Introduction: Vibration Foam Speaker!

Picture of Vibration Foam Speaker!

Concept: Very simple, using an arduino and the play melody basic program, create a music playing speaker out of a vibration motor and a piece of flexible foam. Instead of pulsing signal to a speaker, signal is pulsed to a motor varying how fast it can spin and when it spins.

Science behind it (this might not be super correct but it is my basic understanding of how it works): As the motor vibrates (uses an imbalanced shaft) it transfer the kinetic energy into the foam which has many air pockets throughout its structure. As the foam absorbs all this kinetic energy into all the air pockets it spreads out the rough vibrations throughout into little air vibrations everywhere within the foam and smoothing it out. All the air pockets now vibrate at the same frequency and each acts as a small speaker using compression of air to produce sound. Think of it like a 100 little piezo speakers all playing the same song tied together on a hammock, this is essentially what the foam is, lots of little air pockets connected on a web which allows many of them to vibrate almost independently.



Tools Required:
Scissors

Materials Required:
Arduino (uno used for this) and jumper wires
Vibration Motor (Radio Shack http://www.radioshack.com/product/index.jsp?productId=2914700)
LED (not necessary but fun)
1" x 3" of Foam (can try many different materials here) (http://tinyurl.com/9b6cohq)
Small piece of scotch tape

Step 1: Wrap Vibration Motor With Foam

Picture of Wrap Vibration Motor With Foam

Cut a piece of the blue foam (or other foam, try different things) to approximately 1" x 3". Wrap the foam around the motor and secure with tape.

Step 2:

Picture of

Wiring the motor and LED:
The motor and LED are wired in parallel so they receive the same outputs from the Arduino for the music. Pin 9 on the Arduino is what outputs the music signal so that will be the lead to the positive for the LED and motor. Both the negative leads on the LED and motor will goto ground. Plug in the components into a breadboard (or wired together directly if desired) following the pictures and schematics.

*Note: Depending on what LED is used, a resistor may be needed (but will probably not burn out without it)

Wiring diagram courtesy of Arduino example projects (Great resource, check it out!) http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/Tone

Step 3: Upload Code and Play Vibrational Music!

Picture of Upload Code and Play Vibrational Music!

Last step is to upload the code (currently has Star Wars theme and Mario themes, remove commenting on the mario theme and comment out the Star Wars theme to play different melodies). 

Special thanks to R-Team Robotics club for posting their arduino code with the melodies programmed in! 
http://www.phys-x.org/rbots/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=66:lesson-5-play-melody-with-piezo&catid=41:kits&Itemid=70



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/* Play Melody
* -----------
*
* Program to play a simple melody
*
* Tones are created by quickly pulsing a speaker on and off
*   using PWM, to create signature frequencies.
*
* Each note has a frequency, created by varying the period of
*  vibration, measured in microseconds. We'll use pulse-width
*  modulation (PWM) to create that vibration.

* We calculate the pulse-width to be half the period; we pulse
*  the speaker HIGH for 'pulse-width' microseconds, then LOW
*  for 'pulse-width' microseconds.
*  This pulsing creates a vibration of the desired frequency.
*
* (cleft) 2005 D. Cuartielles for K3
* Refactoring and comments 2006 clay.shirky@nyu.edu
* See NOTES in comments at end for possible improvements
*/

// TONES  ==========================================
// Start by defining the relationship between
//       note, period, &  frequency.

// period is in microsecond so P = 1/f * (1E6)

#define  c3    7634
#define  d3    6803
#define  e3    6061
#define  f3    5714
#define  g3    5102
#define  a3    4545
#define  b3    4049
#define  c4    3816    // 261 Hz
#define  d4    3401    // 294 Hz
#define  e4    3030    // 329 Hz
#define  f4    2865    // 349 Hz
#define  g4    2551    // 392 Hz
#define  a4    2272    // 440 Hz
#define  a4s   2146
#define  b4    2028    // 493 Hz
#define  c5    1912    // 523 Hz
#define  d5    1706
#define  d5s   1608
#define  e5    1517
#define  f5    1433
#define  g5    1276
#define  a5    1136
#define  a5s   1073
#define  b5    1012
#define  c6    955

// Define a special note, 'R', to represent a rest
#define  R     0

// SETUP ============================================
// Set up speaker on a PWM pin (digital 9, 10 or 11)
int speakerOut = 9;
// Do we want debugging on serial out? 1 for yes, 0 for no
int DEBUG = 1;

void setup() {
  pinMode(speakerOut, OUTPUT);
  if (DEBUG) {
    Serial.begin(9600); // Set serial out if we want debugging
  }
}

