Start a Back Yard Honey Bee Hive





Introduction: Start a Back Yard Honey Bee Hive

About: I'm a computer engineer - but please don't judge me by that. I heat with wood, fix broken things and love camping with my family. I'm a closet solar nerd, love coupons, not scared to dumpster dive and love...

This Spring I knocked off one of my long standing to do's - free range bees! Just kidding well - sort of. We started two hives of honey bees.

My dad has kept bees for the majority of my adult life - sadly a turn in his health has left about 20 empty hives. He was kind enough to let me have two hives, some gear and a good amount of knowledge. I've spent the past year reading and talking to bee keepers.

Bees are amazing little critters. They are smart, organized and most importantly directly involved with pollination for food production. I like to eat and the bees are dying off. So my wife and I decided it was time we did our part to help them out. Even if we never harvest a drop of honey it is worth our time and effort to save the bees.....but don't get me wrong we have full intention to harvest the honey too!

I'm writing this as an encouragement to any who might be considering doing this. I'm by no means an expert and I have many hard lessons to learn but I'd like to share the process of getting a purchased box bees into a new hive. It was very straight forward. Everyone has an opinion on how to do it right. I've found Mr. Bush of Bush Bees Natural Beekeeping site to be extremely helpful resource.

Step 1: Set Up the Frames

Frames are the inserts we put in hive boxes to give the bees a road map of where to put the honey and brood will go. 10 frames will go in the brood boxes - or the bottom two sections of the hive.

We decided to use a wax foundation in our frames. This is a thin small honey comb on a wire frame that is nailed into the frame.

A utility knife is used to remove a pre cut piece of wood that holds the foundation to the frame.

I used small 5/8 inch brad nails with 30# of pressure to knock out the frames.

Step 2: Set Up the Hive

Pre assemble your hive in anticipation of the bees arrival.

Base with landing board goes on the bottom. Notice the wire mesh that helps keep the larger critters out.

Brood boxes are stacked on top of the base with 10 frames each.

The excluder is placed after the top brood box and before additional boxes. This is used to keep the queen from laying eggs in the honey frames that will be harvested. There is much debate on using these. Right now the jury is out for me for long term use. If the queen runs out of room in the bottom brood boxes your bees will "swarm" and find a bigger house.

The inner cover helps in several ways - especially helping your bees manage the internal hive environment.

Additional hive boxes go on top and then we put the metal covered top on.

Step 3: Order Bees

We bough two 3# boxes of bees from Busy Bee Apiaries. They operate over 600 hives and move them across the south east with crop pollination schedule.

My dad picked them up and to my mother's angst drove them the two hours up to our house.

They come in a small wood framed mesh covered box with a single piece of wood nailed to the top. Inside is the queen (in her own box), a feeder can of sugar and water syrup and about 11,000 bees.

It is quite common to see bees being sent by US Mail.

Step 4: Prep Hive for New Bees

Remove the top and the inner cover from your new hive.

Remove 5 frames from one side of the hive. This is where the bee box will go. Be careful of the wax foundation and it will bend and tear easily. Ideally these should be stored upright like they were hanging in the hive.

With the remaining 5 frames make a small opening about the width of two fingers between frame number 2 and 3. This is where the queen will go.

Step 5: New Home for the Bees

Handle the bee box with gloves. Give the bees a gentle puff or two of smoke. Too much will make them confused and attack.

Remove the staples from the top cover on the bee box. It is a good idea to put a clamp or vice grips on the queen box tab. If it falls you will have to retrieve it from the bottom of the bee box....and it will be covered in bees.

Slide the cover of to reveal the feeder can. Remove the can and gently brush off any bees that might come with it. Quickly replace the cover - all while not letting the queen box drop to the bottom.

Some beekeepers like to drizzle the sugar water out of the can over the hive frames to give the bees something to eat inside the hive.

Step 6: Long Live the Queen

Now it is time to set the queen.

Slide back that access wood on the bee box again and quickly remove the queen box by pulling on the tab. Gently shake off any hitchhikers. Put the cover back on the box.

Look in the queen box - she will be longer than the other bees in the box. You will notice that on each end of the box there is a cork. On one side you will see a white sugar based paste. You will want to remove the cork on the sugar side of the queen. This will make the bees have to eat the sugar and work to get to her.

Gently pinch the queen bee box between frames 2 and 3 while holding the tab not letting her fall.

