The electromagnetic riffle is a weaponry designed to fire ferrous projectiles with the help of high voltage currents discharged from a capacitor bank. It is a simple riffle designed to reduce the complexity and cost of bullets . The riffle is based on the concepts of electromagnetic levitation and magnetic propulsion techniques, the basic idea is that when a solenoid is magnetised, its core has the tendency to pull any iron projectile in to its core
If the current to the coil is stopped before the projectile reaches the core then the projectile travels with the same high velocity in the same direction it was pulled towards its core

Step 1: You Will NeEd

Picture of You Will NeEd

To construct this riffle you will need a 25 cm long pvc pipe, 0.5guage magnet wire, a switch ,a rectifier (4 diodes) and lots of capacitors(higher the capacitance higher will be the power )

Step 2: The Cannon

Picture of The Cannon

Attach the disks as shown in the picture and wind the coil over the pvc tube between the disks as shown adding a connector may do great help. THe disk helps to converge the energy where its required , it optional.


Picture of THE STAND

Having a stand like this (made out of foam) to make the riffle nice and sturdy is essential .it gives it a look and keeps the riffle pointed always, (ts optional ). The riffle is now constructed . we have to design a capacitor bank to fire it.



I have used a 500 mfd capasittor for this .I get a potential of 470 volts when my capacitors are compleatly charged. the discharge from this bank is used to fire the projectile.Itis discharged with the help of a switch (10amps 450 volt). the current lasts only for split seconds .and hence there is no need for high speed switch or relays to supply the required power to the riffle



I have used a bridge rectifier to charge my capacitor bank. it has four diodes in a loop the output from this rectifier is pulsating. but it is perfect for the capacitors

Step 6: THE SET-UP

Picture of THE SET-UP

THE FINAL SET-UP LOOKS AS SHOWN IN THE PICTURE now the riffle is ready to use. remember we need the discharge from the capacitors not the main source to power our coil so switch off the mains when the capacitors are charged and then press the fire button.

Step 7: Projectiles

Picture of Projectiles

the riffle can fire any ferrous projectile , it can also fire ball bearings




vedant (author)2012-06-14

Isnt it 500 MFD a lot ? is it safe to use a capacitor with such a high MFD ?

daisy.darling20 (author)2009-09-28

whats a magnetic wire

I'd also like to add that magnet wire is important because the insulating enamel is very thin which allows more wire to be wrapped in a small space increasing magnetic field strength. If you used standard plastic coated insulated wire, the coil would be larger and the magnetic field strength would be weaker.

qualia (author)daisy.darling202010-12-09

but by now you already knew that, i bet.

qualia (author)daisy.darling202010-12-09

the styrofoampeanut gave a good reply, as well as being covered in enamel, this wire is often highly pure colloidial copper without any oxides on it, as well as being covered in an air and current insulating enamel coating. this is so that it has a homogenous level of resistance (copper chemical compounds alter this) when used in coils to create electromagnetic fields, which are then used in electromechanical applications such as the coils of tattoo machines, solenoids, motors, stepper motors, dynamos, etc, as well as to make the coils of current changing transformers, tesla coils, and various other things.

nicola tesla was a serbian chap that did alot to further the known applications of this material. look him up.

 foxtrot is wrong
its officially called magnet wire, and its wire with a thin coat of enamel on it, like an insulator
it has this so it can be wrapped in many coils without discharging electricity where the coils touch each other

its a wire that is magnetic. (kinda self-explanitory)

blackfister (author)2011-04-07

First, very nice instructable.
While looIking at it, I was thinking if it could be posible to make the projectile "vibrate", lets say to move back and forth, (not leaving the coil) inverting polarity of magnet? The idea would be to use the vibration of the projectile in the linear magnet to use its movemet as a machine, kind like a standard tattoo machine, sorry if it sounds ignorant, im not familiar with electromagnets. Any one knows if posible? If posible, could the movement (back and forth) be controlled, lenght of the movent? amount of vibrations? (lets say N amounts per seconds) and strength?
Kind regards,

ALogan97 (author)blackfister2011-07-27

you could get it to move easily -- I'm not sure about how you would do it if it were inside of the coil, though -- by putting it inside of a tube with an electromagnet at both ends, and alternating the electromagnets' strength from weak to strong to cause it to move closer to the more powerful magnetic field and then reversing motion when the strength of the other magnetic field is changed to be more powerful than the opposing one. The speed would vary according to the difference in the two magnetic fields, and the distance traveled would vary by how long you left one magnetic more powerful than the other. Sorry if this is confusing, I can post a diagram if you want.

blackfister (author)ALogan972011-07-28

thank you for taking time into responding. a diagram would help. ;)

ALogan97 (author)blackfister2011-07-28

Ok, I made three diagrams showing different states of the electromagnets. The setup is the same in all of them so if you don't know what something is in the second or third, it's labeled in the first one.

LiquidLightning (author)ALogan972011-08-08

A more efficient method would be to have a single, central coil which is offset wound, meaning one side is slightly larger, and connecting to high current AC in the frequency you want it to vibrate.

