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The Full "How To" Manual For EL (Electroluminescent) Wire

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Disclaimer : This is my First Instructable. I appreciate any constructive criticism and helpful advice. Now any of you who just ramble on about “I’m just in it for the money” or “You misspelled instruction” or “He’s trying to control the world” just leave me be and we'll be just fine. (Ok, the World Domination may be true.)

Now I don’t claim to know that I am the end all knowledge on EL wire but I have done my research before I bought anything, plus, I have compiled what it’s made of, what makes it work, some history, and helpful tips to help you out. So let's get started.

 
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Step 1: What is EL Wire?

Picture of What is EL Wire?
Electroluminescent wire (often abbreviated to EL wire) is a thin copper wire coated in phosphor, which glows when an alternating current is applied to it. It can be used in a wide variety of applications- vehicle and/or structure decoration, safety and emergency lighting, toys, clothing etc - much as rope light or Christmas lights are often used. Unlike these types of strand lights, EL wire is not a series of points but produces a 360 degree unbroken line of visible light. Its thin diameter makes it flexible and ideal for use in a variety of applications such as clothing or costumes.

EL wire's construction consists of five major components. First is a solid-copper wire core. This core is coated with phosphor. A very fine wire is spiral-wound around the phosphor-coated copper core. This fine wire is electrically isolated from the copper core. Surrounding this 'sandwich' of copper core, phosphor, and fine copper wire is a clear PVC sleeve. Finally, surrounding this thin, clear PVC sleeve is another clear, colored translucent, or fluorescent PVC sleeve.

An electric potential of approximately 90 - 120 volts at about 1000 Hz is applied between the copper core wire and the fine wire that surrounds the phosphor coated copper core. The wire can be modelled as a coaxial capacitor with about 1 nF of capacitance per foot, and the rapid charging and discharging of this capacitor excites the phosphor to emit light. The colors of light that can be produced efficiently by phosphors are limited, so many types of wire use an additional fluorescent organic dye in the clear PVC sleeve to produce the final result. These organic dyes produce colors like red and purple when excited by the blue-green light of the core.


Thanks to Wikipedia and Electronics Warehouse for information.
(Picture credit: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EL_wire )

Step 2: Let's Build Something!!

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I am not going to instruct you to build a "device". Instead I am going to show you how to work with EL wire. (Uses for EL projects will be listed on last step.) Okay, first you will need tools:

Tools:
Solder Gun
Wire Cutter / Stripper
Shears
Heat source (Flame, Heat gun, 5 alarm chili fart)

Supplies:
EL wire - any amount you need for your project (I suggest that you add 10% extra just to make sure you have enough)
Power pack - several internet shops sells cheap inverters
Srink wrap - Several different diameters as well as lengths
solder
copper sheet
connectors

Lastly, you need a place a to work with good lighting. I also would have liked to have a third hand (device with clips and a magnifer).

Step 3: Time to run the Wire

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After gathering your supplies, it’s time to give them something to do. Most inverter/power supplies I found online all had a connector on them. Most shops also supply the male connector for the power supply but not all. Take one side (doesn’t matter which side) and strip the PVC sleeve off.

*** Don’t cut through the Angel Wire ***

I would suggest using an exacto knife but it is not required. You can start ½ inch from the end but until you become skilled with EL soldering, it would be easier to start about an inch in. (I did that - the slop can be cut off later). Spread the angel wire apart for later. Next you will need to remove the phosphorous layer around the copper wire. This is the where the wire cutters come in. Place the wire in the cutter and avoid cutting the wire “skin” off the phosphor layer.

*** Warning: Don’t remove the phosphor with your teeth. There are many types of phosphor. Some are toxic, most are luminescent. This can make you sick (plus it made my mouth taste funny all day. Learn from my errors!) ***

Now you should have a something that looks like the picture.

Step 4: "Scotty, I've got to have more POWER!!!"

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Here is the exciting part! You need to solder one copper wire to a connector wire and the other copper wire to the other connector wore. I suggest running the angel wire to the “taller” of the two. I wrapped them around a couple of times to insure a good mechanical bond. (Now you'll see why I said you need a little extra for sloppage.)  After both wires are connected take a piece shrink wrap and place it over the exposed wires and heat it up. Keep the flame from touching the srink wrap.

Now plug it into the power pack and see it glow!

Step 5: Better, Bigger, Badder

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In researching EL wire for this guide, I came across an interesting technique. Almost every reference never mentioned “daisy chaining” different colors from one power source. While most people mention running separate source (feeding) lines for each EL, I questioned why not run them all off one source? After a brief experiment (see second picture, where a Red, White, Blue EL could be used in series for a flag), I concluded that either way will work: chaining them together will cause less source voltage drop (parallel currents add, which is harder to supply), but the longer the total length of EL wires, the less bright they'll all be off the same source. Also, chaining will make stiffer connecting points that can break easier with movement. So this technique should be use with a more stationary project.

And here we go. On top of the listed item in step 2 you will need:

Copper tape (or copper sheeting with an adhesive backing)

More shrink wrap

And tons of patience

Step 6: Better, Bigger, Badder

For those who missed last step:

On top of the items listed in step 2, you will need:

Copper tape (or copper sheeting with an adhesive backing)

More shrink wrap 

And tons of patience

First you need to prep all the EL wires striping them of both the PVC as well as the phosphor coating. Solder one wire to another. Shrink wrap the connection and making sure that you cover all of the exposed copper wire and heat. Next the you cut the copper sheet into a small strips. Now here you can have some freedom with connection, You can wrap the copper around the PVC of one wire or you can wrap it around the shrink wrap or you can lay the strip along one side of the shrink wrap. I choose the laying method to allow better contact point for the angel wires. After placing the copper solder the angel wires of both EL’s to the copper.

***Soldering should be done quickly to avoid melting the shrink wrap or the adhesive on the copper sheet.***

You can do this separately or how I did it was placing all four wires laying flat on the copper sheet and then soldering them at the same time. After allow the solder to cool (couple of seconds should do it) wrap it with shrink wrap heat and there is your finished product.

You can do the process many time with different lengths of EL as displayed. I have read online that 50ft of EL wire can be powered by a single AAA battery, but I wonder about that.

I hope you found this a helpful guide to the wonderful world of EL wires and found it quite illuminating. (Sorry I had say it.) Please see the last page for further ideas, last minute insights and other EL links.

Step 7: Fleeting Thoughts

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Several extra bits I would like to share.

First, all my EL wire was purchased from thatscoolwire.com. They have several great deals as well as cheap sample kits and a 20ft grab bag offer that was most helpful. (See pics.)

Second, a warning: if you play with the bare connections, even though it is only 1.5 volts, it will still give you a nice little shock. (I was adjusting the shrink wrap while the circuit was live.)

Lastly, I think this "Dasiy chain" would also work if, instead of soldering the wires, you added a connector which would allow you to change up the color order at will. I think an SBA connector would do the job. I may continue experimenting with it and will post any findings.

Topic Items - Reference

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EL_wire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroluminescent

Suppliers

thatscoolwire.com

http://www.elwire.com/

http://elbestbuy.com/

http://www.coolneon.com/

http://fiberopticproducts.com/El_wire.htm

www.elwirepros.com/

www.coolight.com/Default.asp?Redirected=Y
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RobC1419 days ago
jhawthorne1 year ago

Where did you get those connectors. I've been searching for the same type but keep striking out.

