Instructables

Tesla Coils for Dummies

Recently, I managed to build a Tesla Coil using very little money (You can build this for under $20!!!), and spending very little time (only a couple hours!). This is not one of those television flyback drivers that are sometimes mistakenly called Tesla Coils, this is the real deal. Note that unlike in a standard Tesla Coil, I don't use a big, expensive NST or OBIT that is hard to find. This coil uses are 555 timer driving a standard television flyback transformer. The often hard to find power transistor or MOSFET was found inside of the television as well, and thus reduced the costs of the project. Unfortunately, I didn't have enough money for everything, so the primary and secondary coils are very weak, and I didn't tune them. I used part of a microwave's power cord for my primary coil (14AWG, and it was not long enough...), and for my secondary, I used about 20meters of wire that I bought in Radioshack a LONG time ago. This is not recommended. I expect to be able to build a much more powerful unit when I get some new wire for the coils, and tune them to the same frequency. Also, I bought a pack of 100 1.5kV, 0.02uf ceramic disk capacitors for only $10! You might not be so lucky, and if you can afford it, buy capacitors other than of the ceramic disk type. They don't work so well for Tesla Coils. The spark gap was just two screws in a piece of wood with a flexible piece of aluminum between them so that it is adjustable. It works well, and as the flyback transformer doesn't put out enough current to charge the capacitors very highly, the gap doesn't heat up to the point where it becomes a problem.

Well, for those of you who don't want to read the big paragraph I just wrote, here are the specs.

Power Source:

For the low voltage side, I used a modified computer power supply to deliver 12VDC to my 555 timer flyback driver (http://tacashi.tripod.com/elctrncs/555sstc/555sstc.htm), because I used a modern flyback from my old television set, it has a built in diode and produces pulsed DC. This is better for simple Tesla Coils because it means that it is easier to find capacitors that can stand up to the voltage.

Primary Coil:

The primary coil is four pieces of wood that are aligned to form a cross with space for the secondary to fit inside. The pieces of wood have holes drilled into them, and 14 AWG wire is passed through them to form the coil. The wire is stranded (not good), and was rescued for the power cord of an old microwave oven. My primary coil is very bad. Do not try to duplicate it. It needs more turns (I ran out of wire, it was too short), and to be done with more care.

Secondary Coil:

The secondary is about 20m. of 30 AWG wire wound onto some 2" PVC pipe. Wind as many turns as you can!

Tank Capacitor:

I used an MMC (Multi-Mini Capacitor) for my tank capacitor in the circuit. An MMC is basically a large array of smaller capacitors (called snubber capacitors), that are combined to form a larger value, and higher voltage rating. I used a lot of 1.5kV, 0.02uf ceramic disk type capacitors in various combinations to produce an overall rating of about 25kV at 0.15uf. The voltage rating should be about 5kV higher then the output of your power supply (If its DC) for safety reasons. If you have an AC supply, make the voltage rating of your capacitor about 3-4 times as large as the RMS (The output voltage) voltage of your HV power supply

Spark Gap:

The spark gap was just two screws in a small piece of wood with a flexible piece of aluminum attached to one of them to regulate the distance. The gap did not get hot enough for it to be a worry. I don't think that with such a small coil you need tungsten electrodes, a rotary gap, of even a cooling fan.

I will have better images coming soon, and I hope to build a new primary/secondary coil too. This is a surprisingly easy project, that yields interesting results. The arcs were not too impressive, but I could light neon bulbs from a distance, and I will even have a picture of a foot long xenon tube I constructed being excited by this device.

The second picture is a Kirlian photograph taken with a digital camera and a Tesla Coil in my basement. I have many more, and an instructable is coming soon.

UPDATE 1:

Today, I wound a new primary coil using some reclaimed wire. It was primitive (I wound it by gluing it to the old wooden primary coil), but it worked! The performance yesterday was laughable. It was barely a Tesla Coil. Now, I can adjust the primary winds using alligator clip wire and it produces centimeter long coronal discharges into the air and can light up a xenon tube that is over a foot long. I can get an inch long spark to the tip of a screwdriver, and it lights up a lightbulb with large streamers even during the day when the sun is shining directly onto it. For a twenty dollar coil that was built in a few hours, I am impressed.

