Introduction: Vinyl Sticker PCB - How To

Picture of Vinyl Sticker PCB - How To

So this Lazy Old Geek (LOG) is getting in to making PCBs. I’ve already done one Instructable:
https://www.instructables.com/id/My-PCB-Making/
I still like to use Eagle CadSoft but my friend, OffTheRails2010 told me about a better toner transfer method using vinyl stickers. Well, I don’t know why they call it vinyl stickers but it works better than glossy paper. Much of this Instructable comes from this website:
http://en.electroni-city.com/
It’s probably just me but I found this hard to follow and used CAD software, I’m not familiar with.
 
Here’s an ebay source for the vinyl:
http://www.ebay.com/itm/380452333884?var=650054809089
There’s probably better ones and you should also be able to buy locally in sign shops.

Step 1: Laminator

Picture of Laminator

So along with vinyl stickers, I also decided to use a laminator to make PCBs.
Now this is probably optional as you should still be able to use an iron. But for me, it’s a lot easier to use a laminator.
The one I bought is an Apache AL9.
http://www.amazon.com/Apache-AL9-Document-Photo-Laminator/dp/B0012UEU5S/ref=sr_1_4?s=office-products&ie=UTF8&qid=1364776625&sr=1-4&keywords=apache+laminator
 Mostly because it was the cheapest I could find.
 
I found three problems with this laminator:
Problem: This laminator will not take the more standard 0.062” thick copperclad.
(Copperclad is what they call the board with a thin layer of copper on it used to make PCBs.)
Solution: Well I happened to have some 0.031” and got it at a pretty good price.
http://www.ebay.com/itm/310599659225?ssPageName=STRK:MEWNX:IT&_trksid=p3984.m1439.l2649
For many people, this is not a good solution. I’ve read that some people have modified the rollers to take the thicker copperclad, but I don’t want to do this. Also, apparently, there are other laminators that will take the 0.062” copperclad.
Problem: This laminator will not get hot enough to toner transfer PCB traces.
Solution: This is pretty common for cheap laminators. Typically, there are two bimetallic thermal switches that control the temperature. See picture.
Procedure: Now mine were pop riveted in so I had to drill them out. Some people suggest sticking a piece of copperclad between the switches and the aluminum plate. This will probably work. But I decided to replace the switches.
Most of the ‘experts’ on the Internet suggest the ideal temperature for vinyl toner transfer is 170C. Mine were originally 110C and 135C. I think there is a good reason for two different values but I replaced both with 165C. I chose 165C instead of 170C mainly because I could get them cheaper.  
Apparently these are all labeled as KSD301s, so you can search on ebay for KSD301s and look for the temperature you want.
Warning: Many people said they had to replace the thermal fuse also to accommodate the higher temperatures. I didn’t have to. My fuse is rated at 192C.
Warning: This modification will run the laminator at hotter temperatures then it was designed for. I make no guarantees that this will work or how long it will last.
 
Problem: When toner transferring small pieces of copperclad, it is hard to feed and extract them through the laminator.
Solution: I decided to cut big slots in the feed and return side of the laminator top cover. See picture.
This makes it easier to work with small pieces of copperclad. It also allows the laminator to vent off some of the extra heat.

Step 2: Toner Transfer With Vinyl Sticker

Picture of Toner Transfer With Vinyl Sticker

I use the same process for creating schematic and board with Eagle Cadsoft:
https://www.instructables.com/id/My-PCB-Making/
 
Okay. Vinyl sticker is more expensive than glossy paper from magazines, so a different technique is used.
 
The board information needs to be transferred to the physical PCB. I use something called toner transfer on vinyl using a laser printer. An ink jet printer will not work for this process.
 
First, I create the images for printing.
The board view in Eagle Cadsoft contains a lot of information that you don’t want on the actual PCB. Here’s how you limit that information.
Bottom trace Layer
Eagle: In the board editor, there is a little icon called Display (Show/Hide Layers). It's in the upper left corner. Click on it, select <None> then click on (highlight) these layers:
            16-Bottom
            17-Pads
            18-Vias
            20-Dimensions
 
Now, just the bottom trace layer should be displayed similar to what you want to put on the copper. See first picture
Select <File><Export><Image>
            <Monochrome>
            2400 DPI.
            <Browse> Select the directory and file name, e.g, AudioTraces.png that you want. 
            Click <OK> to export as image. Using 2400 DPI, this will take a while and create a big file.
See first picture. By the way, this is a different PCB.