ALogan97 (author)LiquidLightning2011-08-08

Yeah, that would work, but wouldn't the vibration frequency change in different parts of the tube since the coil is offset?

LiquidLightning (author)ALogan972011-08-17

No because both sides would exert equal force in the opposite polarity. if it is in +/- and the right side is smaller, the left would pull with say, 5 newtons of force while in -/+ polarity the left side would push with 5 newtons of force.

ALogan97 (author)LiquidLightning2011-08-18

Good point, tu parle la vérité.

blackfister (author)ALogan972011-07-29

thank you very much! its exactly what im trying to get done. Ill keep postings on the outcome.
Thank you again for taking time on responding!

ALogan97 (author)blackfister2011-07-28

Oh, and the strength of the magnets can be changed depending on the amount of current going into it, so you could probably hook up one of those light dimmer switches or use an arduino to easily control the strengths of the magnets.

jeremy_smith (author)2009-11-13

pulse accelerator, not gauss rifle. But allot of people make that mistake.

Or gauss gun, or coilgun, or lenear electromagnetic accelerator, or mounted ferric projectile launcher, it really doesn't matter.

ALogan97 (author)LiquidLightning2011-07-27

Actually there is a difference between them. This is a coilgun, not a gauss rifle. A gauss rifle is where you have multiple chambers separated by magnets with two ferrous balls in each chamber, and the last chamber is open on one end which allows one the last ball to shoot out of the end when you drop another one in the opposite side. It doesn't have any electromagnets in it. A coilgun is where you have a coil wrapped around a tube with a small ferrous projectile that is shot out of the end of the tube by the electromagnetic field generated by the coil surrounding it. A linear electromagnetic accelerator (aka railgun) is where a ferrous projectile sitting on two metal rails is propelled forward by the electromagnetic field generated when the metal rails are charged with electricity. So it does actually matter what you call it.

LiquidLightning (author)ALogan972011-08-04

You are wrong sir. A gauss gun, is any form of device which accelerates a projectile via magnetic force. A coilgun is an example of this, so is a railgun, and so is the example you provided. Gauss guns may use electromagnets, permanent magnets, or both.

A linear electromagnetic accelerator, is any device which accelerates a projectile via electromagnetic force, such as a railgun, or a coilgun. Linear electromagnetic accelerators are the same as gauss guns however they do not use permanent magnets, only electromagnets.

ALogan97 (author)LiquidLightning2011-08-05

Well a gauss gun and a coilgun are often used interchangeable, yes. you can call a coilgun a gauss gun but you can't call a gauss gun a coil gun unless it actually is. gauss gun being the linear magnetic accelerator (not linear electromagnetic accelerator). and a railgun is different. a railgun is a railgun. not a gauss gun or a coilgun, or a linear magnetic accelerator, it is simply a railgun (or linear electromagnetic accelerator.)

LiquidLightning (author)ALogan972011-08-08

Dolphins and whales. Same scenario, not all whales are dolphins but all dolphins are whales. Whales are part of a larger group, which includes multiple individual genus, some of which are dolphins, whose 17 genus include almost 40 individual species.

Similar to this, all coil guns are gaussian guns, but not all gaussian guns are coilguns. All railguns are gaussian guns, but not all gaussian guns are railguns. The larger group here is gaussian guns, which splits into coil and rail guns.

All railguns are linear electromagnetic accelerators, but not all linear electromagnetic accelerators are railguns. All coilguns are linear electromagnetic accelerators, but not all linear electromagnetic accelerators are coilguns. See how 1 individual can be part of multiple groups?

All railguns are linear magnetic accelerators, but not all linear magnetic accelerators are railguns. Do I need to go on?

My point is, coilguns/railguns/gauss guns/linear magnetic accelerators, and linear electromagnetic accelerators can be divided into groups, and one can be part of a few groups. And in some groups, names can be used interchangeably. Sorry if I sound rude in this post, I don't mean to be, just trying to clarify.

ALogan97 (author)LiquidLightning2011-08-08

That's all right, except that coilguns are not linear electromagnetic accelerators. They can't be, because the coil it uses is not linear. The taxonomy would be:

Gauss Guns (Order): Coilguns, railguns, those weird chambered guns used for class experiments

Linear magnetic accelerators (Genus): Railguns, Chambered guns

Linear Electromagnetic accelerators (Species): Railguns

Coilguns get cut off before the genus of linear magnetic accelerators, because they aren't linear.

Chambered gun get cut off before linear electromagnetic accelerators because (usually) they don't use electromagnets (Unless someone does use electromagnets, I'm not sure why they would though, it would be unnecessary).

Railguns are in every one because they fit every category. They are gauss guns because they use magnetism to propel a projectile, linear magnetic accelerators because they use magnetism running in a linear path to propel a projectile, and linear electromagnetic accelerators because they are a linear magnetic accelerator that requires electromagnetism (Unless the rails were like an MRI magnet strengthwise, which would be way more expensive, therefore illogical to do).