New Images:
-Foot long xenon tube chain
-Coronal discharge off of the end of the foot long tube (low res.)
-Detail of new primary coil

UPDATE 2: 4/5/2009

Actually, within a few days of building this coil, I wound a new secondary coil. When I tuned everything, the coil performed very nicely. It produced 1 inch long discharges into the air and 1.5 - 2 inch discharges to a screwdriver. However, I was too lazy to post anything, so this slideshow remained unchanged. I later disassembled the coil and let the parts sit around for a few months, until now. A few days ago, I reassembled it with a new primary coil, tank capacitor, and spark gap. The results were great, so I am posting some new pictures.

New Images:
-A picture of the new coil
-A picture of some sparks
-A picture of the coil lighting a fluorescent tube
-A picture of my new SSTC - Made almost entirely out of free samples and scrap parts. I have since improved it and it works very well in my opinion, 1 cm sparks into the air.

UPDATE 3: 10/26/2009

I haven't been updating this much, have I? Anyhow, much has happened since the pictures you see here. I actually managed to improve this coil SIGNIFICANTLY to produce loud, bright, 6 inch long sparks from a new secondary coil. I upped the voltage of the flyback driver, and installed new capactiors and new coils. Unfortunately, the coil had big problems with arcing between the primary and secondary, and I think I could have done much better than 6" if I had been able to fix them. However, I eventually pushed it too hard, and then whole thing died. In all, this was a great experience, and I gained much knowledge and experience from it.

In other news, I also improved the Vacuum Tube Tesla Coil (VTTC) further until it gave roaring 6" long streamers. Similarly, I ended up pushing some of its components too hard, until a few rather trivial small components broke. I didn't have the resources to fix the problem then (mainly because of negative support from my parents), and so I left the project to rest. Now, only a few days ago, I ordered the replacement parts for the coil, as well as parts for a half bridge audio modulated Solid State Tesla Coil, needless to say, it should be amazing when its built (this might take a couple of weeks, but be on the lookout for more pcitures!).

UPDATE 4: 11/6/2009

I just added a picture of first light for my Solid State Tesla Coil at 24 volts (about 1/7 full power), it also plays music via PWM, so I'm going to upload a video soon too!

UPDATE 5: 1/9/10

My Mini Solid State Tesla Coil finally works properly, here is it running at 90 VAC RMS (3/4 of full power). The sparks are 7" - 8" long! Audio modulation is very impressive - more videos soon.



Here is an early audio modulation video:



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TK17567223 days ago

1st my computer power supply is capable of 24A 12V will this work? will it try to draw the max from my power supply?

2nd i have 3 choices as to transistor: FJAF6812, IRF630 (i have 3) or 2N3055. what would be best?

and what is the voltage for the capacitor? i have a few 400V film caps but i would like to try a root beer bottle/laden jar for a capacitor.

Just realized that the last comment was a year old and the chances of getting a reply are very slim :(

But for anyone reading this: i got it working. 1 bottle capacitor a VERY small flyback about a 600 turn secondary and 4-5 turn primary (pancake) 1 burnt finger (ouch...) and a 2N3055 (about 2 min on 5 min off due to tiny heat-sink)
puts out about 1cm streamers with no top load and will arc about 2" to a screwdriver. also it doesn't seem to care if i ground it to earth ground or not.... but good for a 12v 1A wall psu. i will be upgrading to a computer PSU next week.

