The box came along as the architectural standard because many building materials, such as lumber, are straight and flat.  Straight vertical columns supported the roofs.  Straight lines are rare in nature, so is it any wonder that our cities stand out from nature like sore thumbs?  Boxes stack nicely in square grids.  Most cities are laid out in square grids. 

Using ferro-cement (iron and cement), or nylon-cement (nylon fishnet and cement) one can make domes and tunnels that are functional and esthetically more natural-looking than boxes are.  As tunnels and rooms grow on and around each other, the structure starts to look like the nests made by termites. 

The same iron rebar framework that supports the cement can support the growth of vines, which provide shade and food here in the tropics.   Global warming and an era of agricultural failures may be on its way.   Shade and food are good.  The trellises can be converted into cement structures later. 

Using examples from two houses I have built, this instructable will show how to get started today on a termite nest city of tomorrow. 

Step 1: Materials

To build a termite nest city, you will need a lot of sand and cement.  Iron rebar is used to define the basic forms.  Chicken wire, or nylon fishnet covers the rebar form and provides a fine enough mesh for plastering with cement.  The cement to sand ratio is the standard 1:3 mix used for plastering. 

Since iron rusting is a problem with the rebar, longevity is improved by painting the rebar first with a good primer and rust preventative paint.  If cost was not a factor, one could use stainless steel, or perhaps something like Cor-ten steel, which forms an oxide coat that protects from further oxidation.  It would be ideal to use immortal materials, so that a city could keep growing without ever having to use demolition on the old parts. 