ben_englund2 years ago
Just some clarification regarding parallel vs series. There are actually three ways to hook multiple strands up to one supply(inverter).
1. Parallel end to end....in which the core of the second is connected to the end of the core of the first and angel hairs of second connected to the end of the angel hairs of first. This is the way to connect them end to end. There is no series end to end. Parallel rules apply here
2. Parallel side by side....in which all strands have their cores and angel hairs connected to supply. All cores connected together and all angel hairs connected together. Parallel rules apply here
3. Series side by side....in which the cores of some strands would connect to angel hairs of other strands. like putting batteries in series the + and - of the ones in the middle connect together. Only two strands would connect directly to supply. This is the only way series rules would apply.
dan5jr3 years ago
They are. His logic is close, but a little off base. If you run them in series, you'll experience a voltage drop across each one, meaning that there will be less current running through each wire and will be slightly dimmer.
maboyco3 years ago
here are some pictures that might make your instructable a bit clearer

http://www.neonstring.com/index.php?tasket=solder
joehudy4 years ago
y cant you just conect the 2 termanals to a 9v batterie
hayedid joehudy4 years ago
A 9V batter is DC. EL Wire requires AC current. You can get an inverter by looking up 'el wire' on ebay
joehudy hayedid4 years ago
y cant thay make them dc? sory if im buging you .
hayedid joehudy4 years ago
No problem. DC is a constant voltage. So, 9v is 9v. AC alternates between 110 and -110 at a rate of 60 times per second. It is this alternation of current that causes the wire to glow. In fact, up to a point, the glow or brightness increases as you increase the Frequency (is changing from 60 to 1000 hz). Some circuitry works with DC voltage, some with AC voltage -- this just happens to be one of the AC gadgets. An inverter, from eBay or some other place, will allow you to run the EL wire from a 9 volt battery by converting the DC to the required AC voltage and frequency. Some of the inverters include flashing circuitry so read the descriptions carefully before you buy.
lehelex hayedid3 years ago
DC= Direct Current. AC= Alternating Current.
joehudy hayedid4 years ago
thank you sooo much
MTJimL4 years ago
Is it my imagination, or does each successive length of EL wire show dimmer than the previous one?
I think so too.
UkuleleGuy4 years ago
Could you list a few of these Internet shops that sell inverters?
ebay --- lookup 'el wire' or 'el panel'
Thanks!
From the photos it is hard to see how you use the copper tape.

Are you using the copper tape (with the adhesive on also it is used to do stain glass projects) around the center copper wire?

Or, are you using it for the Angel wire which goes around the coated Copper wire?

could you please send or show a little clearer photos with the different wires "ID'ed" or how you used the copper tape.

Please understand I had worked in the electronic field a long time ago (before LED's were commonly used mid 1970's) and I been out of doing any electronic work or building stuff like this since the early 1990's when I became disabled and I am way out of practice.

Thanks

Krisy
Have you yet found your answer Krisy? If not, I'll try to answer your question--though I'm not the Instructable's author.

Being fragile, the angel wire must be soldered so it will not flex coming out of the solder glob. Cut the strip of copper sheet/tape shorter than the heat tubing or tape already in place around the soldered inner wire and the phosphor coating. If the angel wire and copper sheet/tape are not already tinned, do so now.

Lay a paper clip over the shrink tubing already in place to provide an air gap and heatsink under the copper tape. Place the small patch of copper tape--adhesive side toward the paper clip--and position the angel wire over the copper tape. Go ahead and make the solder.

Remove the paper clip and wrap the copper tape around the heat tape already in place. Now place another piece of heat tape around the whole joint and shrink it in place.
crapflinger4 years ago
hopefully you're still checking comments or someone else passes by with an answer

if you were doing something (like making a helmet or whatever) that needed several different "locations" of E.L. wire (like different designs in between non-lit spaces) the typical suggestions that i've seen is to just "bury" the parts you don't want visible behind whatever you're mounting the wire to/in/on. to maximize your purchase of wire, would it be a safe assumption that you could cut the wire into the necessary final lengths to make each individual design, and then bury the connecting wire instead of wasting lit wire?

if one were to do something like this, would it be best (from a brightness standpoint) to wire the connector wires back to the controller in series or parallel? assuming that the total length of all the wire used is within the specs of the controller.

would the added lengths of connecting wire decrease the brightness of each separate length? what would be a suggested gauge for the connecting wire (i typically like to use pretty small gauge solid core wire, like CAT6 for anything that i can get away with)?
Pyrotect (author)  crapflinger4 years ago
Sorry for the late reply. I would be better for them to be in series and all the same color (same resistance, power requirments.) As for seperating the EL you could do it be that is alot of soldering (or Fail points) the another option could be split the design in half (like the brain) wire both halfs seperately with different power supplies and then tie them to one switch. This would increase the current being used by the EL without having parts diming that others. Sounds like a neat project. Please feel free to ask more question and post a link when you are done.