Note that the traces(copper) are in white. For toner transfer, they need to be in black. So you need to transform it. Now I have Adobe PhotoShop Elements. There are other programs that can do this. I know some people use the free GIMP program. But here’s how I do it.
Make Negative:
Open Image with PhotoShopElements
Select <Image><Crop> Crop <Check>    Limit to just the rectangular outline and the dimensions
<Select> All
<Filter><Adjustments><Invert> Now you will have black traces on white background, see picture.
<File><SaveAs>....
e.g., AudioTracesINV.png. Now you have the inverted image.

Step 3: Printing Traces

Picture of Printing Traces

Pre-setup laser printer: (This process will not work with an ink jet printer.) The idea is that you want it as black as possible and no scaling.  The setup I used for my Laser printer:

Samsung ML-1865W Setup
Basic: Quality: Best
Paper: Scaling Options: 100%
Graphics: Darken Text, All Text Black
            Fine Edge
            Toner Saver: Off
            Darkness: Dark
 
This next step is a little tricky. I will summarize the process then provide some details.
First: We will print a copy of the traces on the laser printer on plain paper. This is to locate where on the paper, the traces will print out.
Second: We will put a piece of vinyl over the traces on the paper.
Third: We will run the paper with vinyl through the printer again.
Hopefully, the trace image will be printed onto the vinyl.
 
First: We will print a copy of the traces on the laser printer on plain paper.
Since we will print this piece of paper twice, we need to be able to replace the paper in the paper feed tray in the same orientation. So find you printer paper feed tray and mark the top sheet with a pen or pencil. I marked mine ‘Bot Right’ in the corner.
Most important is that it prints out the correct size. I print directly from PhotoShop Elements, making sure it is set for ‘Actual Size’. (and for the laser printer!!) You can also use MS Office Picture Manager but don't forget to unclick "Fit to Page".
After printing it’s a good idea to measure the outline to make sure it’s the correct size. Use the dimensions and measure the paper print out.  And look for any other problems. See picture.
Second: We will put a piece of vinyl over the traces on the paper.
Now, using the dimensions of the traces, cut a piece of vinyl a little larger than the dimensions. (You want it bigger as your second print may not be in the exact same spot as the first.)
Remove plastic covering from the vinyl and stick it over the traces on the paper. Do this carefully so you don’t get any bubbles or creases.
Third: We will run the paper with vinyl through the printer again.
Wipe the vinyl off with some tissue paper.
Stick the paper with vinyl back into the paper feed tray, in the same orientation as it was originally. Now print the traces again.
Hopefully, the trace image will be printed onto the vinyl.
The next picture is actually the silk screen printed on the vinyl but the traces should be similar.

Step 4: Toner Transfer to Copperclad

Picture of Toner Transfer to Copperclad

*********************************WARNING***************************
Acetone is pretty nasty stuff. You should always use gloves
And work in a well ventilated area.
*********************************WARNING***************************
Cut a piece of copperclad to the dimensions of the PCB.
Clean it. I use Scotch-Brite and using gloves, acetone.
Cut the paper/vinyl to the dimensions plus an extra ¼” (or so) border around the traces.
Place the paper/vinyl on a flat surface.
Without touching the copper, place the piece of copperclad (copper side down over the traces aligned with the outline.
Tape the copperclad to the paper/vinyl. I use regular transparent tape. Some people use special tape.
Trim it especially if you have sticky tape sticking out.
 
Warm up the laminator.
Run the copperclad/paper/vinyl through the laminator several times.
How many, you may ask? Well, I don’t know. I usually run mine about 10-12 times. This is the actual toner transfer step. There are several variables, that can affect this: board size, speed of rollers, temperature. It takes a couple of passes to warm the copperclad up. It is probably better to do more than less. It shouldn’t matter whether it’s pcb up or paper up. And it shouldn’t matter where on the laminator. I like to move it a round so maybe the rollers will wear more evenly?
If you can see the traces showing through as in the picture, then it’s probably ready.
 
