When a Phillips is not a Phillips - Plus So Much More!
A Continuation of Screws and Drives
by Egon Pavlis, Biomedtronix Inc.
With overwhelming response to my preceding "ible" titled "When a Phillips is not a Phillips? - Cross-head, Cross-Point, Cruciform, Square Drive Screws and Drivers" and this logical expansion follows. Readers requested information on all - recessed screw drives including security, especially the tougher ones to find. Well, here they are.
This article contains a lot of information presented from company websites, catalogues and brochures and so 'may be biased' to highlight their drive qualities. There are some advantages and disadvantages of some drive types. This "ible" is not intended to present one drive superior over another as each has desirable qualities. Maybe it will be the definitive guide with your help it could get close.
If you disagree with any of the information or if I missed a related drive you know of, please let me know where I can validate the information. Miss-information, incorrect illustrations, screwed up usage of terms on the Internet and elsewhere is rampant and part of the problem created by so many drives.
Should you have relevant information, especially verifiable or with web links, clear pictures etc to add, correct or improve the project please email it to me so I can follow-up on it.
Please refer to the Step # when leaving comments or questions to that specific drive types.
Use this project, enjoy it, share it, just do not claim it as your own or sell it. Some of the contents have been borrowed, copied, clipped, etc and may still be copyrighted by others.
Should you feel motivated enough to forward cash $$, I'd like to inspire and encourage you to please remember I like and also collect all flavours of world currency!
If you enjoy this work, please remember to Vote accordingly if you see it in an Instructable Contest.
- Notes about project layout
Icon patterns of each screw type are a view of the screw head, straight on. They can best be visualized if you imagine the screw head is used as a rubber stamp with a black inkpad. The screw head fingerprint result transferred onto white paper should resemble the icon. The drive of course is usually, but not always, an inverse of this. Occasionally gray is used in some icons to indicate detail at a different level, one that would also not touch the black in the print, but requires the detail highlighted.
A few types are grouped at the far end of the 'ible', these include Combo Drives, Security Key Drives and Gamer Drives.
Step 1: First a Little Background
So, why all the confusion then?
Why all the damaged screw heads and drivers?
Why is this screw and driver thing so awkward?
Read on and be amazed while unraveling the mystery of screw drives and present some you may have never seen. Seems everyone with an idea tries to patent a new screw to get rich, many just do not make it.
Today screws are everywhere and many are more easily confused than ever before. This guide should help you through many kinds. Let's us cover some basics and a bit of history first.
So what is a screw?A screw is really a shaft with at least one helical groove (thanks tallmanbaby for reminding us that with today's screw products a screw could have more than one groove) or thread formed on its surface. Its main uses are as a threaded fastener used to hold objects together, and as a simple machine used to translate torque into linear force. It can also be defined as an inclined plane wrapped around a shaft.
Every threaded fastener needs a way of turning it. This 'Screw' driver may be a wrench that fits a hex-head bolt or a nut, or it may have a shaped and recessed hole into which a driver can be inserted.
Step 2: Early Screws
Around the first century, screw shaped tools became common, however, historians do not know who invented the first. Early screws were made from wood and were used in wine presses, olive oil presses, and for pressing clothes. Turning the screw was accomplished with a drive rod handle positioned through the perpendicular hole.
Metal screws and nuts used to fasten two objects together first appeared in the fifteenth century.
In 1770, English instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden (1735-1800) invented the first satisfactory screw-cutting lathe. Ramsden inspired other inventors. In 1797, Englishmen, Henry Maudslay (1771-1831) invented a large screw-cutting lathe that made it possible to mass-produce accurately sized screws. In 1798, American David Wilkinson also invented machinery for the mass production of threaded metal screws.
In the picture with 3 old screws, the screw on the left (A) was handmade in the late 18th century. Note the flat spot on the shaft, the irregular threads, blunt tip and the off center slot. The screw in the center (B) is machine made around 1830. It has sharp, even threads, a cylindrical shape, blunt end and the slot is still off center. The screw on the right (C) is a modern gimlet screw, post 1848, with tapered shaft, even threads, pointed tip and centered slot.