P.S. if your good with a BCD counter you could try having the different designs "twinkle" at different rates.
well, i have no idea what a BCD counter is but that sounds neat...

i'm not terribly worried about all of the soldering, or the solder joints as most of this stuff will end up embedded in plastic and not out in the open.
MrLouque4 years ago
Great ible! How do you solder them to look like the last picture ( 4 separate wires coming off one driver)?
Pyrotect (author)  MrLouque4 years ago
They came that way but if you run 4 setups to one "power" plug
kindrudekid4 years ago
can u temme any site which will ship to india or any place from india?
EBAY
where do u live?
mumbai,,,
i live in chennai will be comming to mumbai around 20th sept
so u have EL wire with USB? wat are the cost... can u post a link to ur ebay.in account or anything similar
i dont have anything !
Pyrotect (author)  kindrudekid4 years ago
I dont know. if nothing else find a relelitive that is in a place that they do send and have them repost it to you. (I claim no respondsibility for violating customs laws, embargos, or local rules)
Kroner784 years ago
Anyone know how energy efficient it is? Also what are the wave lengths of the untinted phosphors? I'm thinking if I might be able to use it as a grow light for a living wall window farm kind of affair!
Pyrotect (author)  Kroner784 years ago
I believe it is above 90%. it would work very well as a light stick style of lighting effect.
ourmoneypit4 years ago
This was a good primer, thanks. Now it has me wondering: could the components needed be obtained small enough to make a glowing dog collar for an 80-lb dog? We like to use glow necklaces at the cottage to keep track of our two in the dark, but it'll get pricey once we live there full-time. We bought strobe tags, but once the dogs aren't facing us, they aren't visible. Seems to me EL wire on a collar would be just the thing we need.
Pyrotect (author)  ourmoneypit4 years ago
Although there is a competing instructables that does just that (http://www.instructables.com/id/El-Wire-Dog-Collar-Leash/) i would hate to run you off (VOTE FOR MEEEE.) This is what i would do. buy a cheap but strong collar (double amounts as needed per dog), EL wire (plus 10% for slop) Inverter (they sell a button battery one at thatscoolwire.com) and a sleave of clear pliable plastic (kind of like rubber sheeting but thicker) Buckle the collar at the tightest point. measure lenght. cut EL (if you have a design plan that in). test wire. sew to collor (use heavy thread like 550 cord inards and in many places. dont want woofy getting caught on something and ripping it off). place EL collor on plastic. seal collor in plastic (dogs get wet and dirty. would kill the wire plus water and electonic dont mix). If i had more than one dog I would color code the collars but remember that EL is bright but not from a long distance so doubling up the colors would increase the light.
Really what I'm thinking of is a temporary night-time collar for when we have campfires, go for moonlight snowshoe treks, walks in the dark, etc. rather than a full-time collar with EL wire. Something like a glow necklace, but that we can turn on and off at will, that goes on and off easily, on top of their usual collar. You have given me a great idea, though, with the 'seal in plastic' comment. No worries, I won't have time to get it done for the contest, so you have my vote. We've already gotten into the habit of color-coding the dogs...it helps to know who is who, so you know who is trying to sneak off or mooch food.
Pyrotect (author)  ourmoneypit4 years ago
With EL i is a more peranent than a light stick. For a just git it done i guess you could loosly wrap it around the dog several times like a second collar and tie the bands to itself but thats your call. please ask if you want any feedback from me. Cheers
all the components you need are the wire and the inverter (plus all the crap you have to add to connect them per the instructions found in this instructable), and many of the links the author has provided sell inverters small enough to fit on a dog collar.
Excellent! Thanks much!
Minor spelling correction. "How To" should be spelled with one "o".
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