First of all i want to apologise for any grammar mistakes, and any other mistakes in writting caus i used google translate to translate all text that you will see here ( Engl is not my native languge so i wrote all in my languge than translated it ). I will trie to fix all things that are not translated , also dont laugh if you read onion instead of bow beacus in my country they mean same thing, also acacia caus g.t. is mixing it with b. locust. 

As we know (primarily based on the experience of our ancestors) black locust is extremely durable wood, in every sense: solid, hard, Non-susceptible to decay and insects, long lasting and tough. On that basis by many as a perfect wood for bows. The answer is there somewhere in between, yes and no. Black locust tree is very specific in terms of bow's, because of the special way of making and because of the mechanical properties of wood. I'll try to explain in this tutorial that details the process of development can and critical points in it that need special attention.

First, to clarify the properties of black locust wood .... Wood species vary in compresional tension and endurance. Example: If you take a piece of wood in the shape of the rod and bend it into a semi-circular outer part of his suffering, increasing its length stretching and compression of the inner and reducing their length. This phenomenon is happening at such a small scale that is invisible to the naked eye but it is a crucial factor in making bows. If the piece of wood we continue to bend the will inevitably come to a permanent deformation of the play. What happens in a kind of strong tension (most sawmills): As their name suggests, their fibers better than stretching suffer compaction. Because the outer part to withstand bending but on the inside to collapse, ie. zgnječiće because the wood fibers are not as able to withstand compaction, compression. With heavy compression types (mainly conifers) are going the other way around: since the fibers are more resistant to compaction it will stand on the inside of the suffering compaction but will break a piece to the part that suffers stretching outside. Very rare species collapse at the same time, are equally strong and compression and tension. The most imbowsant factor here is the thickness of the piece that moves: 1mm thick sheet of veneer can bend the roll and not crack because the thin, but with increasing wall thickness increases the problem that we're talking. The first picture explains this current exhibition.

Step 1:

This introductory part is not only important for the development of bow's below have to understand the essence of thebow's: Wood shall in no way be overloaded because it will break.

Where is all this locust? He has very good compression, the fibers well suffer compaction. But the tension is even better so that experimental piece still hurt by the compression of fibers. The only solution (except for the few exceptional situations) is to hold a piece of black locust as onions, thin and wide, to reduce the negative effects of compression on the belly of fiber ports. Black locustalso has another problem (in a row) that will always inflict LUKAR problem: if too overwhelming the fibers of the stomach, we compress them too much it will be irreversibly damaged, and this will be evident in the form of stretch marks on the cross piece. For other types of fibers are more or less recover if zagibamo piece too, but at a certain place at Locust NE-he does not forgive mistakes when making such a different kind. One of the first tips: press not too many pieces, the motion must be spread on the entire length of the working harbor.

Making a play for the port must be sufficiently dry. It is understood that about 10% moisture wood. It can be measured by carpenter moisture meter (unreliable method determines the most part wood surface moisture) or holding a piece of black locust in the area where the humidity is 55% and the air temperature is 20-30 C (operating with the U.S. Institute for wood) until you stop losing weight (weight control digital kitchen libra ). Black locust should be split before drying or hatchet and other tools of awareness to the approximate dimensions of the port to be dried as soon as possible, DO NOT REMOVE BARK! We can expect a dry piece somewhere in a month, a story of many years of drying the ordinary fiction, because libra is that tells us everything. One of the most optimal design for bow black locust is pyramidal. What does that mean-bow has a narrow handle and a non-working, thick enough not moving and narrow enough to be comfortable to grip. Handle is made from a light switch on the arm of the future port-they should be in the final state of at least 5 cm wide. Means that the rough shape before drying can leave them at 6 cm wide, we reduce the rest when it starts production. Length with handle day-to-spoke crossings could be about 20 cm. The total bow length should not be less than 1.7 m. Short tapering directly from the widest part of the areas that should be no more than a wide 10-12mm in final form. Because of their shape and are therefore called pyramid bow. One of the advantages of the pyramid bow is its nearly constant thickness of the arms (we explain when we get that far).