Step 3: Security Fasteners
There are basically two types of security fasteners - tamper-proof and tamper-resistant. Several tamper-resistant drive types were created and were originally intended to be tamper-proof. See the "Tamper-Proof Screw Myth" below.
Most security fasteners including Phillips, TORX®, and Hexagonal, are also manufactured in tamper-resistant form. These are screws, bolts, nuts and fasteners that are difficult to remove but not as unique in design and application as the tamper-proof fasteners. They offer a good level of security because a special tool other than your standard Phillips or slot-type screwdriver is needed to remove them. They are also very popular as they can be purchased in small quantities from most security parts distributors and are considerably cheaper than tamper-proof fasteners.
However, the bits for many tamper-resistant screw heads are now readily available from hardware stores, tool suppliers and through the Internet. There are many commonly used techniques to extract tamper resistant screws without the correct driver, like using an alternative driver that can achieve enough grip to turn the screw; modifying the head of one drive to work on a tamper-resistant drive, and others. These special screws offer only modest security.
There are specialty fastener companies that make unusual, proprietary head designs, featuring matching drivers available only from them, and only supplied to registered owners. An example of this would be the attachment for the wheels and/or spare tires of some types of car; one of the nuts may require a specialized socket (provided with the car) to prevent theft. Some examples of these fasteners are Uniqz®, Keyed-Lok® and Penta-Plus® tamper-proof fasteners from Bryce Fasteners.
The Tamperproof Screw Myth
Tamperproof screws are not as tamper proof as people think. Beyond marketing claims, most drive styles are no longer really tamper-proof. The reason is that most security screw bits have become easily obtainable, and there are tens-of-thousands in circulation. Seems almost everyone has some.
Security screws have been in existence for 50 years and most are without patent protection. "Tamperproof" bits are being manufactured, imported, and widely distributed, without restraint. There are many thousands outlets and catalogues in circulation marketing security bits and with this ease of access it has made Torx-pin®, Hex-pin®, Phillips-pin®, Spanner, Triwing®, Tri-Groove®, Gamer screws and One-Way screws "vandal-proof" only. "Tamperproof screws" are mostly a myth.
Pin type screws can usually be removed by using a hammer and an awl/nail/knife/etc and knocking the pin one way and then the other until it snaps out, thus leaving you with the non-security version.
Step 4: Non-Slip Fluids
Before visiting screws you should be aware of Non-Slip Fluids. You may not be aware these products are even available (like me).
'''ND Industries DriveGrip Anti Cam-Out Fluid®'''
ND DriveGrip® makes removing or tightening screws and other fasteners a breeze. A single drop of DriveGrip® creates a positive grip between the metal surfaces of the fastener head and tool. Works great in applications where fastener heads or drives are worn or damaged. ND DriveGrip® increases the grip strength between the fastener head and tool by as much as 700% and virtually eliminates tool wear, rounding, and deforming fasteners.
ND DriveGrip® helps you remove rusted or "frozen-in-place" screws and bolts that wont budge. Use ND DriveGrip® in conjunction with all types of screwdrivers, hex keys, pliers, channel locks, vise grips, as well as open-end box-end wrenches.
'''Align-Rite Ltd's ScrewGrab®'''
ScrewGrab® is a friction gel that helps remove or tighten all types of fasteners - damaged or rusted. A single dab of ScrewGrab® creates a positive grip between metal surfaces (new tests have shown as high as 800%), that virtually eliminates tool wear and the stripping, rounding or deforming of fasteners.
ScrewGrab® is not a Glue and works instantly, wipes clean after use, is non-corrosive and has an unlimited shelf life. Useful on stripped, rounded or deformed heads, seized, rusted, or hard-to-reach spots. Works on sloppy or mismatched sockets and stops bits from turning in chuck.
'''EZ Grip Friction Drops™'''
EZ Grip Friction Drops™ come in three different grades: commercial, aircraft, and marine. In the commercial and aircraft grade drops, the alumina cubes are suspended in a non-toxic, food-grade antifreeze. The aircraft grade meets five different ATSM and Miltary standard tests. In the marine grade, the hardened aluminum cubes are suspended in a blend of non-toxic oils instead of antifreeze.