// MELODY and TIMING  =======================================
//  melody[] is an array of notes, accompanied by beats[],
//  which sets each note's relative length (higher #, longer note)
// star wars theme
int melody[] = {  f4,  f4, f4,  a4s,   f5,  d5s,  d5,  c5, a5s, f5, d5s,  d5,  c5, a5s, f5, d5s, d5, d5s,   c5};//
int beats[]  = {  21,  21, 21,  128,  128,   21,  21,  21, 128, 64,  21,  21,  21, 128, 64,  21, 21,  21, 128 };

// note debug
//int melody[] = { c4, d4, e4, f4, g4, a4, b4, c5 };
//int beats[]  = { 63, 64, 64, 64, 64, 64, 64, 64 };


//super mario theme
//int melody[] = {e5, e5, R, e5, R, c5, e5, R, g5, R, R, R, g4, R, R, R, c5, R, R, g4, R, R, e4};
//int beats[] = {16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16 , 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 8, 16, 8, 16, 16};

int MAX_COUNT = sizeof(melody) / 2; // Melody length, for looping.

// Set overall tempo
long tempo = 10000;
// Set length of pause between notes
int pause = 1000;
// Loop variable to increase Rest length
int rest_count = 50; //<-BLETCHEROUS HACK; See NOTES

// Initialize core variables
int toneM = 0;
int beat = 0;
long duration  = 0;

// PLAY TONE  ==============================================
// Pulse the speaker to play a tone for a particular duration
void playTone() {
  long elapsed_time = 0;
  if (toneM > 0) { // if this isn't a Rest beat, while the tone has
    //  played less long than 'duration', pulse speaker HIGH and LOW
    while (elapsed_time < duration) {

      digitalWrite(speakerOut,HIGH);
      delayMicroseconds(toneM / 2);

      // DOWN
      digitalWrite(speakerOut, LOW);
      delayMicroseconds(toneM / 2);

      // Keep track of how long we pulsed
      elapsed_time += (toneM);
    }
  }
  else { // Rest beat; loop times delay
    for (int j = 0; j < rest_count; j++) { // See NOTE on rest_count
      delayMicroseconds(duration); 
    }                               
  }                                
}

// LET THE WILD RUMPUS BEGIN =============================
void loop() {
  // Set up a counter to pull from melody[] and beats[]
  for (int i=0; i<MAX_COUNT; i++) {
    toneM = melody[i];
    beat = beats[i];

    duration = beat * tempo; // Set up timing

    playTone();
    // A pause between notes...
    delayMicroseconds(pause);

    if (DEBUG) { // If debugging, report loop, tone, beat, and duration
      Serial.print(i);
      Serial.print(":");
      Serial.print(beat);
      Serial.print(" ");   
      Serial.print(toneM);
      Serial.print(" ");
      Serial.println(duration);
    }
  }
}

/*
* NOTES
* The program purports to hold a tone for 'duration' microseconds.
*  Lies lies lies! It holds for at least 'duration' microseconds, _plus_
*  any overhead created by incremeting elapsed_time (could be in excess of
*  3K microseconds) _plus_ overhead of looping and two digitalWrites()

* As a result, a tone of 'duration' plays much more slowly than a rest
*  of 'duration.' rest_count creates a loop variable to bring 'rest' beats
*  in line with 'tone' beats of the same length.
*
* rest_count will be affected by chip architecture and speed, as well as
*  overhead from any program mods. Past behavior is no guarantee of future
*  performance. Your mileage may vary. Light fuse and get away.

* This could use a number of enhancements:
* ADD code to let the programmer specify how many times the melody should
*     loop before stopping
* ADD another octave
* MOVE tempo, pause, and rest_count to #define statements
* RE-WRITE to include volume, using analogWrite, as with the second program at
*          http://www.arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/PlayMelody
* ADD code to make the tempo settable by pot or other input device
* ADD code to take tempo or volume settable by serial communication
*          (Requires 0005 or higher.)
* ADD code to create a tone offset (higer or lower) through pot etc
* REPLACE random melody with opening bars to 'Smoke on the Water'
*/

Comments

mrstudiodaddy (author)2013-12-03

How low of a frequecy can you make with that?

Michael_Bell (author)2012-09-03

This is one of the most amazing and creative projects on this site

wilgubeast (author)2012-08-23

That's pretty sweet. And, yeah, replacing the melody with Smoke on the Water is one of the next logical steps to improve it.

Thanks for sharing! Have you checked out amandaghassaei's Arduino music projects?

I really want to make about 5 of these and play Enter the Sandman, Smoke on the Water is also a really good choice.

I have now just checked a couple of amandaghassaei's projects, very cool and inspiring me to try a few more things.

Thanks!

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