my wookie1 year ago
: ) today i got my hands on a 4th flyback, but im hoping to use the one i got last week out of my grandparents old TV and i mean OLD it still had tuning dials! i also got what i think is a spark gap vacuum tube, not entirely sure it looks like a Christmas light with "1.5KV" printed on the side of it.
100_1248.JPG100_1253.JPG

that black thing is a hv rectifier you have an ac flyback

i don't know what the big black thing connected to the high voltage output on the flyback transformer is, if anyone could tell me id sure appreciate it.
-max- my wookie8 months ago
The black box might be a voltage doubler circuit. Does it have a 3rd lead coming out if it to a ground? the 1.5KV neon light thing might be placed across the drain and source of the MOSFET for protection from high voltage transients. Mas to found next to a power MOSFET of next to the flyback itself?
aminys3 months ago

thanks ,i am from Asia,for me i can not see something ,so there are any body help me and mail me szy52@foxmail.com

http://www.ebay.ca/itm/LOW-GLOW-NEON-9500-VOLT-TRANSFORMER-FITS-LOWGLOW-AND-MANY-OTHER-NEON-BRANDS-/380430895286?pt=Motors_Car_Truck_Parts_Accessories&hash=item589372c8b6
Can i used this transformer? would it work?
Xellers (author)  disappearingshadow2 years ago
Nope.
-max- Xellers8 months ago
I cant tell how this thing will work: http://www.ebay.com/itm/17-kv-HIGH-VOLTAGE-POWER-SUPPLY-Cockroft-Walton-multiplier-TESLA-COIL-PLASMA-/170969206461? Do you reckon it will work? it is very high voltage, I think driven from 120V instead of 230V, i will have 8000V, where the minimum voltage for tesla coils is 3KV, correct? what experience do you have with similar things?
I'm having trouble finding one on eBay I don't supposed you know any dealers in the Canada area do you
how do you get the coil wound so perfectly
Xellers (author)  Jimmy Proton4 years ago
These particular coils were the first ones I ever wound - so they are nowhere near perfect! I used extremely thin wire from an old electric razor, so it was very difficult to wind them. My later coils came out much better for two reasons, I used thicker wire, and I had practice. However, each coil still takes many hours to wind (watch a movie) and sometimes, you need to go back and rewind half the darn thing because of a crossed wire you didn't notice (wind slowly, better to wind once than many times).
my wookie Xellers11 months ago
old posts here, but maybe this will help someone, you can get the wire out of an old tv, usually there's a ton of it wrapped in electrical tape right around the screen.
if you cross 1 wire than does it still work?
well if you ask me it looks good, maybe its just the video but thanks and nice job!
jasshopper1 year ago
hi, i would like to build a tesla coil using a flyback but i'm thinking of a zvs driver driven by two SMPS in series(i don't know if it works) so that would give me 24v at 10A. so what my question is how much should be the voltage and the value of the capacitor tank.
Switch mode power supplies are solid state devices that have rails coming from transformers for certain voltages eg 3.3,5,12,0v(ground) used for powering sensitive electronic devices. So to answer your question, no you cannot wire SMPS in series. try using a rectified and smoothed variac
most people just make there own, like this, and they're capable of ridiculous voltages and as far as "value" (i'm assuming you mean capacitance) the bigger the better.
vladisan1 year ago
hello, i got a small quetion. one end of the wire from the secondary is suppose to go to the toroid and the other one to ground. how do you keep a working tesla in your house i mean where do you ground it.
try your water pipes, or just a grounded outlet (that's usually where they ground to anyway... around here at least)
That's great thanks! With regard to the flyback do you suggest any particular models? I've a Samsung hr 7852 spare at the moment but don't know if it's suitable.
You said you used a modified computer power supply to deliver 12VDC to your 555 timer flyback driver. Do you have an instructable on how you modified the power supply? I'm currently building the 555 timer flyback driver and have tonnes of power supplies lying about, it wold be handy to get rid of some.
Xellers (author)  ZizouElipsus1 year ago
I haven't written one, but there are plenty on this site. The only thing you really have to do if figure out how to turn it on, which involves shorting one of the wires on the large motherboard molex connector to ground.
I'm making a coil very similar to the instructable, but I'm running at a higher frequency of about 61,000 Hz. My tank capacitor is made of wax paper and aluminum foil, which makes everything nice and resonant, but I guess too high frequency for spark achievement? Any advice? I can add more info if anyone can help out.
Xellers (author)  redsox1218751 year ago
61kHz is a resonant frequency you might expect with a large coil, not something sized like this! Are you sure your calculations are correct? How large is your secondary?
bswt1 year ago
would a Toshiba D2586 8k work with this driver?
i got it from a tv
i think its a high power tran
Xellers (author) 4 years ago
SSTC first light, it also plays music, so I'll be adding a video soon:
CAM_0024.JPG
Can I see the diagram for your driver circuit?  I am in the process of building a DRSSTC (Dual Resonant SSTC, meaning both coils are resonant) but I have no idea how to design my own driver and all the ones I have looked from various tesla coil websites are way to complex.  Thanks.
Xellers (author)  UbuntuNinja4 years ago
My circuit is rather simple, there is a 74HC14 inverter with two of its logic gates in series being fed by an antenna, the output is sent to an inverting and non-inverting gate driver. Next, a TL494 PWM circuit controls the enable pins of the two gate drivers. The outputs of the drivers are fed into a gate drive transformer. The transformer has two secondary coils, one of which is reversed to produce two signals, one that is 180 degrees out of phase with the other. Finally, these two signals are used to control a half bridge of MOSFETs.
Can you give me an actual schematic diagram?  I understand the basic setup but I have no idea how to wire up the TL494 and I am not quite seeing how it all comes together.  Sorry to be so demanding about this I just am a little tired of paging through the various sites about SSTC drivers and this is the only part of the coil that I do not have finalized plans for.
Xellers (author)  UbuntuNinja4 years ago
You can use Plasmana's "Plasma Speaker" instructables for ideas on how to use the TL494 modulator, and otherwise, my coil is very similar to Steve Ward's Mini SSTC, I recommend you look on his website for more details.
i'm actually planning on building steve's mini SSTC soon, then modifying it for audio modulation, but in a solid notes form, rather than your sophisticated plasma speaker form. a little help designing my musical interrupter/driver would be awesome if you could provide it :). I know i need an arduino or similar microcontroller, and im planning on using fiber optics to isolate it and the computer from the coil, and i also know that basically what i need to do is code the arduino to switch the mosfets or IGBTs on/off at the frequency of the notes i want to play. my problem is design of the circuit.
Xellers (author)  sciencetor22 years ago
You'll want Digikey parts FB123-ND and FB128-ND for fiber optics, plus some 1mm (I think it's 1mm, but check the datasheet) fiber cable, which Digikey also carries.

Since you're building a hard-switched SSTC that can run high duty cycles, an analog musical interrupter is the easiest way to go at first - feed a sine wave from a synthesizer into a comparator to chop it into a square wave and use that to trigger a monostable 555 timer. If you really want to go digital right away, hard code some songs into an Arduino using progmem arrays and play them back using delays. You'll want to disable global interrupts when using any delay function, whether it be Arduino delayMicroseconds or AVR _delay_us, as they won't be accurate otherwise. The AVR command for this is cli(); (and sei(); enables them again).

The best way to go, of course, is MIDI in through serial IO and delay interrupts on Timer1 and Timer2 for playing back two notes at once - this is what I'm working on right now, and I plan to share at least some of my code/schematics once I'm done.

I would attempt some simple Arduino projects and learn to use interrupts and timers using the registers before trying to code an interrupter. If you want something that just works, Steve Ward has been kind enough to share what I just described, but implemented on a bare Atmega chip, rather than on an Arduino: http://stevehv.4hv.org/midi_controller/

(Fell free to ask more questions if you want by email or PM)
f22archrer2 years ago
need help please!!!

i have got all the stuff....the flyback transformer,HV capacitors 333Kv...and made the secondary /primary both coils.... my problem is how do i get input from the transformer??? how do i go about it ? please help

moris_zen2 years ago
What music where you playing?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bAN7Ts0xBo
moris_zen2 years ago
If possible - pls add a diagram
mexican plasma!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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