Instructables
Picture of The Solar Garden Light: adding the Flash
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In the previous attempt to increase the output from a basic Solar Garden Light (SGL), publishedhere, we quickly reached a limit: the brighter we make the light, the quicker we deplete the battery, or more properly, the charge we can obtain from the sun during the day.

The solution was apparent: make a flashing SGL. Not only is it much more readily noticeable, and hence, more effective against would-be intruders; it also conserves battery power, so that the battery will last a long time.

The difficulty was designing a circuit that could be made from easily obtainable and inexpensive parts. The result is a simple flashing circuit using only ONE transistor, powered by a single rechargeable battery.And, a simple enhancement of 2 parts will more than triple the light output.

And it is effective - after 4 days of storm & rain, with only the rechargeable from the old light, it's still going strong.
 
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Step 1: The circuit

Picture of The circuit
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The material you will need for the light:

R1,R2,R3,R4: 1.5K-ohm resistor
C1: 470uF (micro Farad)
C2: 1nF (.001uF) or 680pF for 2 x orange or red LEDs
D1,D2: 1N4148 or 1N914 (any low-power signal diode)
Q1,Q2: BC337 (do not substitute!)
T1, made from 3 pieces of thin, insulated wire each 8ft (2m5) long
Solar cell, 1.2volt battery, LED, casing: from old Garden Light

The hi-lited components (Q2,R2) are optional, but will greatly increase the brightness.

The basic circuit is a Joule Thief which is designed to drain the charge in C1 to light the LED. This causes the LED to flash. After that C1 has to recharge through R3, which takes about 3/4 seconds, at which point the cycle repeats. The optional parts increase the power to the LED, and make the flash longer as well.

This circuit is also unique in that not only will it switch off the flashing when the battery begins to charge; it will also turn the light back on to avoid overcharging the battery.

Step 2: Making the coil

Picture of Making the coil
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The heart and soul of the circuit is the coil - T1 in the schematic. Despite its complicated lines, it's just a hank of 3 x 8'-long wires that have been jumble-wound together using a penlight cell as a form.

A closer look at the construction shows the 3-wires. The Green is a #32 wirewrap, used for the secondary; the Yellow is #26 for Q1 and the enamel (magnet) wire is a #24, used for Q2, which carries more of the current. Note also the plastic-ties used to hold the wires tightly.

Make sure you identify the start and ends of each wire: and label them P1a, P1b (yellow); P2a, P2b (copper), S1a and S1b (green). They will help you see where they should go later.

For the technically-minded, this makes a 1:1:1 air-core transformer measuring about 20uH per leg.

Step 3: Putting the pieces together

The circuit can be assembled in 4 steps:

1) Wire the components together from the schematic as shown

2) Attach part B to A

3) Attach C to the Garden light, leaving as much of the negative lead as possible.

4) Finish attaching the coil and the light.

Step 4: Performance stats

Picture of Performance stats
Each flash of the LED lasts about 1/20-second, sending out brief pulses of up to 150mA through the LED, but too quickly to cause over-heating in the light. This also allows us to conserve battery consumption to about 10mA on average.

That is why even a low-capacitor battery will keep the light working up to 2 days, even without charging under direct sunlight.

Variations:

It is possible to use this circuit with different color LEDs: whites, blues and UV are basically interchangeable.

For red, orange and yellow, two in series can replace the single white. One small adjustment is to lower C2 to 680pF to allow for the higher LED voltage. A word of caution: in some communities, red and/or blue flashing lights are used to signify a crime or emergency.

Check out my Website for more information on this and other LED circuits
trinitty1 year ago
Hi qs. I 've replicated your circuit and I managed to make it work with just Q1. When add Q2, the LED stop blinking. I did make it work but in an odd configuration. Without P2 winding and with Q2's collector not connected. And the LED did blinked brighter.
I used a toroid from a CFL, with 3 windings of 5 turns each (magnet wire). The rest parts are the same with yours.Can you give me some clarification ?
qs (author)  trinitty1 year ago
If you are sure Q2 is working properly (replace Q1 with it to check), then it is most likely the polarity of the coil is reversed.

Let me know how this is working out!
hehinckley2 years ago
Would that design work for making an LED flashing sign?
qs (author)  hehinckley2 years ago
No reason why not - depending on the size of the sign, you may need multiple LEDs.
dezignable3 years ago
I would like to make the flashing LED(s) light up fiber optic strands (encased in something like concrete) that spell out a name or address. Will 30 AWG wire-wrap wire work as well as 32 AWG wire-wrap? I would like to buy no more than needed (8 feet) if possible, but can't find a source for 32AWG wire-wrap.
qs (author)  dezignable3 years ago
You can substitute any copper wire as long as it's insulated. The only constraint is the size of the coil when you use thicker wires.

I've never had any luck bonding fibre optics to naked LEDs - is there a special technique?

It would be awesome if you can combine 3 or more flashing LEDs each with its own group of fibres!
sasaa4 years ago
in some communities, red and/or blue flashing lights are used to signify a crime or emergency. TRUE don't use red lights!
ralegg5 years ago
Do you have a video of it in action?
qs (author)  ralegg5 years ago
For sure!




ralegg qs5 years ago
very nice!
haha, I just went to your site and realized I had been there before to read about your fake flourescent, keep up the good work!
wierd idiot5 years ago
Well that's a flash circuit you got there. :)
qs (author)  wierd idiot5 years ago
Thanks, it's the only design I know of that can work off 1.2-volts using only 1 transistor.