## Step 2: Making the Base, and Mounting the Wheels

To make a nice, sturdy base I cut the 2x4's at angles and put them together to make two triangles. You can make them whatever size you need, depending on the size of your panels. I then tied them together with a couple of 2x4's at the base, and a couple up top. This made a nice, sturdy base to mount the wheels to.

I cut a couple of small pieces of angle iron with a hacksaw, found the mid point on the cross members, and attached them exterior woodscrews. I put the wheels through the holes, and spun them with satisfaction.

Here is a picture of the top wheel being mounted.
<p>There is an easy way ati adjust your solar panel whether level or not level, any season, any sunny day, anywhere on earth, any time of day, NO MATH involved. In the center of a piece of plywood or plastic, mount a 1inch x 12 inch dowel. Place the piece on the solar panel so that the dowel is in the exact center of the array, and temporarily tape it in place. Adjust the panel until the dowel has no shadow whatsoever around it, and your solar panel is now facing head on into the sun. Remove the plywood and you will be getting the maximum output. No Calculations needed! </p>
<p>This would only work if the sun did not move. </p>
People were talking about what angle to set the tilt of the solar panel for different cities around the world. All of the suggestions were about using charts, books or internet sites to get the information. Yes, the sun moves and the tracker takes care of East to West settings; my simple solution takes care of North to South settings without the math or internet. You can reuse this dowel method to adjust the tilt of the panel manually just a few times a year as seasons change and the sun is at a different angle in the sky. It will be close to accurate and will avoid having to adjust the panel as often.
<p>Tracking the sun works during the day, what brings the panel back to the East for the next morning sun rise? I have found that over the years a clean panel is more important than being off 20 degrees. I use the same care products as my car windshield.</p><p>windshield.</p>
I agree!
<p>In the last picture it shows your handy work and a rack of flat panels sitting there in a fixed position. You now have a mother/master board and you just need to make pivots for the rest of them and hook them together with a tie rod that will have all of them follow the leader. All of that with only one power unit. Great write up and idea. </p>
Is there and equation to calculate the inclination i need to set the panel to for any given place on the world? Or is a matter of guessing towards&nbsp;optimization?
<p>I researched this some years ago and wrote a long article on the subject of fixed tilt angles. I've cut and pasted the most important conclusions and formulas below. Hope you all find it interesting and of use.</p><p>................................................................................................................................</p><p>Books and articles on solar energy often give<br>the advice that the tilt should be equal to your latitude, plus 15 degrees<br>in winter, or minus 15 degrees in summer. It turns out that you can do better<br>than this &ndash; about 4% better.<br><br>Fixed or Adjustable?<br>It is simplest to mount your solar panels at a fixed tilt and just leave them there. But because the sun is higher in the summer and lower in the winter, you can capture more energy during the whole year by adjusting the tilt of the panels according to the season. The following table shows the effect of adjusting the angle, using a system at 40&deg; latitude as an example. (The comparison would be a little different for different latitudes.) Each option is compared with the energy received by the best possible &lsquo;Dual Axis&lsquo; tracker that always keeps the panel pointed directly at the sun.