Introduction: T.P.A (Thrombosis Prevention Apparatus)

Abstract:

My project is based off of the dangers of blood clots and other muscle inactivity problems, and is called the T.P.A (Thrombosis Prevention Apparatus). The project will use robotics to incorporate motors, servos and arduinos into the machine. The machine would help to decrease blood clot mortality rates, assist in the prevention of blood clots, and provide an option for those who cannot exercise or move. The machine would be a step forward in the advancements of medical engineering and care for the less fortunate.

Step 1: Problem

Blood Clots (deep vein thrombosis) are extremely dangerous blockages in veins that prevent blood flow; they often occur in the leg and can travel to the chest and become potentially fatal. Blood clots are the side effects of many other diseases; an example is Alzheimer’s, as the patient is often bedridden and therefore cannot exercise or move. How can this problem be prevented or solved?

The T.P.A will provide stimulus to the calf muscle, easing blood flow and preventing life threatening blood clots or other problems. The intensity and speed of the massage can be controlled using a remote. The applications of this device can be extended to sore muscles as well.

Step 2: Purpose

  • Provide stimulation to the calf muscle to patients of any age and of any size.
  • To provide the most amount of comfort without compromising results.

Step 3: Background

  • Blood clots are often formed in your legs, and the T.P.A is designed to attach to the leg to provide stimulation and circulation. “Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a type of clot that forms in a major vein of the leg.”

http://www.hematology.org/Patients/Clots/

  • Clots like these might detach and travel to the heart or lungs and create a potentially life-threatening situation. Clots can be formed spontaneously or by inactivity and other conditions.
  • Deep vein thrombosis affects up to 900,000 victims in the US and kills up to 100,000.

Beckman et al. Venous Thromboembolism: A Public Health Concern. AJPM April 2010.

Raskob et al. Surveillance for Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: Recommendations from a National Workshop. AJPM April 2010.

Step 4: Goals

  • Create an intuitive, easy to use device that will provide comfort and stimulation for patients. Allow the device to be easily adjusted to any patients, preferably ages 17+.
  • The main goal of my research is to create a device that is easy to use, not costly, and readily available for hospitals, physical therapy centers, or common homes. I kept the cost of the machine under $100.00.

Step 5: Materials

  • Six Servos (adafruit)
  • Two palm shaped Body Massager (Amazon)
  • One rubber interlocking mat straps and Velcro from a leg brace device
  • silver and blue spray paint
  • steel mesh
  • Arduino Uno
  • Arduino wires
  • servo shield
  • eight specially designed standoffs
  • rivets
  • two 24 inch steel flat bars (Home Depot)
  • bluetooth sensor
  • epoxy
  • solder
  • assorted washers, nuts, and bolts

Step 6: Procedure

  • Materials were either provided by the school, designed at BCA MRL, ordered on adafruit.com and amazon, or bought from Home Depot.
  • Safety was ensured by an initial test and by my teacher, Mr. Nodarse, who oversaw every potentially dangerous processes.

Step 7: Methods

1. Create a CAD model of the conceptualization of the device.

2. Cut the two metal bars into two 12 inch long, equal pieces and set them 5 inches apart from each other. File off any sharp edges.

3. Wrap two pieces of metal bar between the two long pieces, one at the top, one at the bottom.

4. Measure the circumference of the semicircle created and cut the mat into a rectangle thats 12 inches long and the circumference wide.

5. Mold the mat around the arced metal bar using a heat gun or similar device.

6. Rivet the mat to the long piece, then to one arced piece at the top of the frame, all at once. Do the same for the other end of the mat.

7. Repeat the previous step but rivet the bottom of the mat to the second arc, at the bottom of the frame.

8. Rivet the straps onto the metal bars.

9. Spray paint the outer surface of the mat with the silver spray paint.

10. Epoxy velcro to the corresponding spot to the front of the mat.

11. Using a circular drill bit, cut 6 holes 2.5 inches diameter.

12. Mark 8 dots, 4 on the top, 4 on the bottom, two between the circles created, two at the ends, and drill holes using a .25 inch diameter drill bit.

13. Create 8 standoffs by cutting a PVC pipe 1 inch long, then fitting a bolt through the holes drilled previously, heads in.

14. Cut the metal mesh into a rectangle 6 x 15 inches and spray paint it blue.

15. Cut 6 rectangles in the metal mesh approximately .75 x 2 inches, corresponding relative to the holes drilled in previously.

16. Cut the massage rollers off the palm plastic and attach them using epoxy to a metal sheet cutout the size of the servo wheel. Repeat until 6 total servo covers are created, then rivet them to the servos. Attach the six servos to the mesh, rectangular side in.

16. Attach the mesh to the standoffs with a bolt and a washer.

17. Attach a piece of paper styrofoam on the upper right hand corner of the mat, near the velcro, which will hold the arduino and servo shield in place.

