Today I am going to talk about a very useful project that I had taken up. It is called the Water Level Indicator. Nowadays everybody has overhead tank at their homes. But everyone who has a water tank above knows the kind of problems that they face. Firstly there is no system to track the water in the tank. Then there come a secondary problem that is when their water pump is started they have no idea when it gets filled up and sometimes there are situation where the pump keeps on pumping water to the tank and the water starts spilling out from the tank. There is wastage of energy as well as wastage of water.

Later History
This project that i had taken up is the result of  long hours of research of work at the Internet as well as long hours of thinking. I had made various versions of the projects earlier but at last i came up with this final product. I bet this has been tested and i can now firmly say that the model would work flawlessly without any complains for years. I am saying this as i have installed this models to various houses in my neighborhood and all are working fine without any maintenance. And indeed this model is admired by all who uses it.

The Situation 
The house where I live in has an overhead tank which is about 30 feet from the ground level. I was getting bored going up the rooftop to check whether the tank has filled or the water level was below to start the pump. I had to do this again and again. Then I sought for a solution. I always used to think of the possibilities of how can this problem be tackled in an electronic way. After years of research and by trial and error,  I found one and wanted to put whatever I have done out here so that it may be helpful to someone who has a overhead water tank at their homes.


Step 1: The Working Principle

Basically the unit is made up of various sensors acting as a switch. Let me explain in a simple way. What happens is when you turn on you water pump, the water starts to get pumped from your underground reservoir  or from your underground water supply from the pipes to your water tank. In the tank there is a set of sensors( to be precise there are 7 sensors), in the water tank. Just think them as a switch, as the work of the sensor will be to connect a circuit. I will explain in details in my instructables. So the water starts to get filled in the tank and when the water level in the tank starts to rise up, what happens is that the sensors that is installed in the tank starts to get activated one by one indicating the water level in the tank. And finally when it reaches to its top most sensor, there will be a visual display as well as a sound from the unit indicating that the water has filled in the tank and one can be alerted that the tank has been filled up and the water pump has to be switched off saving the electricity bill as well as over flow of water from the tank.

