I found a passing mention of this technique of using a sponge with a small amount of ferric chloride on the Pulsar web site, and I was very skeptical that it could possibly work. So naturally, I tried it.
Whenever I have made circuit boards in the past, I did it just like most of us do. I put the ferric chloride into a small tub, dropped the masked circuit board into the solution, and rocked it back and forth for a long time. Even with fresh, strong ferric chloride solution, it would usually take at least 10 minutes for the copper to be removed. As the solution grew weaker, the etch would take longer and longer.
A few months ago, I discovered the 1-part pool acid (muriatic acid) to 2 parts hydrogen peroxide method of etching a circuit board. You will find lots of wonderful Instructables on this method. That method works great, and it made me mad that I spent so much money and effort with ferric chloride over the years when I already had all the chemicals I needed right at home to use this method. The down sides of the acid and hydrogen peroxide solution are that the muriatic acid can cause skin burns and is a little dangerous and damages things that it contacts. Also, I found the etching solution to be quite aggressive which was great for fast etching, but I ended up with severe undercutting and partial obliteration of the traces, and the solution tended to be more corrosive to the resist materials I used, and partially dissolved the mask away during the etch.
This weekend I tried this sponge and ferric chloride method to etch 3 Arduino shield boards I am prototyping for our RFID-enabled member access system at TechShop (TechShop is the 15,000 square foot membership-based DIY workshop with locations in Menlo Park CA, Portland OR and Durham NC). I was so impressed with the success of this technique that I decided to write it up as an Instructable.
The method I will now show you gives you the advantages of all the other methods, and none of the downsides. Specifically:
o You get a fast etch (much faster than either method I know of),
o You use a tablespoon of solution, so disposal problems are eliminated
o A small bottle of ferric chloride will last for hundreds of boards
o No tank or tub is needed, no heating or agitation
o Undercutting is practically non-existent, and the resist stays in place
o There is no need to try to reduce the amount of copper being etched
o The etch is so fast that it is actually exciting to watch and show your friends!
Let's get to it, shall we?
Step 1: What You Will Need
o Ferric chloride (available at Radio Shack, 16 oz bottle for $10, part number 276-1535)
o Sponge (2" x 2" square, cut from any sponge, or paper towel will work too)
o Rubber Gloves (you don't want to stain your hands)
o Copper Circuit Board (one or two sided)
o Cup of water (to drop the etched board into to stop the etching)