Direct Instruction includes the majority of elements of explicit instruction and is based on such principles as increasing on-task behaviors, high levels of success, and content coverage, it is distinguished from explicit instruction by its emphasis on curriculum design. Direct Instruction had the largest impacts on tests of affective measures; most modes emphasize on affective development that have had average or negative impacts.
The largest general education study conducted in the US is known as "Project Follow-Through." Project Follow-Through is the most responsive effort ever designed to find out what works well and how to serve at-risk children effectively. At-risk students such as the students from Head Start programs that have a economically disadvantage were involved in Project Follow-Through too. But, because budget cuts, the focus of this project changed to one of identifying effective approaches/programs for teaching this population of the students. In total there was twelve programs that were examined.
The programs of Project Follow-Through were categorized as:
1.) basic skills model
2.) cognitive-conceptual model
3.) affective-cognitive model
Step 1: Basic Skills Model
This model emphasized directly teaching basic academic skills.
Step 2: Cognitive-Conceptual Model
This step includes intellectual skill development, learning to learn, problem solving, and other developmental approaches.
Step 3: Affective-Cognitive Model
This model emphasizes on self-esteem, problem solving, self-concept, and developing positive attitudes toward learning.