There are Four parts in this project:-

(i) The Sensor Part

It is generally a fixed support inside the tank having some nuts and bolt with wires coming out.
(ii) The Circuit Part
It comprises the brain of the module, where in all the various inputs from the sensors are fed. It is the unit from where you will get all the information of how much of water is in the tank.
(iii) The Power Supply 
It is the part where in you will be converting the A/C voltage to a regulated voltage of 5V to the Circuit.
(IV) The Buzzer Part
It is responsible for bringing up the sound when the water level fills up in the tank. It will also be having a speaker or a buzzer to alert.
<p>HI</p><p>I like yours idea. I made on similar steps but with different concept. It WIRELESS.</p><p>You can check this on my website <a href="http://www.vapory.in" rel="nofollow"> www.vapory.in</a></p><p>or buy online </p><p>http://www.snapdeal.com/product/vapory-white-wireless-water-level/636257896076</p>
Hi I m need this product
Not to hijack the OP's thread, but a big difference two years makes. Now using wifi Particle Photon board, Blynk, and IFTTT to remotely monitor w a smartphone app and receive notifications when my water level is low. Also sends a trigger to text my water supplier that I need a fill automatically. All inspired by this original instructable.
<p>Nice to see how you've it translated to an IoT app</p><p>Is there some instructable available ready for</p>
Afte 15 days of installation, the intensity of lights decreased.<br>The lights are dimmer than before.<br>Plz fin solution
<p>Can't just simply use a 9V adapter rather than using a transformer for the same operation ?</p>
<p>Yes, I think. (Only use DC!)</p>
Sir I made the circuit as above ..But the led glows without connecting to water tank...Please help sort this problem asap
Is it work with 20meter long wire
<p>I wish i found this earlier. I made something like this, but perhaps designed poor, because i was worried voltage loss in of 25 meter wire (LAN Cable), So after the failed experiment with transistors, I have switched to arduino and to justify my path I also added rgb leds :P with abilty to change color of filled / empty indicators, not to mention buzzers on low level and little buzz for over flow. <a href="http://inoace.com/blog/water-tank-level/" rel="nofollow">http://inoace.com/blog/water-tank-level/</a></p>
A few people had asked what switches I used, including a recent email. Just search ebay for tank float switch. They're plastic and sealed and are designed to be submerged.
<p>what will happen when we use npn transistor instead of pnp for water level indicator</p>
<p>While using npn, the led will glow if the contact did't connect.If you need so you can add another npn with the pnp.</p>
<p>If we use 'carbon brush' as sensors we can remove the metal rusting.</p>
<p>i'm looking for a water level sensor that i can mount on the floor and yet it can still detect level of water without exposed wire needed.. some kind of laser/wave detector.</p><p>is it possible?</p>
<p>You can use some floating-type sensor!</p>
<p>Hi!</p><p>Please let me know if a 9 V DC battery can be used instead of the setup you used?</p>
<p>Is drinking from the water that is being measured a problem?<br>I was wondering if the wiring could degrade into the water and cause an ingestion hazard.</p>
<p>hi raikut,</p><p>I connected 6v relay across led + resistor (470 ohm), and relay is operating when led glows. will it be okay or will harm the circuit after in future?</p>
<p>The circuit shows an NPN transistor and the positive of the supply is connected to the emitter through the LED and the collector goes to 0V. As this is a NPN transistor the collector should be positive in relation to the emitter. Can you please explain how the current flows through the transistor.</p><p>Thanks</p><p>Kamal</p>
<p>Hello friend, great job, perfect design, since the build and tested, but a doubt arose friend, in the scheme you mention two capacitors for filtering the source, but did not specify the value of them, by chance would be a 1500ufx16 volts? or is greater or less?<br>I 9volts using a battery for testing, but the battery does not last all, and the source is an alternative exelente.<br>Again, thank you for submitting your project and to share with us your esperi&ecirc;ncia, which by the way is very good and will help me a lot.</p>
<p>can i use 9v 500 mA Transformer for this project. i circuit is working fine when i touch to wires of +5V and level 1 detector. but when i submerge in the water. It is not working</p>
nicoo...made it ...its simple nd efficient..<br>
<p>great project</p><p>can i place your project on my website.</p><p>i'm working on a website which is related to electrical projects.</p><p>i also mention your name, link and other info.</p><p>plz reply</p>
<p>i want depth in deigning</p>
<p>what if we don't use Power Regulater 7805????</p>
Ic work on 5v. So by 7805 we supply circuit or otherwise it get short
<p>Beauty of this design is in its simplicity.. i personally feel only problem is to many wires between water tank and indication panel (if 10 feet distance , then total mess)<br>. this wire count can be brought down to only two wires if DAC is used on water tank side and ADC for indicator site ,furthermore voltage level for DAC to ADC are of significant value (13v app) so distance between tank and indication panel. </p>
<p>are all the grounds connected?</p>
<p>is it okay if i only use 4 levels or transistors (0% 25% 50% 75% 100%)</p>
<p>the power supply is 9v or 5v ?</p>
<p>You can use either 5V or 9V...:)</p>
What if i use a12v adapter
<p>can any one please tall me the exact materials i am going to use and how many of them because im gonna try to do this project </p><p>thanks :)</p>
<p>thanks raikut for this project.. ive made every exactly you have written but the sensors in overhead tank gets corroded in just two weeks . after that the buzzer sound gets low and some LED's start flickering. pls telll m some solution on this.</p>
Hm I also have same issue , what I do is cleanup wires every month :(
<p>Hi,</p><p>Have you tried anti-corrosive(AC) materials like AC paint or AC powder which are available in market. I am also planning to make one for my home.</p>
<p>This can cured by using a float that is sealed and designed to be in water. It acts as a switch. I have two 2500 gallon water tanks with 5 floats attached to it. No problems and works flawlessly. Electronics submerged in water will only last for so long due to electrolysis, the same phenomenon on outboard motors which is why they have zinc plate that is softer than the metal for the motor. So it eats away slowly at that instead. Email if you want help.</p>
<p>Hello Jason,<br>Can you provide the details on how to construct the floats?<br><br>Will be much obliged :)</p>
<p>can you pls send pic of tht switch?? or its web link.</p>
<p>Hi! Can I ask what is the value of the capacitor and the wattage? Do we use 2 or just 1 capacitor?</p>
9v adapter
can use 5v adapter
<p>can i use 560k ohm resistor in place of 470k ohm resistor for biasing the transistor and also i am applying 12v dc current to the circuit?????</p>
<p>can i use 560k ohm resistor in place of 470k because it is not available in my place and also i am applying 12v dc to this circuit..</p>
<p>i am so much impressed by this project i just love it and im going to make it for my class project.</p>
<p>i have made it but my family is afraid of installing it they are afraid if it will very dangerous to work with taps when this circuit is in on condition</p>
Don't worry... This circuit uses 5V DC which will not give you an electric shock. It is perfectly safe.
What is the longevity of the probe ? Sooner or later it is going to rust and it will be virtually cut off from the water... So which material should we use ?
<p>Hi friends,</p><p>One of my friend has build this Water level indicator to keep at his home. But the water seems to be non-conductive. Its acts as an insulator. Even We did check with multi-meter on the continuity mode. but still no conduction is happening. I am not able to resolve his problem. Could anyone help me on this... </p>

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