The next time you are struggling to remove a screw with a damaged head, instead of reaching for a screw extractor, you might want to give EZ Grip Friction Drops™ a try. The manufacturer claims that one drop on the damaged screw head will increase the gripping force enough to remove the problem screw. Their secret? Thousands of hardened aluminum cubes, each 4 microns in size, suspended in a carrying agent give EZ Grip Friction Drops™ gripping power. The aluminum cubes provide a temporary bridge between the tool and stressed fastener heads.
Step 5: Pliers Designed to Extract Damaged Screws
These pliers may also be worth considering when removing stubborn screws.
Got a stuck screw or a screw with some wacky security head? "Do not reach for the extractor kit; wrap these $25 screw pliers around the head, and simply twist the screw out." Is the claim made by a leading Japanese hand tool manufacturers - Engineer Inc., formerly Futaba Tool Mfg. These pliers remove tamper-resistant, rusty, stripped-head, or otherwise damaged screws. - a Toolmonger review by Benjamen Johnson
Step 6: Round Head With Blank Head
I accidentally found this unique drive head system while working on the original Phillips project and since it did not apply there have since lost the specific information and the links. The remembered information is that it was a Japanese news article (google translated the webpage from Japanese) discussing a recent invention. The screw head has no markings and is round and blank. The screw head mimics a rivet, to discourage vandels. The driver utilized a heated ceramic head that when heated and the screw head expanded the grip would be tight enough to drive the screw. Once cooled the screw became virtually tamperproof unless heated by the same driver head unit.
Step 7: Oval Head Security Screw
Oval Pan Head Security Screws are unique in the sense they have no conventional drive slot in the head. The screws must therefore be installed or removed using a special recessed driver that precisely accommodates the oval head. This unique feature renders the Oval Pan Head Security Screw vandal-resistant, reducing the risk of vandals or intruders tampering or undoing the screws. The head gives a deceptive appearance, looking like a stud or rivet. Due to the design of the Oval Pan Head Security Screw it is suitable for low to medium torque applications and is "2 way".
The special hand driver is available in two sizes - OP4 for M4 screws and OP56 for M5 and M6 screws
Step 8: Avsafe™ Screw Drive
One type of security fastener is the slotless, tamper resistant Avsafe™ Series FP/FR/FG screw marketed by Avdel Corporation Systems Division, Parsippany, N.J. Security fasteners such as the Avsafe™ Screw typically include a threaded shank connected to a slotless oblong head designed for installation and removal with a special drive tool and cannot be turned with an ordinary socket, hex head wrench or other conventional tools.
One arrangement for preventing such tampering is to locate the security fastener within a recess in the panel. The sides of the recess must be spaced far enough apart to allow the special drive tool to fit but too close together to allow other tools such as pliers from grabbing the head of the fastener. These recesses increase the cost of manufacturing and are not desirable for some installations.
Step 9: Off-Set Pin Tamper Resistant
This fastener includes a round, blind hole or pocket in its head. Installation and removal of the fastener is accomplished with a tool containing an eccentric segment on the end of a shaft. When rotated within the pocket, the eccentric segment displaces laterally relative to the shaft to provide a friction grip to the lateral wall of the pocket. The strength of the grip is proportional to the applied torque. Eccentric displacement allows rotation but prevents the tool from spinning out of the fastener thereby eliminating cam-out and surface damage resulting from contact with a spinning tool tip. The eccentric head of the tool can be made disposable and to shear off when a predetermined torque is reached. The smooth-sided round hole offers no purchase for commonly available tools; making the fastener tamper-resistance. In another embodiment, the fastener includes a raised portion in the pocket. A tool having a complementary opening shears off the raised portion at a predetermined torque. United States Patent 7066062
Step 10: Keyed-Lok® Security Screws
The Keyed-Lok® Security Screw, by Bryce Fasteners, have a pin within the unique shaped socket of the head requiring a special insert bit to insert and remove, making it more like a lock because it requires a perfectly cut tool or key to operate it. There are millions of keyway variations to ensure that each key code is exclusive to the owner. These drives are not mass produced bits sold indiscriminately by the thousands, it is a high security locking system. Only the owners have their private or exclusive key code.
