Introduction: Understanding the Seventh State of Matter!!!
Hey Guys, I am with back another instructable and this time it's the sequel of understanding matter.
Thanks to all for the overwhelming response on the first part☺☺ (Be sure to check that out if you haven't because you'll need to read that to understand a few parts of this instructable... ) You'll also need to read my instructable on superfluids. The link is given below...
As promised, In this instructable, I will try to explain the seventh state of matter as easily as possible namely, the fermionic condensate.
(P.S I know that I said earlier that I will explain both, the sixth and the seventh state of matter but there are many things which should be explained before understanding the sixth state of matter which will be explained separately in different instructables and then, I will explain the sixth state of matter....)
Understanding fourth and fifth state of matter
Step 1: THE FERMIONS...
Before understanding the fermionic condensate, you'll need to understand the fermions.
Well, simply speaking, fermions are a category of elementary particles(elementary particle is a particle that might not be made of other particles. An elementary particle can be a fermion or a boson. Fermions are the building blocks of matter and have mass, while bosons behave as force carriers for fermion interactions and some of them have no mass.).They are very small and very light. Fermions can be thought of as the building blocks of matter because atoms are made up of fermions. Paul Dirac named them fermions in honor of a famous scientist called Enrico Fermi.
Step 2: THE BCS THEORY...
Well, this theory is important if you want to understand fermionic condensate....So read on...
It is faaaaaarrr more difficult to produce a fermionic superfluid than a bosonic one, because the Pauli Exclusion principle prohibits fermions from occupying the same quantum state. However, there is a well-known mechanism by which a superfluid may be formed from fermions. This is the BCS Transition or BCS theory, discovered in 1957 by John Bardeen, Leon Cooper and Robert Schrieffer for describing superconductivity. These authors showed that, below a certain temperature, electrons (which are fermions) can pair up to form bound pairs now known as COOPER PAIRS. As long as collisions with the ionic grid of the solid not supply enough energy to break the Cooper pairs, the electron fluid will be able to flow without dissipation. As a result, it becomes a superfluid, and the material through which it flows, a superconductor.The BCS theory or Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory was PHENOMENALLY successful in describing superconductors(They'll be explained in any other instructable...)
Step 3: FERMIONIC CONDENSATE...
A fermionic condensate, or fermi condensate, is a state matter in super fluid state which is very similar to the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC). The only difference is that Bose-Einstein condensates are made up of bosons, and are social with each other (in groups, or clumps). Fermi condensates are anti-social (they don't attract each other at all). This has to be done artificially.
Fermionic condensates are attained at temperatures even lower that of Bose–Einstein condensates(Just Imagine!!). Fermionic condensates are a type of superfluid.
Now, let's move on to the creation of The first ever creation of fermionic condensate. In 1995, When Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman produced a Bose–Einstein condensate from rubidium atoms, there naturally arose the prospect of creating a similar sort of condensate made from fermionic atoms, which would form a superfluid by the BCS mechanism. However, early calculations indicated that the temperature required for producing Cooper pairing in atoms would be too cold to achieve. In 2001, Murray Holland at JILA(Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics) suggested a way of bypassing this difficulty. He speculated that fermionic atoms could be forced into pairing up by subjecting them to a strong magnetic field.
In 2003, working on Holland's suggestion, Deborah Jin(Who, from 1995 to 1997 worked with Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman at JILA, and was involved in some of the earliest studies of dilute gas Bose Einstein Condensate) at JILA, Rudolf Grimm at the University if Innsbruck, and Wolfgang Ketterle at MIT managed to force fermionic atoms into forming molecular bosons, which then underwent Bose–Einstein condensation. However, this was not a true fermionic condensate. On December 16, 2003, Deborah Jin managed to produce a condensate out of fermionic atoms for the first time. The experiment involved 500,000 pottasium-40 atoms cooled to a temperature of 5×10^(−8)° K, subjected to a time-varying magnetic field. She even won many awards for it...
Note - Images of fermionic condensate are not available as they are microscopic in size and not something you see everyday. If you happen to find any images of the same, do notify me via comments...
Source :- MY BRAIN AND THE KNOWLEDGE INSIDE IT (Again, IT'S NOT A WEBSITE PEOPLE!!!)
Step 4: Any Questions???
If you have trouble understanding anything, or want to request an instructable on any topic in science or quantum physics, feel free to do so. I'll be sure to answer your query and if the topic you suggest holds some potential, I'll be sure to post an instructable on it. Also, please let me know of how you felt about this Instructable. If you find a mistake anywhere in this Instructables , kindly notify me of it, I will be sure to correct it.
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