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Update 22/08/2015: Top diffusor now printable in two parts.
Update 20/08/2015: Top diffusor now in a version that can be joined with the top wave disk.
Update 19/08/2015: Top diffusor is finnished, at least for the model itself.
Will get an additional plate or similar for the printable version (if I figure out how to make these shape printable).

If you are a bit older and fascinated about old technologies you might have heard about Victor Schauberger's Repulsine.
Same of course if you are one the many UFO and conspiracy fans ;)
Anyway....

This not an Instructable of the usual kind as it less about actually making something for real but more about re-creating something that no longer exists in a complete form.

I have spent several weeks on the net trying to gather as much infos as possible, watched tons of videos and of course ripped my hair out sorting it all.
So if you are interested keep reading and stay updated on the progress over next few weeks or months.
For those only insterested in the models skip to step 3.

Step 1: Who Was Victor Schauberger?

Victor Schauberger was born in 1885 and Holzschlag, Austria and died there 1958.
A bit of info can be found on the english Wiki page and on the German Wiki page which has much more infos.
As it absolutely no problem to find tons of articles about his life and work I will make it short here (and refer to the WWW ;) ) and only focus on the Repulsine.


Fact and fiction...
The most famous stories in relation to Schaubergers work are not about water or proper ways of treating nature.
If you know the name you most likely know it because of claims one of his Repulsine devices had such a violent lift off that it crashed through the steel roof of the hangar it was placed in.
Some stories go as far as claiming it happened despite massive chains (used to tow tanks) connected to the Repulsine and anchored in the 2m thick concrete floor.
Although these stories are good reading there are no reliable sources for what really happened.
The only thing that is 100% sure is that all the materials and documents related to the Repulsine project were taken by the US forces after WW2.
Official claims of the time were that it was war material.
So, at least for this bit there will never be a "true" story.... :(
However, there is something very interesting for the UFO guys.
Schauberger started to work on the Repulsine quite early as a modified version of his "Home heating generator" (a device claimed to warm an entire house for the cost of a single lightbulb).
His inspiration for the work might have come from another inventor that created a "sucktion motor" for air planes.
Henri Coandă not only was famous for what we know today as the "Coanda Effect" but also for the plane he build.
Instead of using propulsion, like on any other propeller machine, Coanda used an engine that sucked the air in through a vortex and expeled it over a rotating disk back out.
When you check the two designs it is hard to deny certain similarities.
Before and during the WW2 times there have been a lot of UFO sightings in and around Austria.
All mention a weird looking disk, egg or the classic flying saucer.
Images and drawings of these sightings look pretty much identical to the shematics for the repulsine in it's later design stages.
Right after the war ended there have been no more "UFO" sightings in Austria, but the exact same flying things have been sighted in the US, mainly in the Arizona region.
Considering all of the Replusine work was taken to the US the timing of the sighting, or better their disappearance in Austria could make you think that Schaubergers Repulsine actually worked as planned.
Sadly again there is no 100% authentic image or witness report bringing bothe together and the US till today refuses to provide unaltered copies of Schaubergers original documents - all you get is a lot of pages with most of the content blacked out.
Think what you like about this one ;)
Victor Schaubergers grandson traveled to the US to see the last remaining model of a Repulsine during a test run.
Dr. Harold Puhoff of the Institute for advanced studies was impressed with the build quality and performance.
According to him even with modern technology it would hard to build it much better.
During these reserches it became apperent that several parts of the Repulsine are missing.
Some have been recreated from old images but the most vital parts remain lost.
These missing parts are what Victor Schauberger described as "energising devices and directors".
They might have been similar to what was used in his other inventions like the water energiser and purifier or the home heater but nothing is certain.

As I do not have any original images and copyright is always an issue I will not include any here, please check the WWW and you will find plenty of info about the things I talk about here.

Step 2: Is the Repulsine an UFO, a Flying Machine or Something Entirely Different?

Be my guest and make you own educated guess here.
With no evidence available anymore the conspiracy theorists will be happy but everyone interest in the real fact is left out.