Unlike Hex or Torx screws, it does not have symmetrical shapes that are easy to distinguish and compromise. Keyed-Lok® is not an easy target or false security. They are not just a tamperproof, vandal-proof, tamper-resistant screw, it actually repels Hex, Torx, Slotted bits and even Vice grips. Due to the design it is suitable for medium torque applications and is "2 way" re-usable security fixing. Least expensive high security tamper-proof comes in more sizes from 3/56(M2) to 5/8-11(M12)
Step 11: Spin-Lok™
Spin-Lok", from Bryce Fasteners, is a tamper-proof screw for applications requiring permanent installation. Spin-lok" is configured so that the bit intentionally rounds out the socket at a precise torque. The result is a perfectly round hole with a center pin. Torque is calibrated within 1 inch/lb and set to the customer's specifications.
Benefits include being less expensive; rustproof (made of solid stainless steel); easy to install with the correct bit (can be inserted with power tools) and is available in sizes 6/32 [M3] to 1/2-13 [M12] screw diameters.
Step 12: Slot Type Drive
Cutting a slot in a screw head to turn it is an old idea: drawings from the 16th century show screws with slotted heads.
The advantages of the slotted head are that: most people have a screwdriver that fits them (sort of); worn drivers are easily reground; a new screw head slot can easily be cut with a hacksaw. Otherwise the slotted head is the worst screw drive system, and while very common, it is also generally obsolete. Some of its deficiencies include: the driver does not automatically center or line up with the slot (there is a picture of a driver tip that helps keep the driver on slot); it is easy to get off center; the user must keep the axis of the screwdriver aligned with the axis of the screw; the driver can engage the head in only two possible positions, at 180 degrees. The sides of most slotted screwdriver bits are tapered. When the driver is turned it tends to be pushed up and out of the screw head. This is called "camout", see glossary.
To add to the shortcomings of the slotted head, screwdrivers for slotted screws are usually described by the length of the shaft and the width of the tip; the crucial measurement, the tip's thickness, is rarely given. Any given tip width is sold in a range of thickness; the longer shafts usually have the thicker blades.
Step 13: ACR® Slotted Driver
This is basically a Slot Drive but ACR® (Anti Camout Ribs) technology reduces damage to screw heads while giving better drive force and improved user hand comfort. Less camout means less damage to assemblies. This driver improvement can be used on all standard Slotted and Cross-Slot Screws. For more on ACR® see ACR® Phillips®
Step 14: Stepped Slot Screw System
This screw and driver are designed to center on the screw head and not slide out. Some of the positives of the system are that it works, although rarely encountered, as it did not catch on as other more popular drive systems were developed. This drive did address some of the deficiencies of slot screws including: the driver does automatically center or line up with the slot; the screw keeps the axis of the screwdriver aligned with the axis of the screw; the sides of the driver are parallel and so reduces "camout". A secondary feature is vandal-resistance as the wrong kind of driver will not enter deep enough and may not have enough torque to remove a screw without damaging the head.
Step 15: Coin Slot
Tightening and unscrewing the coin screw is quite effortless when using a coin as a tool because of the large size of screwhead and slot. Very similar in appearance to slot head but with a rounded concave bottom to accommodate a rounded coin shaped driver deeper. Coin screws are popular for items requiring a screw or cap that may need to be removed when no access to tools, like camping gear etc.
Here is a good example of a coin screwdriver at Promopeddler, and a coin screw cap demonstrated in a Ralph Ditton review of the SteriPen Adventurer water sterilyzer from Backpackgeartest.
Step 16: Clutch Drive Type A
Step 17: Clutch Drive Type G
Clutch head screws were popular in mobile home construction and electric motors. Chevy and GMC trucks manufactured in the 1940's, 50's and 60's and some Corvettes had these. Frequently, the bed of these trucks used the larger 5/16" clutch head screws and the cab, dash, doors and striker plates used 5/32" to 5/16". A worn tip on a driver can easily be restored by grinding the end. The size is the diameter in inches of the bit point. 1/8", 5/32", 3/16", 1/4", 5/16"
Clutch Head were also used on older tractors to fasten the grills and sheet metal parts to the tractor, The earlier ones had a round head and there was really no way to remove them except with the special driver. Use of a regular standard screwdriver on these screws will often result in a stripped screw head. They were used in mass production drivers because it is much easier and faster to install them with a power driver than it would be if they used regular bolts. [[br]]
Step 18: Clutch Head Slot Security Screws
This unique feature renders the Clutch Head Screw tamper proof, reducing the risk of vandals or intruders tampering or undoing the screws. Due to the design of the Clutch Head Security Screw it is suitable for higher torque applications. From fellow instructable member lordzion: These screws are also referred to as Jail Head. Use is declining but they are usually self tappers, woodscrews or machine screws in applications of domestic window locks, Jail Cell hinges and exposed door lock screws.