<br><br> Fixed Adj.2 seasons Adj. 4 seasons 2-axis tracker<br>% of optimum 71.1% 75.2% 75.7% 100%<br><br>In short, adjusting the tilt twice a year gives you a meaningful boost in energy. Adjusting four times a year produces only a little more, but could be important if you need to optimize production in spring and fall. </p><p>If your solar panels will have a fixed tilt angle, and you want to get the most energy over the whole year, then this section is for you. A fixed angle is convenient, but note that there are some disadvantages. As mentioned above, you&rsquo;ll get less power than if you adjusted the angle. Also, if you live where there is snow, adjusting the panels to a steeper angle in winter makes it more likely that they will shed snow. A panel covered in snow produces little or no power!<br><br>For latitudes between 25&deg; and 50&deg;, use the latitude, times 0.76, plus 3.1 degrees.<br><br>Adjusting the tilt twice a year<br>Formulas used: The best tilt angle for:<br><br> Summer take the latitude, multiply by 0.93, minus 21 degrees.<br> Winter take the latitude, multiply by 0.875, plus 19.2 degrees.<br><br>The best dates on which to adjust and the angle from horizontal:<br>Adjust to summer angle of 24.57&deg; on March 3rd<br>Adjust to winter angle of 62.075&deg; on September 12th<br><br><br>Adjusting the tilt four times a year<br>Formulas used: The best tilt angle for:<br><br> Summer take the latitude, multiply by 0.92, and subtract 24.3 degrees.<br> Spring and Autumn, take the latitude, multiply by 0.98, and subtract 2.3 degrees.<br> Winter, take the latitude, multiply by 0.89, and add 24 degrees.<br><br>The best dates on which to adjust and the angle from horizontal:<br><br>Adjust to summer angle of 20.78&deg;on April 18th<br>Adjust to autumn angle of 45.72&deg;on August 24th<br>Adjust to winter angle of 19.61&deg;on October 7th<br>Adjust to spring angle of 45.72&deg;on March 5th</p>
<p>You can do all the research you want but I would bet with this back yard project arguing about 1/2 degree is silly. Bet neither one of you could get the angle within 5 degrees </p>
<p>RickD72, I agree that the precision isn't warranted for this particular project, but I was actually replying to anjnugteren's question which specifically asked </p><p><strong>&quot;Is there and equation to calculate the inclination i need to set the panel to for any given place on the world?&quot;</strong></p><p>On my own tracker I have no problem setting it to 0.5 degs, using a digital inclinometer. </p>
<p>What is so difficult about adjusting a sturdy frame within 5 degree?</p>
If your panel has a fixed inclination (as the one in this Instructable does), you usually want the angle to be the same as the latitude of the panel's location.&nbsp; A location's latitude is very close to the mean sun height over a year.<br />
<p>filmnuts i agree with you as i laughed about your post! I used to attempt this in september on a saturday with the guys over for the football game on t.v. a lot of Einsteins after 4 brews and &quot;i just didn't know what i was doing&quot; say them all without any panels of their own.</p>
That's DEClination and you need to set the normal to the axis to the COlatitude (90-latitude).<br />
Some also call this Zenith Angle
There seems to be enough confusion without adding yet another layman's term. Why not just stick with standard astronimical terms?<br><br>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declination
You're arguing over semantics.&nbsp; Inclination and declination are complimentary, as are latitude and colatitude (the equation you give for colatitude <em>is</em> the equation of a complimentary angle).&nbsp; To say the inclination and the latitude are equal is the same as saying the declination and colatitude are equal; the former is just easier for most people to understand because they already know what latitude means and how it relates to their geographic location.&nbsp; <br /> <br /> Also, the original question asked about the inclination of the PV panel, not mean annual solar declination, so I gave my answer in terms of inclination.&nbsp; Declination is primarily a astronomical term, and though using it here would give you the same results, it's not technically the correct nomenclature, as we are not directly discussing the sun.