When the piece is dry first stage is peeling. It is easily removed by knife . Coarse tore it to pieces. I say rough-no need to be too careful in tree bark (unless no nodes) as the first layer of wood under the bark, sapwood, waste from the game: a few sapwood rings and only have a pith beneath it that we need to create port . Around the node we remove sapwood maximum caution.

Step 2:

Few people work with bows locust sapwood is almost always because of poor quality and is not as durable heartwood. White colored part we have to take off the first goda pith that we should not to damage us because at that point bow likely to break.

Step 3:

This is another limitation in locust: whereas in other species just take off the bark , and we back of the bow  , and we have the locust  sapwood. She takes off in long thin strips being careful not to damage the pith. If it is too thick sapwood, we see that there is a lot of work, it's the first we reduce by ax Keser (adze). <-- don't know word for it in english but you can see the tool on the picture

Step 4:

The picture shows what you need to follow, best of all, it has the fattest autumn zone

Step 5:

When you take off the sapwood port reduction approach to the sizes if you have not previously done so.

Step 6:

When you take off the sapwood port reduction approach to the sizes if you have not previously done so.
In locust is important to be careful not to shut up because it tends to clogging. I usually do this surgery with axe (in this case keser) , rarely with knife . As we approached quite close to the required dimensions continue to further reduce crude scalpel (to clog it and do not break tree nodes, we have less work using files). It is very important that the edges are not sharp bow, ideal roundness is to be shaped roughly pea. While working on this piece we encounter unexpected difficulties: three dead node, fallin out one. Depending on the position of the change and its threat to the onion. A node that is located at the middle branch is almost harmless, just clean it and leave a hole in the handle of the node is potentially dangerous, we look to be removed during the operation.

Step 7:

Most dangerous of all is the node-edge have no way to patch it. It has to be removed when folding and Tillering  as a major threat to the bow.

Step 8:

When we reduced the dimensions of the piece to check if port axis goes right across the middle. It is not good that the axis deviates from the environment, especially in the handle, twisting makes the  port in hand when at full draw  a lot on the security, accuracy and performance of the port. In this case we see that each arm yourself right (no need to correct) but the bow fault in one point, hanging in there, and that must be corrected.

Step 9:

Correcting by steaming the  wood. To handle this size is strong enough for an hour of intensive steaming . During the steaming time  does not count during heating of water, but most gushing steam. The figure shows a simple enough setting for mating port in one spot. Patch is used to slow down and keep going steam temperature constant. Since wood is somewhat thermoplastic (can partially change shape when heated) heated wood will warp into the desired shape.

Step 10:

The wood is placed in the position of steaming immediately so that heated water and steam at the beginning of the release, and it warms gently to avoid splashing. We must regularly check amount of water and we must keep filling it with water but not to stop it boiling. After an hour extracting timber and put in the position of already prepared for the distortion.

Step 11:

That leaves him one day, to cool and hardened into a new form and return the moisture lost by heating (wood steaming almost always loses water and not receiving it). We put it in clamps that is  more than necessary because wood tends to return to its original shape. Because twisting 30% more to be desired, when I remove the clamps from the piece back 30% of its original position, and we are where exactly should be (this relationship was not always like this, sometimes we blame more or less, depending on the situation).
We see that after cooling everything is in place.

Step 12:

We approach phase of the tiler (setup looks bow). Smoothes the edges, reducing the amount of wood where the excess obvious. As we said, the pyramid of the bow is a mitigating factor that the thickness does not vary much-I bow moves at a constant thickness as it narrows looking frontally.