Step 19: Spanner "Snake Eyes" Tamper Resistant
Be aware there are also Metric Snake Eyes where hole spacing does not match spanner, as well the hole sizes are different.[[br]]
Step 20: Step 20: Tamper Proof Notched Spanner
Sized include #4, #6, #8, #10, #12, #14
Step 21: T-Screw Security System
Step 22: Hi-Torque®/Speed Drive Recess
During installation or removal, the inverted keystone section of the recess delivers the important locked-in condition. Rotation of the solid driver tip provides a full bearing load, and the interlocked position eliminates the need for end load by the operator. Driver reusability cycle is higher than other fastening systems. The system has sufficient torque reserve for positive and sure removal, even years later.[[br]]
Step 23: Hi-Torque/Connie® Drive Type II
Meeting all the requirements of the ultimate recess and with the full capability being installed at high torque values, the system also has sufficient torque reserve for sure and positive removal, even after years of service life. The Connie®Torque®, with its simple driving tool point and matching recess cone, assures relatively rapid and positive engagement as well as rotational alignment. Further, the seating of the blade tip into the recess holds the blade in place without the need for end load. The better alignment feature assures reduced assemble and maintenance costs: speeding the work with less chance of damage to adjacent structure.[[br]]
Step 24: Tri-Wing® Security Screws
Nintendo used these screws on several consoles and accessories, including the Game Boy, Wii, and Wii Remote, to discourage home repair. See Gamer Drives.[[br]]
Step 25: Opsit® Security Screws
Step 26: Tamper CELOK® Security Screw
Step 27: Tri-Groove® Tamper Resistant
Step 28: Uniqz® Tamper-Proof
Step 29: Holt Head Tamper-Proof
Step 30: TORX® 3-lobe
Step 31: TP3® Triangular Recess Security
Step 32: Triangle-Pin Tamperproof
Step 33: Exterior Triangle Head
Step 34: Secufast® Tricle
Step 35: Tri-Arc®
The main advantages of this new design include increased resistance to cam out and reduction in wear and tear on its drivers compared to the Philips or Posidrive. The bit doubles up as a good countersinking tool.
These may not be on the open market as yet, as the inventor is requesting a company who can develop the product and/or is interested in a licensing agreement. [[br]]
Step 36: Trigram® Screw Drive
Step 37: Microtech® Pin Screw Drive
Pictures used are copywritten by Microtech.
Step 38: Tampruf®
Tampruf® 1/4" Square drive sockets come in at least 3 sizes; #4 socket fits #4 round head and #6 counter sunk head; #6 socket fits #6 & #8 round head, #8 & 10 counter sunk head; #10 socket fits #10, #12, #14 round head, #14 counter sunk head.
Tampruf® 3/8" Square drive sockets come in at least 3 sizes; #20 socket fits 5/16 round head #10, 1/4 nuts; #30 socket fits 5/16 & 3/8 nuts; #40 socket fits 1/2-13 nuts.[[br]]
Step 39: Scroll™ Nuts & Screws
The special grooves cut into the outer surface of the scroll nut accommodate the special driver lugs in the recessed cup to allow the nut to be tightened or released. As a special manufacturing option, the scroll nut can also be made with just a drive groove, converting the nut into a one-way unit which performs in the same way as a shear nut. Sizes available in even numbers M6 to M12 and Tool Reference in even numbers SC6 to SC12.[[br]]
Step 40: Cross Slot
Step 41: Crossed Hi-Torque
Step 42: Lotus Head
Fellow Instructable contributor ironsmiter further explains: The Lotus Head Drive is basically a standard cross-slot screw, as it looks the slots are produced by a "much cheaper process". Basically, the screw head is split by a chisel type tool.
The theory is that, by not removing any material, the head retains the full material strength. This is a similar theory as to how a hole that was been punched and drifted, by a blacksmith, is stronger than one that has been drilled out. The Lotus head can also be formed by a machine that costs significantly less to buy and to operate than a recessed head.
The use for these screws is mainly for machine assembly. The constant pressure of the machine driver spindle prevents "skipping" of the bit (that would cause a stripped head, if using hand tools to drive the screw). There is a slightly modified Phillips bit that is used to drive them. It has a matching taper and flat bottom.
As ironsmiter also noted, the example shown is a "quickthread" allowing it to be driven at twice the depth per turn, as compared to a normal screw. It is also a self-drilling model. Primarily designed for use in plastics. You will find similar threads holding almost any cheap plastic radio, light fixture, toy, together. These are all "improvements" to speed up manufacture, and use of the screw. How successful it is at that, I do not know. Just hope you never have to remove one of these. Trying to get a standard Phillips bit, even if you modify it for the flat bottom profile, to grip on these screws is a Royal Pain (frowning) See end-load in Glossary.
According to LennyNero also of Instructables: This style of head is not designed for driving but to be encased in an injection molded plastic or die cast metal part. The odd head shape promotes good grip into the casting and prevents the screw portion from pulling away. He sees these a lot on the stud portions of multi post terminal strips.[[br]]
Step 43: Mission™ SC103 Square Bolt
Step 44: Parallellogram Head
Step 45: Robertson�ss
Henry Ford used Robertson screws in the Model A car made by the Ford Motor Company (one of Robertson's first customers). The Model T used over seven hundred Robertson screws. Ford dropped these screws when Robertson refused to give him exclusive rights to its use. Robertson also refused to license other fastener manufacturers, so the design spread very slowly. Many recreational vehicles built in the 1950s use these screws. In Canada, most wood and electrical screws have Robertson recess heads.
A near square recess drive allowed the screw to be placed on the driver prior to the screw being placed in position, so for the first time ever you could start a screw overhead or in a tight spot without an extra hand holding the screw onto the driver. A Robertson head on a screw is much better than a slot head because the screwdriver has great resistance to camout of the screw's head during installation and 4 possible positions to insert the driver. Instructables member roboguy points out that the Robertson design utilizes a "Morse-like" taper so the screw will stick to the bit even when held straight down. This taper allows the tool bit to insert deeper into the recess for more contact surface and thus less camout. To avoid problems make sure both screw and driver are of the matching type as there are many square drive drivers and screws around today that are not Robertson. See Square Drive (next topic). Robertson screwdrivers are available in 6 standard tip-sizes, none metric. Orange and orange are seldom used. The largest black is quite rare. Each identified usually by the handle color rather than by number.
Thanks Brian J. Cooley, Robertson Inc., Tools Division Product Line Manager for North America, for adding information on the 6th Robertson size and for pointing out ALL true Robertson Inc. power bits and insert bits are of the 2 piece variety, they have never produced one piece bits. (I've changed the reference picture as the original one was not not a true Robertson). An easy way for consumers to tell if any fasteners came from Robertson Inc. They use the Robertson ® products manufactured.
#00: orange - used with #1-2 Screws
#0: yellow - used with #3-4 Screws
#1: green - used with #5-7 Screws
#2: red - used with #8-10 Screws
#3: black - used with #12-14 Screws
#4: black - used with #16+ Screws
Step 46: Square Recess
Two methods of fabrication are the machined one piece and the two-piece is a forged steel tip press fitted into a regular steel tip holder part. Several companies each with their own select brand name produce square Drive.