Dunk it in cold water. I don’t know if this is necessary but it does cool it off.
Cut along the edges of the PCB with an Xacto or sharp knife.
The vinyl should peel away from the copper.
Using an Xacto, peel off the transparent tape.
  There will probably be some sticky residue but ignore for now. We’ll get it later.
 
Examine the copper. It should have some solid black toner where the traces will be. Sorry, I didn’t get a picture of this.
If there are major problems, clean off with acetone and start over with printing.
If there are minor gaps, use a red Sharpie to fill it in. Let it dry and repeat a couple of times.

Step 5: PCB Etching

Picture of PCB Etching

Etching is the process of removing the copper from where you don’t want it. The principle for toner transfer is that the laser toner outlines the traces you want. The etchant will remove copper where there are no traces.
 
I use the follow etchant per this Instructable:
https://www.instructables.com/id/Stop-using-Ferric-Chloride-etchant!--A-better-etc/
 
*********************************WARNING***************************
The muriatic acid is hazardous. Do not breathe the fumes
Do this outdoors or in a well ventilated area
Use plastic bottles, containers and utensils. NO METAL!
Always Add Acid (AAA)
   Put the hydrogen peroxide in first
   Then add the muriatic acid
*********************************WARNING***************************
Two parts hydrogen peroxide (3%)
One part Muriatic acid (31%)
 
Etching:
Place etchant in a plastic container large enough to hold the PCB.
Place PCB in etchant container.
I guess it helps to stir up solution but don’t breathe.
Wait until copper is etched away. This may take 30 minutes.
 
NOTE: The Instructable says you can use this etchant over and over. I haven’t had any luck doing that. Do not throw old etchant away or flush it. Do recycle as hazardous waste.
 
I drain the etch solution and PCB into a recycle bottle, then carefully flush it under running water.
Use a paper towel and acetone to remove the toner and sticky residue from the tape.
 
See picture. 

Step 6: Silk Screen

Picture of Silk Screen

A silk screen is all the printing, information and component outlines shown on the top of the PCB. This is useful for stuffing components and later for troubleshooting. Probably you will do parts of this procedure in conjunction with the traces but I made it a separate step.
 
So we have to create an image for the silk screen.
Eagle: In the board editor, there is a little icon called Display (Show/Hide Layers). Click on it, select <None> then click on (highlight) these layers:
          17-Pads
          18-Vias
          20-Dimensions
          21-tPlace
          25-tNames
          27-tValues
 
Now, just the silk screen and pads should be displayed.
Select <File><Export><Image>
          <Monochrome>
          2400DPI.
          <Browse> Select the directory and file name that you want.
          Click <OK> to export as image.
 
Again you will notice that the stuff you want printed is in white and needs to be black so again we need to Invert. So what isn’t so obvious is that since the silk screen goes on the opposite side of the traces we need to flip the image. Here’s my procedure.
 
Make Invert and Flip:
Open Image with PhotoShopElements
<Image><Crop> Crop <Check>   Crop the image to contain the outline and dimensions
<Select> All
<Filter><Adjustments><Invert>
 
<Image><Rotate><Flip Horizontal>
<File><SaveAs>....
 
See picture. Note that the printing is mirrored.
 
Use the same procedure as with traces.
Mark the blank printer sheet.
Print the silk screen.
Cut the vinyl.
Attach it to the printed page.
Stick the paper/vinyl in paper feed.
Reprint.
See picture.
 
Cut the paper/vinyl leaving about ¼” border around the silk outline.
 
Aligning the silk screen with the traces:
I know when I cut copperclad and tape it to traces it is far from perfect. This makes it a little harder to aligning the silk screen with the traces.
So what I do is take the etched PCB, find a couple of pads on opposite sides of the PCB and drill them out.
I find the same holes on the paper/vinyl and drill them out or open them with an Xacto.
Next I take a couple of cut off resistor leads, insert them into the two holes and insert them into the matching holes in the silk screen. See picture.
Now the silk screen should be properly aligned with the PCB.
Scotch tape the PCB to the silk screen.
Remove the resistor leads and trim the paper/vinyl.
 