Step 13:

For bow used as an example of the need of some thickness of about 12-13mm (based on previous experience) throughout the length of the part with minimal adjustments. We check how thick it's convenient (in my case, usually the fingers, by feel). One of the guiding this process and the rings on the belly port. Should look similar to this: that the entire stomach is almost one growth ring , possibly two 

Step 14:

What it means: the whole arm has (so to speak) the same thickness. Reducing wood is mostly done here by file and sandpaper as this piece a lot of choking. When reduced to the same thickness test whether a piece is moving. In this case the motion is strong and has met a requirement to immediately put the string. The moves to the desired force and follow bow's  appearance (which is moving and where it stiff). This bow is pretty well balanced from the start, you have to ease up on the lower arm closer to the handle.

Step 15:

Here's an idea how little it takes to remove wood in this final phase: as the thickness of the removed layer of paper was more than enough to balance and adjust the port layout. (As we said, the pyramid bows are easy to tiller  because of the same thickness on the arms of all places).

When we are happy with the port at full draw we approach finish. We start sanding  from size  120 to 320 for example. When sand out we  Double check all surfaces for  cracks, folds of compression, traces of the tools. If everything is in order (in this case it is) we start put on melted pork fat that is absorbed into the wood and makes it waterproof. She also gives a nice brownish tint. After the  layer of fat,  layer of wax is next that spreads over the entire surface( we are using hair drier )  until the entire bow is covered with a layer of wax that it also protects against moisture. I think that the process is not so important, it is easy to explain and therefore is not pictured. As the new owner wanted the app back to port we added it.
Bow is than covered with a layer of clear coat finish...
All these layers will protect bow from insects, moisture and it will last longer, clear coat isn't traditional finishing touch but it helps bow to last longer and prevents over dry'ing

Step 16:

The result: a bow of black locust is over ....
I would like to help you translate this excellent bow carving instructable. <br>Right now it is not so good. I could rewrite it and have you fix the words, if you would like. <br>I am a writer and my son has an interest in archery. <br>Please contact me at binell (at) earthlink.net <br>Thanks. <br>rich <br>ps-Where are you located? I'm in California. <br>Pps- When you reply to me, you can delete my email address here please.
Im located in Serbia, in europe. Well i dont know if its ok to fix it while it is in contest or it doesent matter ?
<p>Thanks,it was very usefull.</p>
<p>i will make one soon</p>
<p>this is an amazing tutorial and a beautiful bow. i started reading this because i wish to make a black locust bow; i have a good stand of it on my property. lots of articles on osage orange and hickory self bows in the USA but few using black locust. even the &quot;bowyer's bible&quot; series of books do not address this wood in detail for bow making.</p><p>your craftsmanship is superb and the instructions are excellent. yes some translation improvement would help but after reading twice, printing and making penciled corrections i am very comfortable with this instructable.</p><p>when you mentioned english not being your native language and using google translate my initial impression was you were an exchange student; your photos did not give any indication of your locale. looks most like any shop/work area i have seen. i was surprised when i read in the comments of siberia being your home. i will use siberian instructions to make a bow in kentucky!!!!!</p><p>thanks</p><p>the old gray dog</p>
This is the best bow instructable out there at the time!
Excellent, just excellent.
Very, very nice work mate! I'll vote for you, this is ART!
thx :)
i have a very good friend who tought me how to make bow. He is from Monstak !!! Anyway now he is 87 yo and during war he killed many enemies with his bow.....all made by the cedar wood
well bows and crossbows are still good wep;s caus they are rly silent and dont give out position. Many armys still have xbows and bows as weps for special operations. My coach once told me that an arrow can penetrate west that guns could not, becaus arrows havesteel point and weight of arrow just increases damage done
I saw a documentary the other day about why the Mongol invasion reached Europe. It was successful in part because of their bows - which went twice as far as the English crossbow of the times. It was made of Yak horn and bamboo. The middle part was made of the former, and pieces of bamboo where fastened to both ends at an angle. The bow was then strung in the opposite direction of the angle of the bow. <br> <br>In addition, each soldier had 5 types of arrows with different functions. One wistled - meant to scare the enemy. Others were more for distance. Another could pierce armor. <br> <br>(Also, their armor was many times lighter - a total of 20 lbs - the European armor was 100lbs! The trick was making their armor out of SILK. Yep, you read that right: Silk because a soldier could survive a wound much better. The biggest danger of getting hit by an arrow was the barb. When pulled out, it caused a nastier wound that would bleed much more. But a silk barrier could be removed by simply pulling on the silk - which was resistant enough to the arrow edges to remain whole.) <br> <br>Again - Chinese technology of the time was mostly way more advanced than Europe's in the 12th century.
While back, when i was training archery, my coach told me story about turkish bows and about their emepror. He told me that he had bow made from horns to so strong that he shot one arrow from his palace which flew about 2 miles . Also american indians were making something similar with horns, they could kill a buffalo and female buffalo beside him with one arrow
Good one Chuck, that must be basically how the Native American Indians lamanated Their Bows, with Sinue I beleve.?
The reason that Google Translate was having &quot;issues&quot; with Acacia and Black Locust is because they're the same thing. Plants have all sorts of different names depending on where you're at. Tolkien even mentioned it in The Lord of the Rings.
g.t. is mixing it it translates it to acacia , but when you translate it back it stas acacie :D
YES ! The tool is called an &quot;adze&quot; in English too ! <br> <br>This is a common tool with &quot;timber-framers&quot;. It is also called an &quot;adze&quot; in Japanese too. <br>
uh thx :D . I heard from some one around here that it is Turkish word :)
Well least we know now that the world languages have at lease one word in common. lol the humble &quot;adze&quot;
Some authorities claim that wood is always far stronger in tension than compression, while others see no difference. A partial compresson failure weakens the wood for subsequent tension. Spanish Yew was used for the English Longbow, but was not suitable in warmer climates. A bow that is initially curved backwards is more effective, because the string tension averages higher during use.
Italian yew was preferred
In the late 50's I bought an English Long Bow for $ .25 &quot;cents&quot; It was broken because the kid I bought it from tryed to string it using a car bumper. I repaired it with a 8&quot; strap of metal, fly line, and friction tape. I was about 12 and could only draw a 28&quot; arrow, but it would drill an arrow thru about 6 Highlander &quot;Tin&quot; beer cans full of water sometimes without tipping most of them over.. I was out with it once and some friends playing in a Haystack hollered to shoot an arrow, it was about 250 yards + I could barley hear them, I chose the curved bent arrow and held very high and let fly, after a few seconds they jumped down. Later One gave the arrow back to Me, It had went into a bale aabout 6&quot; above His back - KIDS - YUP.! Where do them beautys go.?
Well you can make bow from almost every wood. Every wood has it good sides and bad sides,and some forgive mistakes while others don't. :)
It is called a adze in English, well it's called that in Australia anyway, and btw nice instructable.
Vote! Thanks for the great instructable. It is nice to know that you can correct small mistakes in the wood with steam.
Already voted, nice Instructable, for the difficult times ahead...
thx :)
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Oh, I tried to reply in Serbian script but it didn't work.<br> <br> Anyhoo, great Instructable and really nice pictures.
thx, cirilic doesent work here :D
Пич, да не си българин?
im not a bulgarian, im serbian :)
ti si razumeo nesto ovde &quot;8G, 40 =5 A8 1J;30@8=?&quot; ?
da, na mail sam otvorio i bilo otkucano cirilicom
http://www.primitivearcher.com/pages/community.html <br> <br>Check it out. You'll find lots to interest you.
thx, i already know for this site :)
Awesome! I so want to make one! Great instructable!
Well i would recomend to start with ash or elm, because like i said earlier it does not forgive mistakes like they do, for starter bow you should start with them and later you can make with any wood you like :) <br>Also ppl if you can vote for me i would rly apreciate it thx :)
Nice. Black locust is an underutilized wood. It's good to see someone using productively. Where I live in Illinois, black locust is considered a &quot;trash&quot; tree, and is usually only used as fence posts.
Well around here is one of better woods for bow. But it does not forgive any mistakes like elm, ash or other woods.
WOW, what a bow!

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