The old parts of the city, at the bottom, would be protected from the weather by the younger parts above them, improving their longevity. 
I have a similar idea rolling around in my head but the walls would be made from a double hedge row with an inslulator in the middle. Then plant oak or similuar trees in the middle for load bearing structures. New floores can be made by putting a foot or two of dirt about 8-10 feet up and allow a root structure to grow. <br> <br>Most of my ideas on this is very primary but since the walls would be made from living material it would stay stronger longer and properly serviced the structure would stand 300 years easy with little more then water, pruneing and maintence. Lower levels could also be made after the roof was in place. <br> <br>I really like what you did this is inspirational to my thoughts.
Good luck. Live things tend to die unexpectedly, or not grow as planned. Sounds like you will have to dedicate many years to get it up and running.
I love the concept you shared. My imagination is runnin wild with it. If only I had my own spot to build and explore these ideas. It's soo simple and sweet for the environment. I envision poor communities comin together to build like this for themselves and become sustainable and independent. Incorporate more &quot;off the grid&quot; features for lighting and other power-needed features. You're probably already there. <br>Cheers!
Glad you like the idea. It has a lot of potential, but is apt to be slow coming together. I think it could be a great setting for movies or literary stories, though, which might happen faster, help popularize the idea, and help get a real termitopia together faster. Hard for me to make one alone, except as small scale models.
I concur, Truely inspiring. Some parts actually remind me of original &quot;planet of the apes&quot; movie, Except yours looks better &amp; awesome.
Thanks, glad you like it. Hope I see similar projects sprouting up around me someday.
this is a great idea that has drawbacks; as the structure gains height from add-ons, it will be necessary to thicken the walls of the lower &amp; base chambers to accommodate increased loading, potentially leading to entire layers being rendered uninhabitable due to solidification. guess the question is 'where's the upward limit to expansion?'
Let's say that a dome can support itself without any internal support walls or collums. That dome can support itself and some extra weight, such as a layer of irregular, termite-nest like construction. Over that layer, you make another dome, which puts no stress whatsoever on the generations of construction below it. Think something like concentric domes with sandwich layers between them. Maybe mile-high domes would need thicker walls, maybe not. It's all in compression and cement likes compression. I don't know what the upper llimit would be.
well you have a wonderful eye for design and the fun of your structures are infectious. i respect your desire to &quot;do something different&quot; but i thought cement was eco-disasterous. it has good building qualities but ... if you're building organically, bit by bit into space its going to be exposed to weather at some point, but could you offer alternatives to cement?
I don't know how eco-desasterous cement is. After manufacture, it doesn't seem to do much harm. Although it may be exposed to weather on the outer layer, a termite nest city interior should be weather protected. The outer layer is always growing, so the outer layer eventually gets to be protected. <br> <br>As far as alternatives to cement go, no I don't have any. New synthetic materials come along but you can't foresee the future to know what they will be. Right now, cement products often have synthetic additives.
Concrete is a great building material and can be used in very efficient designs, but it requires an incredible amount of energy to produce, which is why many people go for other less energy-intensive, more localized building methods and materials for their homes such as straw-bale, cob, earthships, modular contained earth, rammed earth, etc.
Where I live cement block houses with six or seven inch thick walls and 3 or 4 inch thick floors are the norm. My nylon-cement construction ends up with 1 1/2 inch thick floors and 1/4 inch thick floors. That changes the energy consumption relationship to some other, more organic materials. The longevity of cement is good, too, and can outlast wood, etc. Again, something to factor into the equation. It's easy to keep looking like new, too, with &quot;paint&quot; coats of grout when needed -- maybe every 7 - 10 years for walkways. Anyway, I solve my needs with the minimum amount of cement, thereby doing the minimum of ecological damage from it, at least.
Hempcrete shows promise.
Wow this gives a whole new perspective to <a href="http://www.bugs.com/local-termite-control/miami-dade-county/miami-termite-control/" rel="nofollow">termite control miami</a>.
Wow, what a peaceful place to live. Away from the rush of city life. It would be amazing to live in a place like that.
This is the best thing I'v seen on here in a while. I am just stunned at how cool this is. Thank you so much for posting this.
Glad you like it. Think about maybe writing a story with a termitopia setting, or making models (silicone rubber is a cool material for oddball architectural model making--just to keep the idea alive and spreading. Projecting and doing is what would make this happen, if anything can. It would be cool to actually see one happen someday.
Enjoyed all of your stuff. I want to do some building with free form concrete soon. I encourage you and readers to check out www.monolithic.com. Both you and them have some techniques, ideas, and innovations that would be very beneficial for those wanting to do this kind of work for themselves. Very nice. Thanks for sharing.
i love idea of your home i wonder i woonder if this is possablke in florida
I don't see why it wouldn't work in Florida. I imagine there might be some problems in freezing temperatures, but that's not a problem in Florida.
yeah but we have a ssue if you dig underground it has water
Ferro-cement boats float. Maybe the city could also, and not include a lot of tunnels. Best is to have it resting on bedrock, I suppose. If we can't do that, maybe we could reduce our population and not build on the swampland in the first place.
i dont enjoy liviing in the swamp i wonder though if i bulit it on a hill
I saw very few of those when I was in Florida. Way to flat for my tastes.
same here the heat is unberable even in winter so i guess i could make a artifual hill basically structure then dirt over the top
Extremely cool, would love to build one of these for my house, but would have to insulate it somehow and see what the local code enforcement would make me do here in up-state NY.
Man I would love to live in a city like that... If everything was a bit smoother, skateboards would rule the place!
There you go! Gravity down, winches up. Maybe zip lines, too.
Definitely. One question- these termite cities, would they be built aboveground, or below?
I see them as being mostly aboveground. They could combine with underground tunnels, too.
Ok, yeah, aboveground is a lot better.
this is one of the most amazing things that I have ever seen. Nice job Thinkenstein
Thanks. <br><br>If you would like to try playing with making small scale models, try using a syringe for detailed extrusions. Pet stores have one with a conical plastic nozzle that can be cut to one's preferred extrusion size. Work with it as you might make a clay coil pot, allowing previous layers to harden enough to support new layers. <br><br>Sometimes I make arches separately and then incorporate them as supports in the growing model. <br><br>I have an instructable in the works on architectural model making with silicone. It is incredible for making all sorts of irregular shapes.
That's awesome! Maybe you could make a gutter system to harvest the rain water, then use that to water your indoor plants. Also, the trash rocks idea is amazing
How much did it cost you to build this? because im thinking of building a smaller version underneath my house and such, and knowing how much it will cost would be very helpful.
I did most of my construction with free discarded fishnet from the tuna industry, which I can no longer get locally. Construction is very economical given the thin shell construction, but I can't give you any figures. I kept no record of material costs.
where did you get all the cement also?
Local hardware stores. Cement is produced on the island.
Ginger, along with all of this, is spectacular!!!
thank you for: <br>showing <br>explaining <br>sharing <br>all the great pics <br> <br>I am tired of paying rent, I too am a termite(overweight one at that) <br> <br>thanks for taking your time for this instructable <br> <br>I truly hope the best for you <br> <br>
wow, 6 years, and with just that tool......man oh man, from all the previous picks i was almost positive you would have used something a bit bigger for you digging, possibly even power tools and the like.<br>regardless you have my respect, spending 6 years doing that takes dedication, i'm not sure i'd be able to do that with just a leaf spring coa
I wouldn't have been able to do it in most places, because of unstable material or hard rocks. I was extremely fortunate to have &quot;tosca&quot; to dig through, which is like a soft rock or hard clay. It was soft enough to dig, and had enough clay in it to stay stuck together. Sandy, or gravel soils would have collapsed. I wouldn't have gotten very far in granite. <br><br>
the vines you have growing, are they only Chayote, Col Blanca and Zocato or do you have others, or plan to add others?
My favorite trellis vines are spinach, chayote, passion fruit, and zocato. During part of the year, though, the vines are pretty bare of leaves. For shade, I am now growing &quot;chichara&quot; beans, along with the other vines. They have leaves when the others don't. <br><br>Every climate zone has its limitations. I'll try anything once, but these ones I know are winners.
Wow, this is amazing!! I would say more, but have to get to the hardware store!!
beautiful house. looks like my kind of place
Glad you like it. It's not boring. I wish other people would take the ball and run with it, too, wherever they live. I can't make termite nest cities alone and would love to see at least one before my time is up.
I agree that more people should grow food-producing perennial vines in whatever spaces are available now.<br><br>When successive generations of buildings are constructed on top of one another, it is imperative that rainwater be channeled to keep the internal sections dry.<br><br>Careful planning would be needed to keep the lair from becoming moldy, as well as to collect roof-water for various uses.<br><br>Also, it would make a great artificial bear-den/fox-hole, built in wild places to give all the critters places to live.
Kind of like giving us a place to live in the zoo. We'd probably want to play landlord, though, since we built it. Too bad communication with the other animals isn't better.

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Bio: I'm a refugee from Los Angeles, living in backwoods Puerto Rico for about 35 years now and loving it. I built my own home ... More »
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