I think after reading so much about it I tend to say his original intention was to build the next version of his home heater.
Like a perpetuum mobile the device was planned to run forever without using energy - in fact the motor used to start it was supposed to work as a generator once up to speed.
What you see on images about the Repulsine that is very old shows it as a flying machine in the classic "Roswell UFO" style.
Later images from the remaining parts only show the internals of the Repulsine but not the housing around it that gave it the UFO look.
Comparing those old images with some of his inventions like the heart pump show a very similar design.
My guess is that the outer shell of the Repulsine was similat to that of the heart pump.
Which means the the air coming out the part that we now know as the remaining Repulsine was directed into a vortex that concentrated in the center.
With air being sucked in from the top and the added "vortex energised" air coming partially back in from the bottom the only real outlet was a hole in the bottom center of the outer hull.
Imagine these vortex shapes on the wings of a plane during take off and landing - they curl from the wing tips inwards.
The same happened inside the hull - but the vortex was in three dimensions.
Like the Kudu horn or the famous sprial pipes Schauberger created, the air followed a specific flow and it is claimed that Schauberger perfected this design to the state where there was no friction anymore.
Todays claims about these features of friction free water transport are again inconclusive.
For example one study claims there was neither a gain in flow rate nor a reduction in the power levels the pump used.
Another study however claims that at certain flow speeds a resonance effect happens and that during that resonance the friction (and pump power) was reduced to a barely measurable low.
Problem with that resonance was to keep it resonating as even the slightest variations in temp, flow rate and even outside air pressure affected it.


It does not matter if like weird science, old technology or just nature in general - Victor Schauberger showed us a better way.
Too bad that most of it is long forgotten.
But if you check the Lily- or Harman- Impeller you see how other people make a good profit by re-using Schaubergers old designs.
Time to bring back more of his inventions! :)

Step 3: The Model So Far....

Here I will show the parts of my model once they are finnished and I am satisfied with the result.
Please keep in mind that they are not meant to be accurate in terms of being a replica but that they are meant to be a 3D printable model once all is finnished.

Please keep in mind that it is simply impossible to re-create the original if there are missing parts!
Also consider that the final pieces will be modified to make them printable on a normal 3D printer as I have no access to a fancy resin or powder printer.

The first objects to arrive here are the "wave disks":

Repulsine Top Wave Disk by Downunder35m on Sketchfab

Time to create the basic shape: About 6 hours to get it right.
Time to create the cuts for the air: About 3 weeks until satisfied with size, shape, angle and location.
Time to clean the model in Sketchup after cutting out the air vents: 2 weeks!
Reminds me that there are certainly better programs for the job....
(Tried cleaning and fixing with the usual external programs and webservices but either the filesize exploded or the shape was changed in spots required to fit the other parts of the model)

The bottom part was taken from a model on Thingyverse and served as the guide to the scale of other all other parts.
At first I tried to use the top part of that model as well but it was unsuited for the diffusor I have in mind.

Repulsine Bottom Wave Disk by Downunder35m on Sketchfab

The next part to come will be the the top diffusor that has to fit tight into the top disk.
Give me some time to create it ;)

Here is the cutout for the the diffusor.
I still need to desgin and match the outer body that mounts to the wave disks but it will follow ;)

Repulsine Main Diffusor Mold To Cut by Downunder35m on Sketchfab

And the finnished diffusor:

Repulsine 2 0 Diffusor by Downunder35m on Sketchfab

Here the one to be joined with the top wave disk:

Repulsine 2 0 Top Diffusor Full Disk by Downunder35m on Sketchfab

Next will be the top air intake, which provides a challenge as there is little to zero info on it available.
But from the images I got I assume it must be similar to what was used in the home heater and other projects, so I will try it the same way.