LiquidLightning (author)ALogan972011-08-08

Coilguns are indeed linear electromagnetic accelerators. It is not the shape of the device or driver (coil) that matters, but in what manner it accelerates the payload. Coilguns accelerate the payload along a linear axis using electromagnetic force, therefore they are linear magnetic accelerators and linear electromagnetic accelerators.

ALogan97 (author)LiquidLightning2011-08-09

Ok, you win for now, while I do a few days' worth of more research to come up with a legitimate response to this.

Ben Mighall (author)ALogan972011-08-14

Wow, only nerds like us would discuss the differences between electromagnetic accelerator types in this heavy of detail.

ALogan97 (author)Ben Mighall2011-08-15

Yeah I know. At least we're not discussing the plot summary of Twilight.

Ben Mighall (author)ALogan972011-08-15

:) lol that's what our geek girlfriends are for

wolf08 (author)2010-02-04

if your capcitors are 470v max and your only charging them with 120v dc ?

mettaurlover (author)wolf082010-02-06

I think he's in Europe which has 220V if I'm correct. We in America are apparently wusses for having such low voltage.

jackh94 (author)mettaurlover2010-02-26

 In the UK its 230V, it helps having an earthing plug, that's what the third points for.

chibiwind (author)jackh942010-05-02

the earthing point is useful, but the neutral point can be used for the same purpose which is why only 2 is needed

mettaurlover (author)chibiwind2010-05-02

Yes, but it's less safe-if you accidentally touch both plugs while it's halfway in the outlet, it will go through you. With three, if you touch all three it'll go through the ground. And there ISN'T a neutral plug in an outlet, that's what the ground hole is for. Positive and negative, so you're wrong TWICE.

chibiwind (author)mettaurlover2010-05-03

actually there is a neutral plug, Google it for the facts if you want to.

HAPPYCLASPER (author)chibiwind2011-06-06

I belive here in the USA you have 2or3 wires 110VAC Black Hot
White Nutral This is for single Phase
Green Ground
If you check with a meter

Could you please not comment like this ever again? We resolved this entire chain over a year ago.

Pardon Me for putting my 2 cent s in. I was uinder the impression that was this sight wasall about

Yes, it is. When there is something to be contributed. There was not.

JobyOne (author)mettaurlover2011-07-08

Twice I've noticed you going all crazy-pants on people who post on old topics. You may want to consider just ignoring them, and going on with your life.

HAPPYCLASPER (author)JobyOne2011-07-09

What are you talking agout ?? You need to Re Read Post s and what sthis im going Crazy Pants on PPL look again
This is my 3rd ever in here
1st was 06/06/2011 @ 12:30hrs
2nd was 06/06/2011 @ 22:19 hrs
3rd is at 07/09/2011 @ 01:44 hrs
Have A Nice Day

chibiwind (author)mettaurlover2010-05-03

so originally I stated that the neutral point performs the same job, and you agreed with that,
I also stated that it was the neutral point, not the negative point that is also true, Electricity is an abundance of electrons not a flow of protons, even though it should be correctly called negative it is known as positive.
So im yet to see why I'm wrong twice, seeing you agreed to one of my 2 points. hmm

mettaurlover (author)chibiwind2010-05-03

The third plug IS the neutral plug. On two-pronged plugs there IS no neutral plug and therefore you ARE wrong on both points. A "negative" point is where the electrons GO, and I understand a LOT about electronics. If you look at a 9-volt battery you'll see what I mean by positive and negative. One gives up electrons and the other gathers them. That's how a current works; the electrons need somewhere to go seeing as they're matter too. They're also "lazy" in the sense that they won't flow unless there is a positive and a negative point in the circuit, almost always from the same unit.

chibiwind (author)mettaurlover2010-05-04

there is a neutral point, it is neutral as it it doesn't release any current if you were to stick a metal object in that hole you wouldn't get shocked which is why it is called neutral.

mettaurlover (author)chibiwind2010-05-04

And if you weren't grounded the same wold happen with the other side.

chibiwind (author)mettaurlover2010-05-09

specify what you mean by "the other side", do you mean the neutral plug, it won't zap you as it has no charge.

mettaurlover (author)chibiwind2010-05-09

I mean, one of the two collects electrons and the other spits them out. It just SEEMS like one's neutral because it won't do its thing without either being grounded or being connected to a source of electrons.

mesy4567 (author)mettaurlover2010-08-09

Well, because we use an AC current, the only one that won't do something if you stuck a metal object into it is the ground. AC, standing for alternating current, switches the polarity of each plug 60 times a second, if you're in the US meaning current will flow from both sides. There is no "negative" or "positive" plug.

chibiwind (author)mesy45672010-09-14

cant believe i forgot about this, new what it meant, but i never put 2 and 2 together.

mettaurlover (author)mesy45672010-08-09

1)LONG argument between TWO PEOPLE. Butt out. 2)I know that they alternate. There is still a positive and a negative, they just continuously switch. 3)I'm likely MUCH smarter than you, unless you have an IQ in the 150's and went to a college-level high school like I am.

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Bio: im just a kid on my way to get myself killed by what i do,
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