Remove the top to the bee box so the bees can find the queen.

Still holding the tab set the excluder and top cover on the brood box. Ensure the queen won't fall when you let go and then place the top on the hive.

Step 7: Remove Bee Box

48-72 hours after placing the bees in their new home it is time to check to see if they set the queen free.

Time for another gentle puff of smoke.

Hold the tab on the queen bee box and lift the top. Again it might be useful to attach a clamp or pliers here. With the top of the box off see if the queen is still in her cage. She will be longer than the rest. Plus you should be able to see a big hole where they ate the sugar to get to her.

If she is out set it to the side.

Remove the bee box from the hive. This will probably have several dead bees and a few stragglers in it. Set it to the side and the living bees will find their way home.

Replace the 5 frames you removed and close up the hive.

There is much debate on feeding your bees. I chose to do a 1:1 organic cane sugar and water mixture to get them started.

Step 8: Legal Stuff

I live in the city limits. My city does not have an ordinance against keeping bees. You should check with yours as well.

I also decided to buy this very cool sign. I did not actually have a no trespassing sign and now I have a much less threatening one. Plus as an added bonus I'm telling people to please stay away from my hives.

Step 9: Enjoy

Some of my neighbors were really freaked out initially. But to be very honest these guys are docile. I only wore gloves as protective gear. I might need a hat or suit at harvest time but that is too be decided.

I can sit on my bee hive platform and watch them fly in and out carrying in pollen stuffed in their back legs with no issues. Nobody has been stung yet.

Our family is excited. Our flowers are happy. And grandpa is ecstatic to tell his grandson all about the wonderful world of bees.

Step 10: Video Update!

Here is a quick video of the bees on a warm sunny day. The jars in the front are the organic cane sugar solution.

The bees love their new home - and you can see even standing this close they don't bother me.

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    3 Questions

    I have read that the bee entrance on a new hive should be sealed (covered) for the first 24 hours. Is that necessary?


    Great instructable, I just have one question... What is the use for the organic cane solution jars in the front?


    Do you have any suggestions on how to control ants? Or worse yet how to control for robber bees from other hives that are attracted to your bee food ( especially from hives that are being starved for orchard pollination)?

    Ants: No poison! You can try a ring of petroleum jelly around each leg of the hive. You will need to replace it.

    Robbing is never easy, but prevention is better than cure!
    Why would you starve a hive? That's ridiculous! You are actually reducing their ability to forage by reducing colony size (the queen will not be allowed to lay if resources dwindle!) A healthy colony with space to add stores will do just that!
    In the images above, an entrance feeder is being used, and in the states "Yard feeders" are common practice (cheap & easy), but represents poor husbandry. Both of these methods promote robbing. Always feed inside the hive. Adding feed during the day (including frames for cleaning etc.) can also do this. Ensure that hives are in good physical condition.

    If you can't move it. Close the entrance of the robbed hive to a single bee entrance so it can be defended.

    1 more answer


    Ants can be a real problem. I made a two-hive stand from steel rebar welded together. The feet of the stand sit inside old tuna cans filled with used vegetable oil, preventing the ants from crawling up the stand legs into the hive. Works great!

    Make a robber-screen (entrance reducer) to help you bees defend their hive. Feed your bees inside the hive by adding an empty box to the top of the hive with the feeder inside.


    Just started to look up everything for beekeeping, and I am very glad to have found these instructions! Thanks from AZ

    3 replies

    Hopefully you are up and running now? :)

    Obtaining your first bees is an important step in continuing your hobby. Buying packages of bees and starting with a swarm are both unpredictable (although I'd prefer the later). And it's important that you are successful in your first year/winter. So many people give up at the first colony loss (usually from too much fiddling!) Which is a great shame.

    The best option is to contact a local bee keeper and purchase/pester/trade a nuc. This is a small colony (usually 5 or 6 frames) with a young queen that is laying well. Place the nuc into a full size hive, add a super or two and sit back!

    Bees are wild creatures and WANT to succeed despite our efforts. They do this very well in the wild without our "help" ;) So many new bee keepers keep opening the hive. When asked why they are opening up, they don't know, or "need to see the queen". If you don't have a good reason, not opening is the better option ;)


    Wonderful - I would love to see photos of your setup after you get it going!

