Hi there,
This is an updated version of my previous Instructable: Control Stuff with your Raspberry Pi (GPIO) Over the internet.

This version is much more secure and could easily be used across the internet with very few security concerns.

A brief outline:
- A server program that runs on the Raspberry Pi to read variables
- A MySQL database to store the variables in
- An Apache2 served webpage to allow control of the variables
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m3mn0t dpaterson18 months ago

Can you help me ?Can you provide your code? or simple help me with something?

m3mn0t8 months ago

Hi how can i talk with you


imohammad9 months ago

hello there, thank you for the tutorial~!! i want to ask, if the gpio is set to input. If i gave the input a signal (on) does the web page update the input status?

I don't believe it does - would need to be modified to read the status of the GPIO pins, then load it into the mysql database.

Then the web page would read the database and show the status.

thanks for the info ^^

Hello, Wondering if you can help. Great tutorial by the way however i have followed everything through but when i type ./ and enter a value it automatically turns on any GPIO pins that are connected and then nothing plays ball after. Any ideas of where i am going wrong? Cheers
drcurzon (author)  aztecthegeordie11 months ago
Hi there - can you send me the file?
Thanks - Dan.
dhill2811 months ago
I'm struggling to get the actual pins to work. From what I can tell, things are installed correctly, and if I go into the actual database, I can see that the pin status setting in the database is changing when I click the buttons, but I don't get anything out of the pins at all. Is there anything particular I should be looking at?
drcurzon (author)  dhill2811 months ago
Hi there, Have you tried manually setting the GPIO pins?
Try the following commands (should set pin 21 high)

echo "21" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "out" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio21/direction
echo "1" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio21/value

To turn off:
echo "0" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio21/value
echo "21" > /sys/class/gpio/unexport

Let us know how it turns out - Dan.
jeryhawj1 year ago
when i put in http://raspberryPi/control.php(raspberryPi=my ip address), all i get is an invalid request. can someone tell me if i need to do something else. i have followed every instruction on here... and even went back to all the old pages to make sure i did everything correct. i even have access to "phpmyadmin" account. i dont know why i cannot get into this last part. any help and or reply will be appreciated. thank you.
winsum1 year ago
Hi drcurzon,
your instructable is very great!

I have only one problem. When i execute the ./, it return two errors:

line 54: /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/direction: File or directory not exist.
line 59: /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value: File or directory not exist.
GPIO 4 Turned Off
GPIO 17 Turned Off
GPIO 18 Turned Off
GPIO 21 Turned Off
GPIO 22 Turned Off
GPIO 23 Turned Off
GPIO 24 Turned Off
GPIO 25 Turned Off

Why this error?
Very thanks.
i have had a similar error, turned out that i had some errors when exporting and selecting direction for the gpio#.
winsum winsum1 year ago
Hi boys,
i have seeking that the file gpio4 is not present in the folder /sys/class/gpio/

i not know because!
tmcisaac1 year ago
Quick query, just picked up a Raspberry Pi, got this setup and I was wondering. Can the other pins on the GPIO be addressed to add more buttons? (minus the DNC pins of course)
Rather n00b question, I know.
buteman1 year ago
Running control.php doesn't seem to do anything. I have edited control.php and put a username and password in but when I enter them on running control.php it just goes straight back to asking for user name and password. I tried refreshing the web page to ensure I was running the modified version, I restarted both mysqld and apache2 but it just doesn't work. Any ideas?
lionikus1 year ago
Great tutorial. But... My Raspberry Pi rev2.. This does not include pin2.. ... I added in :
direction2=$(mysql -B --disable-column-names --user=$mysqlusername --password=$mysqlpassword gpio -e "SELECT pinDirection FROM pinDirection WHERE pinNumber='2'";)
status2=$(mysql -B --disable-column-names --user=$mysqlusername --password=$mysqlpassword gpio -e "SELECT pinStatus FROM pinStatus WHERE pinNumber='2'";)
if [ "$direction2" == "out" ]; then
echo "out" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio2/direction
if [ "$status2" == "1" ]; then
echo "0" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio2/value
echo "GPIO 2 Turned On"
echo "1" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio2/value
echo "GPIO 2 Turned Off"
and... I added in SQLbase gpio respective lines...
then it worked... But...
My led is flashing every "How long do you want the wait time to be? "...
Weak, but flashes...
How to fix this problem?
Sorry for my english :)
Who could be useful it:
sudo su -
echo "4" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "out" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/direction
echo "0" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value
echo "1" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value
Sorry... It : This does not include pin2.. read as: This does not include gpio2..
Note that 0 and 1 interchanged in Turned on and turned off... I do not know why but check first to bash...
maco17171 year ago
Hi, Great tutorial! at last something that work for me. was trying with webGPIO for ages to then realize that the new version dont support to run from apache anymore so can use on my solution.