The word is complEmentary and I'm not arguing about anything. You seem to be doing that for both of us. ;-) And yes, declination IS an astronomical term and it is highly relevant to the discussion since ignoring the solar declination will definitely reduce the overall energy efficiency. If we're not &quot;directly discussing the sun&quot;, then what are we discussing? And no, the declination is not the same thing as the &quot;inclination&quot;, as you put it, or the latitude, at all. Declination is the angle that the sun makes relative to the earth's equatorial plane and it varies between +/- 23.5 degrees. At either extreme, only about 90% of the light energy is reaching the cells if you don't compensate. The astronomical term &quot;inclination&quot; refers to something entirely different from the latitude:<br /> <br /> http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclination<br /> <br /> If by &quot;inclination&quot; you mean the angle that the axis of rotation of the mount makes with the horizontal plane then OK. You need to align the axis in your local meridional plane, that's the plane that cuts through a north-south line at your location, and tilt the axis toward the sun so it is at an angle equal to your latitude. Then you need to add the declination angle throughout the year for maximum efficiency. You can easily calculate the angles or find a table and make a simple scale that allows you to quickly change the angle for any given week.<br /> <br /> To put it simply, for your sake, make the angle of the frame equal to your latitude and align the axis in a north-south direction.<br /> <br /> Before replying, do some homework this time.;-)<br />
Again, that's DEClination, and here's a simple equation to calculate it:<br /> <br /> http://pvcdrom.pveducation.org/SUNLIGHT/DECLIN.HTM<br /> <br /> You then need to add the result, which can be positive or negative, to your COlatitude to get the current angle that the normal to the rotational axis should be at.<br />
I would not call that equation simple (yikes!), but it is helpful for finding the solar declination on a given day and would definitely come in handy with a PV panel that pivoted on two axes.&nbsp; However, as I said below, this equation is not necessary, as long as you are dealing with a PV panel with fixed inclination.&nbsp; The optimal angle will always be the same as the latitude of the PV panel.&nbsp; It's a fact.<br />
Well what's NOT simple about a multiplication, a subtraction, a division, and a sine? If that's not simple to you why did you even ask if there is an equation if you are not prepared to use it?<br />
I love the idea of solar or wind energy but dont know too much about them. How much power does this give and how can it be used inside?
<p>If you go on YouTube you can find any information you want. I put 400 Watts on a Bimini Top on our Motor Sailer and also 378 that glues down flat and you can walk on it on the roof of the cabin. Fantastic. Love it and it is easy.</p>
<p>Nice! For those who want to spend less for the system, you can build your own sun sensor for about \$2 and use a \$20 stepper motor to rotate the panel to track the sun. I followed the directions in Chapter 16 of the Arduino Projects for Amateur Radio book. It is an Arduino-based system using a 10W solar panel. The code for the Arduino is also included. It does not rotate for elevation, but the system was designed for using power on camping trips where elevation doesn't change much over a long weekend. Of course, you can adjust it by hand when needed.</p>
<p>What 12 volt actuator did you use stroke 8 or 12 inch?</p><p>What torque? 225 lbs?</p><p>what led tracking sensor did you order from redrok?</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Larry08</p>
<p>What 12 volt actuator did you use stroke 8 or 12 inch?</p><p>What torque? 225 lbs?</p><p>what led tracking sensor did you order from redrok?</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Larry08</p>
<p>Don't you need to move the panel in two axes?</p>
Absolutely genius. thanks I'm going to try this
<p>Hello ,</p><p>This is really awesome </p><p>but if we don't have LED sensor tracker </p><p>Can we replace it ?with what ? </p><p>Thanks ! </p>
<p>you use photoresistors, mounted to the panel, and rotate the panel twords whichever has the higher value</p>
look for solar trackers here in instructible they have a few that use smaller solar cell to control the power to the motor.
<p>What solar panel did you use? And how much was it, and where did you get it?</p>
Thank you for the idea. Jere is a pic.
I want to add this tracker to my solar array over the next month or two. It seems the largest consideration is going to be which linear actuator to use. <br><br>Obviously if you can find a free or cheap one from someone who is junking an old satellite dish that would be great. <br><br>But if left to buy one, other than the stroke and finding one of the appropriate voltage, how much force should one be able to exert on say, 2 45W panels and still be able to operate in blowing winds? It seems like you would want to minimize this in order to draw the lowest amount of current from your battery bank so that you gain the maximum power from your tracker and invest as little power as possible into driving the thing. Thoughts?