Warm up the laminator and follow the same procedure as with traces.
Be careful, the copper side gets hot. Use gloves if you want.
The silk screen came out pretty good. The backside of copperclad is not the best surface to be printing on. I’m not sure how to keep the silk screen from wearing off. I imagine there’s some good spray on clear sealant?
See picture.
 
TIP: I’ve been doing another thing, I didn’t mention. In Photoshop Elements, I open a blank file and copy the traces and the silk to it. Depending on the size, you can have multiple copies of each. With this file you can print the traces and the silk at the same time and even make multiple copies if you’re planning to make more than one PCB.
 
Conclusion: I like this method of making PCBs with my laminator and vinyl stickers. They seem to be more consistent and it apparently will do much smaller traces then my old glossy paper & iron method. 

Comments

fhar1 made it! (author)2015-06-26

I did not have much success with toner transfer with glossy magazine.

Using vinyl for transfer is much better, and this attached photo is the very first time I use this method for toner transfer. The reault is very good, almost 100% toner is transfered. I see some distrotion near the edge, probably due to uneven pressure + very hot temperature from iron.

msuzuki777 (author)fhar12015-06-27

Very nice job. Yes, I like the vinyl better than glossy paper. I also like using my modified laminator instead of an iron. It seems to apply a more consistent pressure. But also since I'm old it's less strain on my back.

LOG

Minisoft (author)2013-11-12

1 Question , are the switches N.C "Norm Closed" or N.O "Norm Open".. im thinking N.C but making sure before i buy this stuff.. thank you

msuzuki777 (author)Minisoft2013-11-12

Yes, the thermal switches are N.C.

LOG

aclark32 (author)2013-10-05

so do you leave the vinyl on the board then etch it?? I have access to a professional vinyl sticker plotter.. it could easily print and cut my trace pattern... do I just print the pattern I want and stick it to the board then etch it? I haven't etched a board yet, but Im planning on doing so real soon.. If I stick the vinyl sticker to the clad and soak it it will the solution eat away the vinyl sticker too???

msuzuki777 (author)aclark322013-10-06

I don't understand what you mean by 'cut my trace pattern.' Does that mean it's like a stencil? I think I've heard of somebody doing this but don't know how it works. I think what you may be talking about is something like this Instructable:
https://www.instructables.com/id/Fast-and-Easy-PCB-Prototyping-with-Vinyl/

My method is a toner transfer method. If the plotter uses a laser to print then it should work. What I do is print traces on vinyl with a laser. Then tape the printout to the clad. Run it through the laminator to transfer the toner to the PCB. Then remove the vinyl sticker. Then etch.

LOG

aclark32 (author)msuzuki7772013-10-06

what I mean is print the traces where I want the copper traces to be on vinyl and stick it to the clad and put it in the etch solution to remove the rest of the copper that I don't want on the board. the plotter prints and cuts with lasers. It would be very easy for me to print and cut the pattern in the second picture in step 2 where the traces are black and the rest white and stick just the black parts on the clad where the traces are. My question is after I print and stick just the black lines could I put it in the solution and remove all the copper around it without it eating the vinyl away also? We have a large professional laminator I could use to transfer the way you stated also, but I was wondering if I could just put the lines on the clad and soak it that way... for that matter we also have an iron on transfer machine where I could just print the trace pattern on an iron on and use the transfer machine to stick it to the clad that way also... Ive just never made a printed circuit board before but will have the need to real soon and just want to do it the easiest way possible.. thanks

msuzuki777 (author)aclark322013-10-06

I don't know what would happen if you put the vinyl in etchant. I've never tried it.
In that other Instructable I referred to, it sounds like the vinyl won't dissolve in etchant but I'm not sure if you're using the same stuff.
Not sure about the iron on either as I've never used it.
About all, I can suggest is try various mehods and see if they work.