<p>Hi ! How is it coming along with the repulsine ? I am pretty curious about it.</p>
<p>At the moment not really that good.<br>Had to move house and now I am missing the space for my workshop.<br>Right now neither the 3D rpinter, nor the laser cutter is set up due to the lack of space :(<br>But I am working on getting a bigger place to stay.</p>
<p>Did I miss something??<br>I checked again the old pics and videos I have with the checking for the lost / missing parts in mind.<br>After a while it sort of hit me.<br>What if the repulsine did not just utilise Schaubergers implosion technology but also some more very rarly used things at the same time - the &quot;Vortex technology&quot; seems to play a role for the top air intake, while those old images let me think the outer hull was actually a two part system based on the &quot;Coanda plane engine&quot;.<br>This make even more sense if you check the second generation of the repulsine that no longer had this top cone.<br>My current theory:<br>The top diffusor is actually more like the turbine fan in a vacuum cleaner and spins together with the wave disks.<br>Part of the created airstream is diverted into the wave disks, the rest over them.<br>One of the missing bits (judgung by scratch marks and screw holes) would be a cover for the wave disks forming the base for the Coanda effect.<br>The outer hull forms a Venturi nozzle in combination with the airflow coming out of the wave disks and the coanda stream.<br>This is based on the statement of Schaubergers son that the &quot;activators&quot; are missing.<br>The top &quot;fan&quot; is surrounded by fins directing the airstream from a fast rotation to a and almost straight stream.<br>The &quot;activators&quot; would at the outlet part of the coanda air stream and the fan airstream, again forming the base for another coanda flow - similar to the bladeless fan technology Dyson &quot;invented&quot;.<br><br>If I know spin it a bit further I would assume the following:<br>The top turbine fan creates a vortex on top of it - you can see a lot of vids on Youtube showing how that works.<br>Through the double venturi effect and the two part hull, additional air is drawn into the (partially hidden) inlets.<br>This gives a multitude of air volume getting out of the system compared to what the fan can deliver.<br>If you now also take the missing bottom hul into consideration:<br>A part of the airflow coming out of the wave disks follows a curved surface to the inside - again the coanda effect in action.<br>When reachin the center the airstream can enter another venturi system to be re-united with the airstream out of the wave disks.<br>This in return creates a very low pressure zone on the underside.<br>Due to this zone the airflow that would otherwise go straight down is formed into a cone shape.<br>With another set of fins on the outlet part of the coanda stream this &quot;air cone&quot; would be spinning - effectively creating another very strong vortex.<br>This creates a high pressure zone on the top and a low pressure zone at the smaller bottom.<br>Most if not all of air that is around this vortex and forced downwards will enter this vortex and increase the pressure inside the lower hull.</p><p>I tried to calculate, then just to estimate how much more air would enter the system than the fan can deliver but soon gave up it.<br>All I can say is that if the system is just semi decent designed (in terms of airodynamics for the airflow and lossles transport of it) the output must be at least 20 times more than what the fan would be able to deliver!<br>Now for those keen on electricity:<br>According to eye witnees report from Repulsine tests a kind of elms fire is happening once the system is up to speed and operational.<br>All the air going in different directions, over a lot of surfaces and often moving against each other, creates a lot of static electricty.<br>Most of Repulsine was made from copper but in some images you can see that there are isolating disks as well.<br>If the electrical charge was considered by Schauberger too, what I have to assume if he uses isolators, than it would mean he also created a capacitor of massive proportions!<br>The top an bottom parts of the hull (maybe even the disks itself) get different electrical potencials, same for the air particles moving through the system.<br>Opposite charges attract each other, which means the airflow could have been further accelerated by the static charges of the system.<br>This in return also explains the &quot;afterglow&quot; effect some witnesses claimed to have seen on flying versions of the Repulsine - it was ionised air exiting the vortex.<br><br>Anyone with thoughts on this?</p>
Im not familiar with 3D printing but is there a way to print with the ink in a form of nano copper? Could the microscopic dust size of the &quot;ink&quot; be substituted with fine copper particulate? Copper infused ink being used to stay as close to the original design as possible.<br> Very cool to see this particular old tech being preserved in digital form. Comprehend and copy nature is the theme of all Schaubergers work. The future of humanity could use this type of tech. <br> Seen any funnels? The hyperbolic funnels look much easier and their use is more easily executed with visible results. Maybe its been done. Just searched Schauberger on here and this project came up. Miniature versions of the waterfalls would be cool too. <br>Admire this project immensely!<br>
<p>It is not a big problem to galvanize the finnished model to give it a copper look.<br>There is copper filament available as well, but I don't know if they actually use copper particles in the filament.<br>I am still fighting to make the design printable so at least from the outside it looks like a model of the real thing.<br>But I am not willing to compromise on function, so all parts have to be designed in a way that allow printing AND usage on the model.<br>Will be some time but it will be done!</p>
<p>Copper filament sounds like it contains real copper. </p><p> Is the one you have an original Viktor creation or is it something made from his designs?</p><p>I imagine the problem of printing would be all the over/under parts?</p><p>printing as one piece or as individual pars for assembly?</p><p>Function over fashion most definitely! </p><p>3D print on, man!</p>
<p>As said I use images and videos as well as od drawings to get it all together.<br>And yes, since the wave disks in the original are made from thin copper the printable version needs to be modified accordingly.</p>
<p>I ran into some printer troubles, one of them being a bad batch of filament :(<br>So the printed parts have a little delay, but once I can confirm they are actually printable I will enable the download of the STL files.</p>