anyway was wondering what that sleep time? and it takes around 2s for the led to change state when i do trough web is this a normal delay time? would it be quicked with another solutions?

drcurzon (author)  maco17171 year ago
Hi there,
Glad you got it working. :)
the sleep time is the time before it updates each of the variables - the smaller the number, then more CPU + RAM usage, etc...
The delay is unfortunately due to the way the script works - there are other solutions - I believe you can call scripts directly from Python.
Many thanks, Dan.
yeah that's what i was trying, well first i tried php exec() with a bash script but would execute i guess because of permissions i was going to try python but i read that the script also need to be executed by admin so didnt try... is there any way around this?
the bash script was very basic, basically

# Set up GPIO 4 and set to output
echo "4" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "out" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/direction

# Write output
echo "1" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value

and "0" to turn off...

all this in a .sh that was called from a button



also tried implementing a read status off led

exec('sudo cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value',$outputArray);

but as is said no luck...

should i try with python?

exec(sudo python

i changed the visudo file to allow www-data apache user to edit files this allowed me to run
exec('sudo cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value',$outputArray);

but the buttons are not working...
at last got it working.
my problem wasnt permission was not good web programing...

the page is like this now...

exec('cat /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value',$outputArray);

if ($_GET['on']) {
# This code will run if ?run=true is set.
if ($_GET['off']) {



incredibly responsive
drcurzon (author)  maco17171 year ago
Hi there,
Nice to see you got it working :)
sdobbie1 year ago
I can't log in. It just changes the user back to root and doesn't work.
sdobbie1 year ago
I got into it and tried the web address but it says that The requested URL /admin/phpMyAdmin/index.php was not found on this server.
sln911 year ago
Hello, just curious does it work outside the same network ? or can we only access the web control interface if it is on the same network ?
I couldn't manage to give it a host name so I always type the ip address and it works if I am connected to the same router/network but when I connect to another network I can't access it did I miss a step ?
Sorry I have no prior experience with server.
Thanks in advance.
drcurzon (author)  sln911 year ago
Hi there.
It is possible to access this externally, however I highly recommend the installation of a firewall first.
After the firewall is installed, you need to set port forwarding on your router to forward ports 80, 21 to the raspberry pi (web, FTP).
Many thanks, Dan.
hkusumah1 year ago
awesome tutorial. many thanks for making this instructable
Hi, First off... EXCELLENT tutorial! I've loved working through it and appreciate your work.

However, I'm having problems with setting the script to run from boot. When I put in "sudo update-rc.d defaults" I get the "missing lsb tags and overrides" warning and on reboot... nothing. So I have to log in as root and run the script by hand-crank ;)

So far, I've modded the control.php to look perfect on my tablet and phone and have bench tested the hardware for running all my external lighting (with override switches) from my armchair.... I just need to get past this "start on boot" problem and I'll be a happy man... any help and advice would be most welcome.