    Excellent info, and beautiful photos to boot. What a great instructable, as always!

    I knew nothing about beekeeping prior to reading this, and found this very interesting. Thank you!

    1 reply

    Thank you for the kind words and all the hard work you put in for this site!

    Very nice instructable!
    I hope this will inspire others to keep bees themselves, also for the sake of our crops.







    I've been wanting to raise bees for years. It's just so expensive to get the equipment to start a hive. I know the honey alone will be so beneficial to my arthritis and other problems I have. Also, like in the article we need to do our part as humans to make sure the honey bees do not go extinct. People don't realize how much food they help pollinate and how important they are to this Earth.

    What a great idea...i have started to collect glass jars.....but it occurs to me that it will take a long time to fill these.....especially as the one bee i have doesn't look particularly well. How many bees will i need please?

    1 reply

    LOL, well a bee makes about 1/12 of a teaspoon of honey! Or to put it another way to make a Kg of honey (2.2lb) a single bee would need to fly 120,000 miles and visit 4.4million (4,400,000) flowers.

    You better get that bee well!

    Fine story, very nicely written. Made me want to hit up eBay for some used bees right away. What I've noticed about beekeepers (apiarists) is that to a man they seem to be calm, contented, generous people. Don't know whether they're that way to start or beekeeping makes them that way, but it doesn't matter. Beekeeping is one of the world's great exercises--everyone involved benefits. Recommend that you use that photo of your daughter as a label illustration.

    1 reply

    Haha, Bill, what you say is true! A relaxed bee keep doesn't get stung either. I've kept bees for 50+ years. has does my father still (in his eighties) and his father before him.

    So I can't say what came first, bees or calmness! ;)

    Very nice Instructable! You provide very well written, succinct instructions and great photos.

    You hive looks like it is painted. Did it come that way or did you paint it? If it was unfinished, do you have any tips to painting it?

    I purchased an unfinished hive and am eagerly awaiting picking up the bees I ordered in April :-D

    1 reply

    Good quality hives are made of red cedar and do not need painting, they will weather to a rather nice silver grey.

    However painting is fine. Use a non-toxic paint. Microporous is good, designed for outside use. Don't paint the mating faces, nor paint when the hive is assembled since the boxes may stick.

    Many bee keepers use different colours to "help the bees find their own hive".

    White can help reduce solar heating in the summer and of course extend the life of older hives.

    I make much of my kit and don't paint much of it, however I do put a few mm of expanded polystyrene between the metal cover and the roof box to reduce heating. (two layers of the type used for lining behind wallpaper.)

    Enjoy your bees! :)

    A nice little share :) Bees are so cool and you never stop learning about them!

    I'd like to make a few comments if I may.

    The mesh at the bottom of the hive is for added ventilation and to help manage Varroa. Control of "critters" is done with hot backsides! ;)

    The use of an entrance feeder is not good practice. Always feed inside the hive and if possible apply the feed at dusk.

    I'm not sure what "organic cane sugar" is, but syrup should be clear from pure sugar (definitely no substitutes either, e.g. corn syrup). Take care that the syrup is not burnt (caramelised). Boiling can help break down the sucrose in to simple sugars (monosaccharides), but it requires a catalyst to efficiently hydrolyse to fructose and glucose. However the bees are capable of doing this using enzymes without our help, so heat just enough to dissolve the sugar at the required ratio.

    Purchasing queens and packages of bees is okay, but whenever possible, if you have to purchase, always do so locally (from a reputable supplier). This reduces the movement of diseases & pests, and maintains the local genetic make-up. E.g. you may have a neighbour who has been breeding for particular traits, bringing in new genetic material may destroy years of work!

    And most important, enjoy your bees! ;)

    I have a owl box full of bee's I had them removed by a bee keeper once. He said they left,and a few weeks later they were back in owl box. They have swarmed and split off at least 4 or 5 times. Neighbors love them, everyone's flowers look great. Tony

    Re:queen runs out of room in the bottom brood boxes your bees will "swarm" and find a bigger house.

    Not so, the colony only swarms when a new Queen emerges in the Hive. It is the original Queen that goes off leaving the new queen in the hive.

    "Frames are the inserts we put in hive boxes to give the bees a road map of where to put the honey and brood will go. 10 frames will go in the brood boxes - or the bottom two sections of the hive."

    How did we get here? Can you just buy something to get started?