<p>trackers will make you solar array work better.</p><p>sales5@vigordigital.com</p>
Should two Linear Actuators be used for a larger array? Say Four Panels?<br>Thanks folks.<br>
<p>yes, it should be</p>
Hi hdb111; <br> <br>I think I understand what your asking: <br>Can one drive multiple independent linear actuators from a single tracker. <br> <br>The simple answer is no. Due to friction and different weight balance they tend to get out of sync. <br> <br>A better, and cheaper, method is to link multiple bicycle rims together with a cable. A single actuator moving the cable can drive quite a few panels. <br> <br>Note! These multiple panels should be separated so there is minimal shadowing. <br>I have a Excel spreadsheet that deals with shadowing issues. See: <br>http://www.redrok.com/led3xassm.htm#shadowing <br>http://redrok.com/Shadowing1.xls <br> <br>Duane <br>Red Rock Energy <br>redrok.com/led3xassm.htm
<p>We have produced wifi and tilt inclinometer for 15 years in Shanghai, China.</p> <br><p>These inclinometers are used on solar tracking system such as single-axis, dual-axis, 0~360&deg; range. There are more specifications in my computer. Once you are interested, I will send them to you.</p><p>Many solar tracking companies, such as Juwi Solar, Scatec Solar, have chosen us as a long-term supplier.</p><p>For example, Scatec Solar has built two PV plants in South Africa.</p><p>One is in Dreuenberg, which used 535 sets of our inclinometers. The other is in Linde, which used 300 sets of our inclinometers.</p><p>Our cost and quality are very competitive.</p><p>If you are interested, please let me know. Thanks</p><p>sales5@vigordigital.com</p>
<p>Great work ....Solar energy is becoming best solution for Energy Crisis in the world.</p><p>http://www.uenergysolar.co.uk/</p>
<p>I was looking into solar trackers when I found your project. Very nicely done ! I would also like to point to something I have found on youtube =&gt; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ljTJqQYSJ8g</p>
<p>Sometimes simple is better. thanks for the link.</p>
briliant
u r brilaint
cool and nice many thanks for the helping people.
cool and nice many thanks for the helping people.
Hi Team, <br>Here is Wunderbar 12, <br>Just an update on my Bike tracker Project. <br>After building 2 and got them working by hand, I was a happy person, sending a photo to my friend a German Tool Maker, he warned NOT to build my trackers like this, as the roof is not a good environment, and he believes I must redesign the lot to do without the Bike wheels. He said you have 30 years warranty on this solar panels, and the wheels will fall apart after 3 years, when I am also 3 years older! <br>We started on the redesign, so far so good, when I have a array going, I am happy to post a few photos. <br>Yes it is NOT easy to build something low priced but high Chocolaty, <br>Have a good KW day! (KW stands for Kilo Watt)
Hi bwiter, <br>Thank you very much for your WUNDEREBAR Idea. I love it so much! <br>I have just copied your tracker, I used my existing Alu frame. I am waiting for some panels to complete my test unit. Then I will give you some Photos. <br>I will build 108 trackers, as I have 9 arrays of 12 panels on my very large roof all up 30KW. My production is down to 100KW average per day. I need to get 150+KW to repay my \$80,000 loan. <br>I adjust the angel every month, but I find I need to track East - West the panels for more production. <br>We got winter here in Brisbane and it is nice to work on the roof now. Can anyone help me: I will put the panels 250mm apart and join the trackers with a rod to have 12 trackers working of one linear actuator, with this nice freely movement of the bike wheel, I am sure I will get it working, the shade problem is my worry, right now in winter I find 250mm a bit to small, but I need to save some room, would 500mm be better? <br>Any comment would be welcome. <br>Thank you again, you Gays are helping me a lot with all your input. <br>E-mail: Solar_Lover@bigpond.com
ALL electronics has a linear actuator for 36\$ but its also 36volts,&nbsp; Do you think you could string 3 panels together to power the actuator. Will the redrock run on 36vs?<br />
These types of actuators use permanent magnetic DC motors. Just run the 36V, or 24V, actuator on 12V. They will move slower, a good thing, with little loss in force.<br><br>Duane<br>Red Rock Energy<br>redrok.com/led3xassm.htm

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