<p>Turns out being able to design such complicated things does not always mean you are smart enough for the basics.<br>Turned out for some reason there is a massive difference between turning a part for printing and flipping it LOL<br>One part of the diffusor is clockwise, the other counter clockwise :(<br>But the first print also showed that a perfectly calibrated printer is required for the fine details.<br>And that means working with retractions wherever possible to get clean surfaces.<br>So much for waiting 2 days to get the print ready :(<br>Will figure out which part is flipped and start again printing over the weekend.</p>
<p>Starting the first prints today and once I have them cleaned and in my hand it is time to figure out how to create the missing parts :)<br>Will upload some pics if the prints out turn at least half decent.</p>
<p>I have followed your interesting dissertation and the first thought that comes to mind after marveling at the efforts you put into your Sketchfab. </p><p>Is that the strength of material of a 3D print leaving out the thermal abilities is probably no more then, do they fit and turn.. Ergo have you considered or know if 3D printing can make lost wax version for a final metal part to be assembled ?</p>
<p>I have been tinking of casting it but so far it seems to be a bit too delicate.<br>Although if the print could be doubled in size aluminium should be no problem.<br>Some things like the diffusore would need some additional mods as there are very thin parts.<br>I think for a small scale model CNC maching would be better.<br>For this just some slicing of the parts is required and to line them up properly a few guide holes added.<br><br>I am still in the early design stages and Sketchup was not really the best choice for it but not in the mood to learn another program right now.<br>Once I got at least the missing top part designed I will check how to modify the models to be printable without too much support.<br>With my spinning top I noticed support is something to be avoided if you have flat and big areas.<br>That is why I designed the diffusor in two variations, hoping the bigger one can be sliced into two pieces for a proper pint without too much support.<br>But the good think is that I learned at a thousand ways that won't work when creating 3D models in Sketchup for printing ROFL</p>
<p>While Al is an excellent metal, I don't believe it was readily available to Schauberger or Coanda who had access to Copper and Iron.</p><p>Pic_1 looks like a Photoshop cleanup of a washed-out image but may be true with the rivets outlining sheetwork craft construction of that era.</p><p>Pic_2 looks like what you are in the process of designing.</p><p>Pic_3 is a structure that was featured in a UFO documentary as a tiedown for testing unpredictable hover craft and actually still exists in Germany.</p>
<p>Pic1 is an artists impression and more a mix of the Hanebu &quot;flying saucer&quot; and the repulsine.<br>The center parts is like a ball, while in the original it is egg-shaped.<br>Pic2 is about as correct as it goes for the earlier models without the lower hull.<br>Pic3 I have never seen :)<br>But your collection shows nicely the cofusion around the Repulsine.<br>In pic2 you get a first idea on how the bottom part and the top cone was shaped as they followed the airflow as seen in the pic.<br>According to what I gathered the holes in the top cone are to seperate &quot;heavier&quot; particles out of the air stream but not to let air in.<br>This is confirmed by the few real world images of the diffusor area as there is no usable gap to let anything get from these holes to the inside.<br>But it also adds to the confusion as they are the only holes on that cone.<br>To make things worse (and you can see a bit of it on the image as well), on pics of that time that have the top diffusor attached, the diffusor itself has no air inlet on the top.<br>But and that is a huge BUT:<br>If you add the outer hull on the top part of the second image in pic2, the top cone coveres the gap between top diffusor and inner hull.<br>The inner hull together with the outer hull form a very effective Coanda disk.<br>That means, if I am correct with my inital findings and Schauberger was inspired by the Coanda plane engine, he combined his technology with the Coanda effect.<br>To spin it even further:<br>The air that went into the lower hull using the holes in the top cone and the coanda effect, had no contact to Schaubergers parts.<br>But from the lower outer hull the air was directed into the top diffusor from the bottom.<br><br>Sadly so far I was unable to figure out how and where the air actually escaped the Repulsine.<br>I can spin the idea behind Schaubergers vortex energies a bit further and assume a totally closed system as his intention was a &quot;free energy&quot; device anyway but then there would be no purpose of it all other to use it as a generator.<br>But who knows, if I ever manage to print a complete model it might just fly off ;)<br><br></p>
<p>I had another close look at the current designs and the tolerances for the non-printable parts should be good enough for casting.<br>However, due to the shapes and fine details it will be very hard to get a proper &quot;clean&quot; cast done without warping the parts.<br>But then again I have not done any castings as complex as these would be.<br>First I want to at least complete the parts that I could get usable information about.<br>Then it all needs a flat base for the motor mount and outer diffusor ring.<br>At that stage it might be nice if someone could run the stuff through some simulation software to check the airflow - if anyone even has access to such software.<br><br>One potential problem for critics that I have found is the later Repulsine designs had a few more grooves in the wave disks and that the outer (upper) hull was no longer connected to the spinning parts.<br>But no matter how much I crawl through the depths of search engines and suspicios (free energy) websites there no documents available showing these later designs in good detail.<br>Same story for the internals of the lower hull.<br>All I know is the basic shape based on some hyperbolic calculations of the top part.<br>And of course that if contained the main engine and several diffusors directing the air into a vortex going back up through the center of the repulsine to be &quot;re-used&quot; together with the incoming air.<br>Seems I will only get to the top parts or have to come with my own designs based on imagination for the missing bits.</p>
<p>Does anyone have decent pictures of the underside of the Repulsine?<br>I don't mean the mounting frame with the motor attachment but one of these rare images where the complete outer hull is shown?</p>

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