(P.S The sixth and seventh states of matter are pretty complex. I will explain those later in any other instructable if you want. Let me know in the comments...)
Step 1: Understanding Matter...
• Matter is made up of small particles which can exist independently and are known as molecules.
• Molecules of matter posses kinetic energy and are always in motion. Molecules keep absorbing kinetic energy from their surroundings.
• There exists intermolecular force between the molecules of matter which binds the molecules of matter together
This force is most in solids, mediocre in liquids and negligible in gases.
• There also exists intermolecular spaces between the molecules of matter.
• By applying pressure and reducing temperature we can liquefy atmospheric gases.
Step 2: PLASMA......
The sun actually formed and ignited because of being made up of Plasma.(More on that in some other instructable... Let me know in the comments if you want it too). The lightning that occurs during a storm is also plasma. Plasma TV's are also very common these days. A plasma ball is also a good way of observing plasma.
Step 3: BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATE (BEC)
The BEC happens at super low temperatures. At zero Kelvin (absolute zero) all molecular motion stops. Scientists have figured out a way to get a temperature only a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero. When temperatures get that low, you can create a BEC with a few special elements. Cornell and Weiman did it with rubidium(Rb).When you get to a temperature near absolute zero, something amazing happens. Atoms begin to clump i.e, the begin to form a cluster. The whole process happens at temperatures within a few billionths of a degree, so this isn't something you can see at home. When the temperature becomes that low, the atomic parts can't move at all. They lose almost all of their energy.
Since there is no more energy to transfer (as in solids or liquids), all of the atoms have exactly the same levels, like twins. The result of this clumping is the BEC. The group of rubidium atoms sits in the same place, creating a "super atom." There are no longer thousands of separate atoms. They all take on the same qualities and, for our purposes, become one blob.
Source: My brain and the knowledge inside it.
(IT'S NOT A WEBSITE, PEOPLE!!!)
Step 4: Any Questions??
Also, being a ninth grader, my exams are starting next week. So, my next instructable will be posted about two weeks later on an even better topic. Stay tuned for the same. I'll be sure to answer any queries in the meantime.
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