P.S. Anyone who needs help resizing the text etc in the php, comment here and I'll try to guide you. I'm hoping to find time to knock together a .css to pretty it up a little and I'll share that too
@drcurzon good job.
But, i am so confused to merge all post together.
specially i have no idea about your url: raspberrypi/
how can it's possible that.
According to my knowledge raspberry pi's IP will be there.
How can we arrange secure access of raspberry control?
Forgive me for my post, but i really confuse about all those things.
drcurzon (author)  denimjohnson1 year ago
Hi there,
The URL works as previously you set the hostname of the raspberry pi.
The URL can be the hostname or the ip address.

Secure access with this setup is not possible - you'd have to install a firewall at the very least. (Or keep it on the LAN with an external firewall (such as untangle)).

Many thanks, Dan.
pandringa1 year ago
@drcurzon - I tried to respond to your reply but the captcha wasn't loading, so I had to reply here.

Anyways, I've tried the site on the latest versions of Firefox and Safari (on my Mac), but neither worked.
pandringa1 year ago
I've gotten the webpage to load and I've been able to log in, but the "turn on" and "turn off" buttons don't do anything. I have LEDs hooked up to each output, and I can turn them on or off with a python script no problem, but the buttons on the website don't do anything.
drcurzon (author)  pandringa1 year ago
Hi there,
This sounds like it may be a browser issue on the client pc.
What browser are you using? (Name and Version).
Also - have you tried any other computers / browsers?
Thanks, Dan.
freakqnc1 year ago
Well... eventually is "almost" everything working.
I had to modify the shell GPIO Script to
- include LSB so initserv would not keep issuing warnings about "missing lsb tags and overrides" throw a warning,
- add commands to the script for pins to work with raspi rev.2
- modify tables to store/retrieve pin status and description

After starting the service 6 out of the 8 pins connected to the relay board are working (all 8 were working with webIOPi By Eric Ptak (trouch). The issue though that pushed me to try something else was that I experienced quite a lag, unreliable reading/writing of pin state and that rendered the system not usable in the en.

This one here (raspberry GPIO by Daniel Curzon) is not too bad and sort-of-work, although let me point out that is not for the faint-hearted and complete noobs.

The issue that will keep my quest going is that this simple implementation could be enough, but unfortunately has 2 problems... although more reliable when it comes to reading/writing pin state, is:
- still too slow in responding to command,
- starting the GPIOServer on boot make the raspi enter a loop where throwing errors as that comes in the way of other services and prevents the raspberry pi from actually booting fully as it should AND THEN start the GPIOServer service.

Having to start manually the service on each reboot is a deal breaker since when the system will be installed as a headless one to control devices, each time a restart occurs one would need a computer to manually start the

Probably there is a way to make it work at boot but the info by Daniel which I followed to a T, achieved the endless error "looping" outcome making the system useless at this point.

Well I guess was worth the experience and the try. Better luck to my fellow raspberrians ;)
freakqnc1 year ago
Daniel, did as suggested and that and it's a no go

User ID:




Will not allow to login with admin/gpio credentials... any suggestions on how to fix this? Thanks! :)

PS: I would have replied to the comment all the way at the bottom but the instructable system would keep asking to fill in the captcha even when I did... so because that won't work I added the comment as a new one although it's really a reply to your original comment about resetting the pass and salt
Update... found the problem peeps :)

Do not use "admin" and "gpio" in


YOU MUST USE the username and password you created in Step 3 as the DATABASE USER and NOT use the value of the username in the gpio database!

I believe in this example that would be user gpio and password pr03ND2. Not very intuitive and quite confusing... perhaps should've been pointed out in the instructions.

Hope this helps who got stuck at this point.
deki1 year ago
Too many windows open at once, I posted this same comment in your other Instructable, sorry.
Daniel - nice job. Please consider expanding you Instructable to include digital input; maybe even add in another column to dynamically change it from the web interface. Also consider setting up email notification on pin status change. Right now I am using it as a backup to my garage door opener. Works great with my IPhone. It would be nice to know when the kids left the door open too long.
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