18. Attach a bluetooth module onto the paper styrofoam.

19. Program the device to respond to an electronic device and the bluetooth module using arduino code.

Step 8: Use

  • Tighten the two straps around either calf muscle on the legs.
  • Control the on/off, rotation and speed of the servos using the bluetooth applet.
  • Apply for 5-10 minutes, then take breaks.

Step 9: Challenges

  • Aligning the servos to the holes on the device.
  • Coding the servos with the servo shield and arduino.
  • Bending the rubber mat into a shape ideal for the calf muscle.

Step 10: Reflection

Learned:

Engineering Principles

Electrical Engineering: how to interact with servos, an arduino Uno, bluetooth sensor, and a servo shield.

Mechanical Engineering: Learning safety principles, using epoxy, rivet gun, drill, heat gun, Xacto Knife and clamps.

Step 11: T.P.A Servo Control Code

/*

Created by: Max Hayashi

MRL 27-15 Blood Clot Remover

*/

#include

#include

Adafruit_PWMServoDriver pwm = Adafruit_PWMServoDriver();

String readString;

void setup() {

Serial.begin(9600);

Serial.print("Starting...");

pwm.begin();

pwm.setPWMFreq(60); // Analog servos run at ~60 Hz updates

pwm.setPWM(8, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(9, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(10, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(12, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(13, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(14, 0, 0); yield(); }

void loop() {

char c = Serial.read();

readString = c;

//*********************UP: RIGHT BOTH MOTORS*****************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "U") {

pwm.setPWM(8, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(9, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(10, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(12, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(13, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(14, 0, 100);

}

}

//*********************DOWN: LEFT BOTH MOTORS***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "D") {

pwm.setPWM(8, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(9, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(10, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(12, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(13, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(14, 0, 200);

}

}

//*********************CENTER: STOP MOTORS***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "C") {

pwm.setPWM(8, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(9, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(10, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(12, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(13, 0, 0);

pwm.setPWM(14, 0, 0);

}

}

//*********************A MOTOR RIGHT***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "a") {

pwm.setPWM(8, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(12, 0, 100);

}

}

//*********************B MOTOR RIGHT***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "c") {

pwm.setPWM(9, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(13, 0, 100);

}

}

//*********************C MOTOR RIGHT***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "b") {

pwm.setPWM(10, 0, 100);

pwm.setPWM(14, 0, 100);

}

}

//*********************A MOTOR LEFT***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "e") {

pwm.setPWM(8, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(12, 0, 200);

}

}

//*********************B MOTOR LEFT***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "f") {

pwm.setPWM(9, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(13, 0, 200);

}

}

//*********************C MOTOR LEFT***************

if (c != (char) - 1) {

Serial.println(readString);

if (readString == "g") {

pwm.setPWM(10, 0, 200);

pwm.setPWM(14, 0, 200);

}

}

delay(25);

}

Step 12: Sources

American Society of Hematology. "Blood Clots." Blood Clots. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. hematology.org/Patients/Clots/>.

Bakalar, Nicholas. "Watching TV Tied to Fatal Clot Risk." The New York Times. The New York Times, 01 Aug.
2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Beckman et al. Venous Thromboembolism: A Public Health Concern. AJPM April 2010. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

"Blood Clot Formation (Thrombosis)." IHTC Blood Clot Formation Thrombosis Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2016.

Goldenberg, Neil. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 07
Nov. 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .

BCAMRL - Youtube

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCIzGSmNnk2pKoLvKC...

T.P.A Video:

Comments

author
sarge8306 made it! (author)2017-03-08

I do like your idea and agree with michael. In addition to michaels comment, you may want to consider changing the name due to the acronym. TPA is an acronym already used in short of alteplase, a medication used to treat thrombosis, mainly for ischemic stroke patients but other forms of thrombosis as well. That being said, great project and keep up the good work.

author
sarge8306 made it! (author)sarge83062017-03-08

while my suggestion may seem petty, if a physician tells a nurse to use tpa it could get easily confused in a hurry and healthcare is very conscientious about details like that.

author
BoboX1 made it! (author)2017-03-07

Nicely written tutorial!

author
MichaelJ282 made it! (author)2017-03-01

Pretty nifty, but a similar device exists called Sequential Compression Devices (SCDs) that hospitals and other institutions already use. However, there is controversy in today's literature supporting SCD use with the decrease risk of PE (pulmonary embolus)/DVT. So maybe your device will be an improvement. Nice work!

author
onion2 made it! (author)2017-03-01

Nice work and nicely written :)

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Bio: The BCAMRL is a Mechatronics Research Lab, found on the campus of Bergen County Academies a magnet high school within the Bergen County Technical School ... More »
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