LOG

aclark32 (author)msuzuki7772013-10-07

agreed,, I will just have to try it.. It just seems like that would make it very easy to make my boards... after my last comment I got to thinking, and we have a sandblaster at the shop designed to etch glass around vinyl designs,, so the media doesn't hurt the stickers when its blasted in there, so I could just print the trace stickers, stick them to the clad and blast the copper off the clad around them too.. easy enough and no harmful chemicals at all.. might be a new instructable coming up..

msuzuki777 (author)aclark322013-10-07

Wow, I didn't know vinyl could withstand sandblasting. I'm not sure if sandblasting would eat away the copper though. But it might be worth a try.

LOG

glorincz (author)2013-04-11

A DIY bubble etch-tank reduces the etching time to few minutes and etches evenly. I built one under £20 using a Tupperware jug, aquarium tube and an air pump. I even added a plastic valve so the acid wouldn't flow back to the pump. If you place a section of the flexible tube on the bottom and make tiny holes on it, you'll get lots of bubbles (the more the better!). Pic here.

msuzuki777 (author)glorincz2013-04-11

Thanks, I've heard of this and might try it.

LOG

MikB (author)2013-04-06

"Mine were originally 110C and 135C. I think there is a good reason for two different values"

If there are two settings on the laminator for different plastic types, there's obvious answer #1.

Less obvious answer: However, it could be they are used as a pair to sense the temperature RANGE, as the sensors only give an above/below indicator. So they are wired to keep the temperature above 110'C but below 135'C with a "hysteresis band" to stop the heater cycling madly on and off. If that's the case, replacing both with the SAME sensor may cause the heater to cycle on and off faster than normal. Or maybe not come on/get stuck on, depending on your degree of bad luck. Just a thought :)

MikB (author)MikB2013-04-06

Or even: the 110'C on lights the "Ready" light, to show "hot enough to use", and the 135'C one cuts off the heater as it's too hot, cutting back in before it falls too far.

msuzuki777 (author)MikB2013-04-06

Correct. I did go into more detail in the above comment.

LOG

bac512 (author)msuzuki7772013-04-08

I donno about your laminator, but I know in dryer's and electric heaters, they have 2 temperature sensors, one opens at a certain temperature, and closes at anything below that. the other, usually a fuse, is at a higher temperature. It's designed so that if the lower temperature switch fails, the 'fuse' pops and shuts things down, requiring someone to physically change the fuse, and hopefully figure out why the lower temperature switch didn't do it's job.. Again, I don't know about your laminator....

msuzuki777 (author)bac5122013-04-08

I kind of reverse engineered this laminator. Along with the two thermostats, there are two heater circuits. When cold, they're both heating, when the first threshold is reached, one is heating and one isn't, when over the higher threshold both heaters are off.

In addition there is a thermal fuse that I assume opens up if the temperature is over it's limit.

LOG

msuzuki777 (author)MikB2013-04-06

Your are basically correct. I drew out a wiring diagram/schematic. The heating elements are AC but each thermal switch is connected through a diode so will only be connected 1/2 of the AC 60Hz. So both heaters are on up to about 110C. From 110 to 135, one is on and both are off above 135C. So it is hysteresis. In addition the thermal switches have hysteresis themselves.
So my using two 165Cs, I would guess that the temperature is going to be more consistent but the thermal switches will 'switch' more often and probably wear out faster.

LOG

DermagraFX (author)2013-04-07

Nice Ible. Thanks.
Have you tried photo exposure copperclad and acetate (clear plastic/transparencies) with laser printer? All you have to do is lay the transparency on top of the copperclad under UV light for 5 mins, then etch as usual.

msuzuki777 (author)DermagraFX2013-04-08

I haven't heard of that one. It sounds interesting, though. Have you had good luck with it?

LOG

Orngrimm (author)2013-04-08

The process as it is not new to me since i use it since a long time (with special toner transfer-paper, but none the less).
But what resulted in a facepalm (in my own direction!) was the idea of the second printing onto the finished (etched) board as silkscreen.

