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"The Three Magic Stethoscopes"

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                                              Introduction
The main purpose for this project is to demonstrate how sound waves cantravel through enclosed spaces with three different stethoscopes and to see if three different homemade stethoscopes perform the same job as a factory or industry made. A stethoscope is a device used by medical professionals to listen to theinternal sounds of the body. The scientific concept relevant to this project is for theroll and funnel to act as a homemade stethoscope by amplifying the sound waves by picking up vibration in an enclosed place.


                                               Body of Report
Rene- Theophile-Hyacinthe Laennec a French physician invented the stethoscopein 1816, the idea came to him when he witnessed children playing with a long pieceof wood that transmitted the sound of pins scratching the surface. After making the observation he rolled up a piece of paper into the shape of a funnel. He then used thepaper funnel to listen to the chests of his patients. Discovering the funnel amplifiedthe sounds from his patient’s chests, he built a 25cm by 2.5cm hollowed wooden cylinder. This cylinder replaced the rolled up paper tube as a device to listen to his patient’s chest.

He later modified this device with detachable parts. He noted the various sounds heheard with his original stethoscope and related them to his patient’s body structure finding the sounds of their organs. He published his findings in 1819 and the stethoscope coming from a Greek word “stethos” (meaning chest) was born. As he neared death Laennec often referred to the stethoscope as “the cylinder”. These projects will benefit society by making it easier and cheaper for people to use it to amplify sounds for different purposes. Stethoscopes have been used for many reasons like to indicate both normal and abnormal functioning of the body's organs. Some stethoscopes are specially designed to monitor vibration sounds, and for unborn babies heartbeat or blood flow, also they are used for listening to sounds produced inside the body. There are many different type of stethoscopes such as acoustic stethoscope which function by using a chest piece with hollow tubes that go to the listener’s ear, electronic stethoscope which electronically amplify the body sound, noise reduction stethoscopes which are built with surrounding area of noise filtering system, and recording stethoscopes which are used when providing evaluations and consultations to patient with certain conditions, also fetal stethoscopes these are used for pregnant women’s in order to listen to the heartbeat of the fetus.
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