author)  stupidmachine2 months ago

Ok, very well. In France, we have the choice between four "specialties" : Biology, Sciences and Physics, Maths and something called "ISN" (standing for "Informatique et Sciences du Numérique") which is probably the equivalent of your option. I personally chose Maths because the program was more interesting and it was better for the schools I'm aiming. It represents only 2 hours a week. It's also in rather small classes and it's also a lot of fun ( That's my opinion ;). We can stay in contact by e-mail if you want, you can send me your address by personal message.

dragons.n.s3 months ago

can you upload video tutorial for this?????

TheFreeElectron (author)  dragons.n.s3 months ago

Hi Dragon,

That would be a great idea but I'm not really keen on doing videos, maybe for another 'Ible.

felipemundy3 months ago
Hayaalsh3 months ago

Hi again,

I have another 2 questions:

Can I use LED light bulb instead of those small LED lights?

And can I control things other than light? like a small motor? or it would require more power?

justcus4 months ago

I am unable to download

You can download the full project at: http://www.mediafire.com/download/1rgs4t52o8ptd5r/Web.zip

Any help would be greatly appreciated!

TheFreeElectron (author)  justcus4 months ago

Hi Justcus,

It still works for me. A further description of the problem would be useful.

I have tried to download the web.zip file using IE11 and Google Chrome but to no avail. When I click on the download button, I am usually directed to another site and it downloads other files that I am suspicious of. Other times I get "This Page Can't Be Displayed. Is there another way to get the file?

Thanks,

TheFreeElectron (author)  justcus4 months ago

Hi Justcus,

I've tried downloading the file on other computers and platforms, all of them worked. It's maybe a network configuration problem. Have you tried the other links in the comments?

Hi TheFreeElectron,

I forgot to applaud you on the great project. I have it working up to the point of setting up the iPhone or Android to control the Raspberry Pi. I don't know crap about programming these days so the step by step was great. I last programmed in assembler and BASIC for the 8080A (1976) after that it was all appliance computing.

I tried one other the was on mediafire.com/download/xxxx/xxx.zip and had the same problem. Maybe it is my firewall or antivirus. My pea brain just doesn't work so good anymore. Can the file be placed in dropbox or can it be downloaded from a ftp site. As far as my network configuration I think it is OK I have downloaded files from other sites without any problems. The older I get the more about computers I have forgotten. CRS!

Thanks,

TheFreeElectron (author)  justcus4 months ago

Hi Justcus,

Definitely you won't stop harassing me (just kidding, there's no problem). Thank you for your comment, that's always interesting to exchange experiences and thoughts with others, writing this 'Ible was a real pleasure and finally, knowing that some people actually learned something by reading what I wrote is an even greater pleasure. By the way, I wasn't even born in 1976 and I've never heard about the 8080A. ;)

Concerning your problem, I didn't take the risk of another website not to work so I added a new "last" step in which I pasted the whole code and uploaded the different pictures.

Cheers,

TheFreeElectron

Thanks so much for the finishing touch!!!

When you don't have anything to do, look up IMSAI 8080. That is where it all started for me. Keep up the excellent work!!!

Again thanks,

kounenos4 months ago

Hey TheFreeElectron,

First of all thanks for this nice Tutorial it helped me a lot with web interface! i 'm new in web interface and i try to upload the files in /var/www with WinSCP and tells me

Permission denied.
Error code: 3
Error message from server: Permission denied

you can help me a little?

TheFreeElectron (author)  kounenos4 months ago

Hi Kouenos,

This problem is surely caused by the fact that the user you're connecting with (probably pi) isn't owning the www directory (therefore doesn't have read/write rights in it). You need to use the command "sudo chown -R pi /var/www" if pi is your user.

If this is not the cause, I do not see other possible reasons, maybe a configuration problem. Try the "ls -l" command to check who's having the rights on this folder.

Hope I helped,

TheFreeElectron

motzer4 months ago
Hey TheFreeElectron,

first of all thanks for this nice Tutorial - it helped me a lot! I am using your start to controll som Remote sockets. There is a little problem with my web programming skills =) So the Problem is to switch one socket on you have to set two GPIOs High for a short amount of time (~1sec) and then one of these Ports has to bet set Low again after this second. And tried it now for hours but no solution.

Little Example what I tried in the javascript file:

var new_status = change_pin ( 0, 0);
var new_status = change_pin ( 4, 1);
setTimeout(change_pin( 4, 0),1000);

So Pin 0 and 4 are the two GPIOs to set, but Pin 4 has to be toggled after one second. With this code it works sometimes and sometimes not on clicks so sometimes Pin4 is set LOW and sometimes not. Do you have an idea or a advice for me to solve this "small" Problem?

PseudoCode
Set Pin 0 and 4 High
Change Button0 Picture to Green
wait 1 secodn
Set pin 4 Low again

Cheers,
Ben
TheFreeElectron (author)  motzer4 months ago

Hi Ben,

Thank you for your comment and your feedback, I really appreciate.

As I understood your idea, you push one button to turn high two GPIO ports, then 1 second after, one of the two ports is turned low. Correct me if I'm wrong.

I'm not really a pro of JavaScript but you're setting the new_status variable to what the change_pin function returns for (0,0) then for (4,1) without doing anything between or after. You're also setting the pin 0 to 0 <=> LOW (first line). That's what I can say about your code example.

After that, dealing with the delays as the client doesn't seem, to me, a good idea. You can do this in the PHP script using the sleep( TIME_IN_SECONDS ) function. Or by using the method I described in several comments below (using a python daemon and a PHP page to make the link). Here's an example I wrote for another 'Ible: http://www.mediafire.com/download/p88afnrybdmxsu6/... It isn't including a delay but it's still very interesting to understand the method. You just need to run the gpio_server.py file and to put the rest in your www folder. I also corrected several bugs and "upgraded" the way the project works. Again that's just a personal opinion and using JS is also a good idea.

Hope I helped, do not hesitate If you have any other questions/problems.

Cheers,

TheFreeElectron.

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