The simplicity and cleverness of that are (for me) still mindboggling... Soooo simple and yet soooo nice to have! I feel ashamed to etch since a longtime and never tought of that one... Ahwell. :)
Thanks a lot!

msuzuki777 (author)Orngrimm2013-04-08

The Good: Silk screen makes it so much easier to stuff the components with the right values. The vinyl makes very clear text and outlines.
The Bad: It's only laser toner so it will rub off pretty easily. This is okay for me as I generally only use it to stuff the PCB.

LOG

fpuccetti (author)2013-04-07

Wow, I have been making PCBs for over 30 yrs..... I started out using light sensitive coated boards or spray on light sensitive materials with UV lighting , then etching.
Then 20+ yrs ago I progressed to Iron-on pcbs from "techniks" - I still use that today .
Print your image, the solder side (a xerox copy) on the "blue" coated sheets then cut the image out and Iron it on the cleaned PCB. let cool then etch SOOOOOOOO SIMPLE

msuzuki777 (author)fpuccetti2013-04-07

I'm glad it works for you. I've never heard of it before.
Question: Do you have to use a full sheet of the blue when you want to make a PCB?

LOG

fpuccetti (author)msuzuki7772013-04-07

I have been using this "techniks" blue material since the 1990's - they're from Scottsdale Az. originally. Unfortunately when you run the paper thru a copier it prints the whole sheet. So what I do is plan on the projects I have and make 2-3 or more images on one sheet before I use the "blue" that way I can make several boards from one sheet. The material is not that expensive, and it also comes in "white" iron on sheets that after you iron on the image you soak the entire board until the white paper floats off - leaving the image on the board. But it takes a lot more heat to transfer the image. So I use "blue". And dont crank the iron on "Hi" it will melt the plastic material;
start off on low and slowly turn the iron up, you will find the right transfer temp that doesn't deform the plastic. Note that setting, the image turns blue black when ironed on. And peels off real easy after it cools

msuzuki777 (author)fpuccetti2013-04-07

I guess that's one advantage to the vinyl sticker. I only need to cut a piece slightly larger than the PCB. Saves some cost.
Although it's possible you could do something similar. Print to plain paper, Cut a piece of Blue slightly bigger and double sticky tape it to the printed paper, then reprint onto Blue.

Thanks for the info. For now, I think I'll stick with my vinyl as I have a lot and don't see any advantages of switching to 'blue.'

LOG

studleylee (author)2013-04-03

Very nicely done and well explained. -Lee

msuzuki777 (author)studleylee2013-04-03

Thanks.

LOG

simplebotics (author)2013-04-02

The easiest method that actually works is just using a laser printer with normal paper. I have done it and all you have to do is iron and press for about 5 minutes with a lot of pressure.

msuzuki777 (author)simplebotics2013-04-02

Never heard of just using plain paper before! Does it take more pressure than glossy paper?

LOG

simplebotics (author)msuzuki7772013-04-02

Yes, but just a couple more minutes of pressure. Removing the paper is really easy. Just run it under water and scratch it off.

Ahh yes but with normal paper you have to SOAK the PCB in order to remove the paper !

With This Vinyl approach theres absolutely no time wasted soaking, just lift the vinyl off of the copper clad board as soon as it cools down from coming outta the laminator and hey-presto, the artwork is on there !!!

No more messing around with soaking/paper pulp removal/broken traces from scrubbing the paper pulp off the board, no more collecting magazine paper/finding the right magazine paper or getting magazine paper jams in the laser printer and just beautiful boards perfecto everytime lol ;-)

But then we had to start somewhere for our homebrew PCB's lol !
Now were evolving lol !!!

Dead simple Vinyl approach, LOVE it !!!!!

Ive tried quite a few ways too and HIGH Praise to L.O.G for this instructable !!! Once again another Darn Great How-To for us !!!
;-)

This is definitely my favorite method of making PCBs.
And thank you for the tip.

LOG

About This Instructable

79,138views

349favorites

License:

Bio: Lazy Old Geek
More by msuzuki777:Senior MomentsWeather Station 5IP Time Clock Part 2
Add instructable to: