Step 6: Applications

Perhaps our favorite application of an Easter engine is in the toy Jeepster SUV illustrated in Step 3.  A thin plywood  bottom was cut to fit the body, and large foam wheels were made to give it a "Monster Wheel" look, but in operation it is quite docile.  The underside is shown in the photo below.  The axles are set to make the car run in a tight circle  (because we have a small living room) and the front wheel drive setup greatly helps it stick to the intended circular path. The gear train was taken from a commercial hobby motor unit shown in the next photo, but it was fitted out with a 13 Ohm motor.
A 1 Farad super capacitor gives the car about 10 seconds of run time each cycle, which takes it almost completely around a 3 foot diameter circle.  It takes a while to charge up on cloudy days or when the car happens to stop in a dark spot. Anywhere from 5 to 15 minutes is usual during the day in our living room.  If it finds direct sunlight coming in a window, it recharges in about two minutes.  It travels around in a corner of the room and has logged many revolutions since being built in 2004.

Another amusing application of the Easter engine is "Walker", a robot-like creature that waddles along by means of two arms, or rather, legs.  He uses the same motor and gear train setup as the Jeepster with the same 76:1 ratio.  One of his legs is purposely shorter than the other so that he walks in a circle.  Walker also carries a blinking LED so we know where he is on the floor after dark.

An simple use for a solar engine is as a flag waver or spinner.  The one shown in the 5th photo below can sit on a desk or shelf and every now and then it will suddenly, and rather wildly, spin a little ball around on a string thereby attracting attention to itself.  Some embodiments of these simple spinners had a jingle bell on the string.  Others had a stationary bell mounted nearby so that it would get smacked by the flailing ball - but that tends to become annoying after a few sunny days!

<p>Hi, I made it! Thanks for your great instructable. I etched my own PCB as shown in the pictures. I managed to make it work by connecting 7 solar cells from old/new calculators and connected it in series with diode. I also used 2 capacitors in parallel with 2200 uF as the storage capacitor. For every 2 minutes the engine works nicely even inside my room. I used H3906 as an alternative for 2N3906 transistor and 1N4181 for 1N914 diode.</p>
<p>Congratulations Mychael14 !!! I really like the elegant geometric design of your PCB !!!</p>
<p>Great instructable! Thank you!</p>
Hi, how can i connect two of these together? Is it possible to use one capacitor for power while the other charges and then switch back again? Thanks for the great info too!
<p>Made one with 1N4001 diodes, and used different resistors in series to get the correct values, works nicely!</p>
<p>Nice Job !!! I like the way you used those tiny resistors on the backside. Thanks for sending along the photos.</p>
<p>I am not sure which way to put in the diode an led. Maybe you could clearify? thanks</p>
<p>The schematic in Step 1 is clear on these points. You just have to distinguish the anode from the cathode ends on the diodes and leds you want to use. The cathode end of a diode is usually marked with a band. The cathode side of an led is usually indicated by a flat portion on the lens.<br>The references cited in the Intro step will be very helpful for questions such as these. In any event, put the circuit together on a solderless breadboard to make sure everything is working correctly before you warm up the soldering iron.</p>
<p>oh fun now to see if i can combine that circut with a crystal battery to make it build a larger cap for a flashlight.</p>
<p>what are the equipments to make this? can u give me the list?</p>
<p>My daughter and I made this circuit together on a breadboard. It worked well. We tried it with a vibrating motor from a cell-phone and found we needed to raise to turn-off voltage since the motor stopped spinning around 1.8V. You already had instructions for doing that on your nicely documented design. Thanks so much for this nice and well documented post.</p>
<p>It's so good to hear from a Father and daughter working together on a gadget like this ! Thank you for letting us know !!</p>
<p>I was this article today on Reddit : <a href="http://www.ohgizmo.com/2010/01/09/ces2010-rca-airnergy-charger-harvests-electricity-from-wifi/" rel="nofollow">http://www.ohgizmo.com/2010/01/09/ces2010-rca-airn...</a> I think that with your Easter engine design combined the information found here: <a href="http://hight3ch.com/free-electricity-from-thin-air/" rel="nofollow">http://hight3ch.com/free-electricity-from-thin-air...</a> this could make a nice home made cell phone charger. What do you think?</p>
Hi Tinker Jim. Awesome project. I'm working on a circuit to run nitinol SMA wires. A question: Does the power to the load flow from the solar panel or from the capacitor?
The solar cell and the capacitor are connected in parallel, so when transistor QP turns on, both deliver power to the load. However, unless the solar cell is relatively large or in bright sunlight, most of the power driving the load will come from the capacitor.
Understood. Thank you for the reply!
Hi TinkerJim, <br> <br>Thanks a lot for this I'ble! I spent the last days building solar engines, and yours gave me the final push to start it. I tried your circuit first of course. Later I built the &quot;original&quot; Sun Eater I (and it turned out it was made by a fellow countryman of mine :-)). <br> <br>When comparing, I find the Sun Eater more efficient (&quot;lively&quot;) than your circuit, but has more components as a trade-off. Is that your finding too? <br> <br>Anyways, thanks a lot for your very well documented I'ble! <br> <br>Ynze
Thank you for your comments on the Easter Solar Engine. I too made a SunEater and was very much pleased with it (in fact it was the inspiration for the Easter engine as mentioned in the Instructable) and it is still working daily on a windowsill! <br> <br>As to your queries regarding &quot;efficiency&quot; and/or &quot;liveliness&quot;, the two terms can take in quite a few different meanings. Efficiency would most precisely mean the ratio of energy delivered to the motor to the energy collected in the storage capacitor from the solar cell This is easy to quantify. But the word could also be used more loosely to refer to how short the operating cycle seems to be, that is, how frequently the device activates and goes through its on-off cycles. The word &quot;lively&quot; could also very well refer to this activation frequency. Or more simply,liveliness could mean the rapidity or strength of the way the motor snaps into action when it does turn on. These are quite different things, but we are apt to use the words &quot;efficient&quot; and &quot;lively&quot; for any or all of these characteristics in an interchangeable casual way. <br> <br>The most important condition in attempting to make any sort of general comparative declaration, is that both circuits must be set up to have the same turn-on and turn-off voltages. Otherwise, the energy exchanges with the storage capacitor could be too different to draw any meaningful conclusions. This is most important because the energy stored in a capacitor is proportional to the square of the voltage across its terminals: Es = (1/2)&bull; C &bull; (V^2). Thus a small difference in voltage represents a much larger difference in energies. <br> <br>Now if both solar engines are set up with the exact same turn-on and turn-off voltages, then they will be practically equally &quot;lively&quot;. First, they will both collect solar energy for the same time before firing; this is because both circuits pass no current until the trigger strings conduct and turn on the first transistor. They will not run a load for exactly the same time, but if both have the same turn-off voltages, the difference will be small in typical applications. The difference arises precisely because the SunEater has a dual transistor output switch; these are set up as a complimentary pair which functions as a very high gain transistor. Hence, only a tiny current is needed to turn the pair on and they turn on hard (this could also be the &quot;liveliness&quot; you are impressed with). The single output transistor of the Easter Solar engine takes more current in the circuitry to turn a motor on (e.g. at 2.9V turn-on, the 3.3K resistor passes about 0.5mA into the base - note that this resistor can be increased to give a softer run to the motor, or decreased to give a more jolting or lively start). <br> <br>Now, if the current draw of the output device for the two solar engines were the same and say constant, the SunEater would yield more on-time because less current is used in its circuitry to keep it on, making more available for the load to use up. But then on the other hand, the Easter Solar engine would go through its charge-run cycle more often than the SunEater! <br> <br>Alas, the situation with a motor as the load is far more complicated! When a motor at rest is switched on from a voltage source, it takes a lot of instantaneous current, and then less and less as it gains speed. A capacitor is more than willing, eager in fact, to supply its energy at high current levels, so a lot of energy can be used up just in getting things moving. This would shorten the on-time. <br>
Can you provide some websites that stock the SIP's? Thank you!
All the major electronics supply houses carry them, and I think many of the specialty and surplus electronics sellers do also.
what kind of electronic can i find those kind of capacitors?
Most stuff have big enough caps to work in this.<br>Look for old VCRs, Tape players, ect.<br>The audio amps inside of these most of the time have big capacitors.<br>It looks like in the first picture he is using a super cap.<br>Just use any caps that say &quot;1000uf&quot; or bigger.
Where are some videos of these working?
I haven't made videos of these working.
As I am pretty much a beginner at electronics I was wondering: <br><br>Is their any way to make a more simple trigger which uses less components?<br> I want to be able to adapt it to suit my, simpler, needs and I don't really understand some of the circuit. <br><br>Thanks in advance to who-ever answers.
You can find a lot of straightforward information on various solar engine circuits at the following site:<br><br>http://library.solarbotics.net/circuits/se_t1.html<br><br>
Also, the book I mentioned in the Easter Engine Instructable,<br><br> &quot;Junkbots, Bugbots, &amp; Bots on Wheels&quot; by Dave Hrynkiw &amp; Mark W. Tilden<br><br>is a very good one for beginners in Beam Technology. <br> <br>Another good introductory book in more general robot making is <br><br>&quot;Robot Building for Beginners&quot; by David Cook.<br><br>And for a hands-on introduction to making electronics gadgets of all kinds, you couldn't do better than<br><br>&quot;Make: Electronics&quot; by Charles Platt.
Wow this is great! I can't wait to build one of my own, won't be for a while though cause my allowance is only 5 bucks a month :/<br><br>I'm making a new ible based off this!
cool. I might try that with an earth battery also.
Earth batteries should be a suitable source from which an Easter Solar Engine could collect usable energy. You'll need enough earth batteries hooked in series to offer a voltage slightly higher than the turn-on voltage of the Easter engine.
Did some experiments and was surprised at the amount of voltage generated. A whole backyard of cells might be very interesting. Have to go get some resistors tomorrow and build the engine.
haha look at that old school led in pic #4.<br /> <br /> Ok so, just in general what type of diodes can you use for this?? How do you figure out the voltage required for diodes??&nbsp;Sorry I'm noob!
Instead of being thrown out as being too dim and unwanted, the old LEDs are quite happy to be put to work in trigger strings!<br /> <br /> The very common small signal diode 1N914 are the ones I use.&nbsp; They work fine for this low voltage low current application.<br />
Let me start by saying this is gadget with so many uses it's amazing. I'm also a noob so I have to ask. How can I tell the voltage of a random LED I find in old electronics? What can of test can I do to an LED?
To test LEDs for Easter Engine use, I just make up the whole circuit first on a solderless breadboard. With a Volt meter hooked up to the storage capacitor, I just note when the engine circuit cycles on and off. If it's not what is wanted, I just plug in a different LED or two.
subscribed!! 5 star! great project, man!
Thanks !
such a nice job friend
your brain is holymoly
it is best
Hi! what program did you use to draw the board above??? Sorry my bad English &nbsp;:D<br /> <br /> Thanks in advance!!!
It was done in VectorWorks.<br />
Why are you using a &quot;double latching&quot; system? That part is not clear to me.<br /> <br /> Is it possible to remove Q2?<br />
It is not a double latch.&nbsp; It is a single latch formed by two transistors.&nbsp; Each transistor in the pair is set up to feed the base of the other. In that way, once the first transistor turns on, even a little, the second one gets turned on by it, and then it in turn turns on the first even more, and then the first turns on the second even more, and so on.Thus both transistors find themselves locked on.&nbsp; This condition persists until the supply voltage drops below the combined diode drop inherent in the transistors.&nbsp; Now read Step 1 again and follow along in the circuit diagram and it should be clear.
&nbsp;Hello! im trying to build this one myself. but i come across some problems, so i hope i can get some help. ive built it up like this, but my capacitor wont stop recharging. it just keeps going and going. i suppose it has to do with the diodestring. however i have the components that it says in the circuit. and is it true, that the more resistance i have in that string, the more the capacitor will charge?<br /> <br /> thanks<br />
It might be that the solar cell isn't producing a voltage high enough to trigger the diode string.&nbsp; Measure the voltage output of the cell you are using and make sure it is at least half a volt above the diode string trigger voltage as listed in the table in Step 3.&nbsp; You can also try fewer or different diodes in the string.&nbsp; It could be also that the circuit has triggered but the capacitor has a high internal resistance not allowing it to drive the motor but just slowly drain through it - this happens with capacitors that are intended for memory backup.&nbsp; I often test solar engine circuits&nbsp; by feeding from batteries through a resistor - about 1 or 2K.&nbsp; Monitor the voltage at the capacitor to get a better idea of what is happening.&nbsp; If you still have trouble, send a photo if you can or a sketch of your circuit setup with the values and types of components you are using.&nbsp; <br />
&nbsp;thanks for the input. yeah, i think the solar cell is too weak. therefore ive tried with a battery, to just load the capacitor, and the see how the drain goes. and its like you said, it drains sloooow. but it seems to just drain, and never stop. what decides when the capacitor should charge again? cant seem to figure that out.
The circuit will recycle when the voltage across the capacitor drops below 1.3 or 1.4 volts as described in Step 1.&nbsp; If yours is not turning off, it means the supply current is exceeding the output current.&nbsp; Increase the resistance in your battery feed enough, and the circuit will cycle.&nbsp; Of course this assumes a suitable capacitor.&nbsp; Look at Step 4 to see what kind work well in solar engines.&nbsp; The caps must have a low ESR value like the Powerstor PA&nbsp;series.&nbsp; Look at www.mouser.com/powerstor&nbsp; and get a PA-5R0V224R or PA-5R0v474R - these work great in all solar engines.&nbsp;&nbsp; The motor must be right also -Step 4 for more details again.&nbsp; If you still have problems, go to the Intro Step and look into the FLED or Symet solar engines to gain more experience.<br />

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Bio: Emeritus Professor of Mathematics.
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