Due to the lack of taper, the hole must be oversize relative to the screwdriver, and is much more likely to camout than the Robertson®. It is infuriating that Home Depot® and the tool companies like Bosch® and Dewalt® bring square drive bits into Canada that almost fit Robertson® screws and are marketed as equal and are unmarked. For any Canadian readers that want bits that work, try to buy the bits that are color-coded red, green, black as well check the engraving is an R on the bit. Don't trust the cheaper bulk packs. Never trust a Robertson that says "Made in America"; it is likely a Square Drive. A "fresh" American Square drive driver with a "real" Robertson® screw head sticks so tightly that it can take a significant yank to get them disengaged. This is advertised as a selling point of the American Square drivers here in Canada. Unfortunately, if you have to pop out the driver, it usually means you're damaging the tool and is more difficult to use from then on. Real Robertson® drivers do not suffer from this with Robertson® screws. So, while they don't stick quite so tightly, the drivers really do last a long time, and they're just as good at keeping grip under power. Bit sizes come in only four sizes and application and are rarely color-coded.[[br]]
Step 47: Tamperproof Square Recess
Step 48: Scrulox® Recess
Step 49: Phillips® Recess
Henry F. Phillips (1890 to 1958), a U.S. businessman from Portland, Oregon, has the honor of having the Phillips head screw and screwdriver named after him.
Phillips developed Thompsons" invention screw into a workable form. Phillips had come up with a recessed cross screw designed for efficiency on an auto assembly line. The idea was that the screwdriver would turn the screw with increasing force until the tip of the driver popped out, called camout. When tightening a Phillips screw with a Phillips screwdriver you will notice that when the torque gets to be too strong, the screwdriver winds itself out of the screw so the screw head would not be ruined or brake off.
Phillips also founded the Phillips Screw Company in Oregon in 1933, but never actually made screws. He had called on every established screw manufacturer in the US and was told simply that the screw could not be made. Screw makers of the 1930s dismissed the Phillips concept since it calls for a relatively complex recessed socket shape in the head of the screw; as distinct from the simple milled slot of a slotted type screw.
Phillips then called on the American Screw Company, a newcomer to the industry whose new president, Eugene Clark, personally became interested in the new product, despite the opposition of his engineers, who like others in the industry had insisted it could not be made. According to one printed report, the president of American Screw Company said: "I finally told my head men that I would put on pension all who insisted it could not be done. After that an efficient method was evolved to manufacture the fasteners and now we have licensed all other major companies to use it."
Use of the Phillips screws spread through the automobile industry at a rapid rate. By 1939 it was used by all but two automobile manufacturers. By 1940, Phillips" screws were used by the entire automotive industry, although one major manufacturer still would not use them on its passenger cars. Gradually the Phillips screw and screwdriver worked their way into other industrial applications; then consumer products, and eventually showed up in hardware stores.
The American Screw Company spent approximately $500,000 in the 1930s to produce the Phillips screw and obtained patents on the manufacturing methods. It was the sole licenser of the process. By 1940 10 American and 10 foreign companies were licensed to manufacture the screw. Although Henry Phillips received patents for the drive design in 1936 (US Patent #2,046,343, US Patents #2,046,837 to 2,046,840), it was so widely copied that by 1949 Phillips lost his patent ("exclusive" protection would only have lasted until 1956 anyway.)
Phillips' major contribution was in driving the crosshead concept forward to the point where it was adopted by screwmakers and many automobile companies. Henry Phillips died in 1958 at the age of sixty-eight.
The Phillips system was invented for use in assembling aluminum aircraft, with the object of preventing assemblers from tightening screws so tightly that the aluminum threads strip. The driver will cam out before that happens. The Phillips screwdriver has four simple slots cut out of it, each slot is the result of two machining processes at right angles. The result of this process is that the arms of the cross are tapered and has slightly rounded corners in the tool recess. Phillips is designed so that when excess torque is applied it will cam-out rather than ream the recess or destroy the bit. The driver has a 57° point with a blunt tip, tapered wings. Identified in ANSI standards as type I.
In all cross drive systems the driver will self-align with the fastener. The tapered design that allows camout can become a problem as the tooling that forges the recess in the head of the screws begins to show signs of wear. The recess becomes more and more shallow, which means the driver will bottom-out too soon and will cause the driver to cam-out early. Another problem is even though the ease to insert, Phillips screws can be tough to get back out. The main disadvantage is the screwdriver pops out too readily, stripping the screw, gouging the work, and in general transferring all the problems that were formerly with the Slot design. Consumers are likely to think that any screw head with a cross drive recess is a Phillips which can lead to other problems.[[br]]
Step 50: Tamper Pin Phillips® Head
Theft Proof fasteners are virtually impossible to remove without the matching driver. These screws are easy to drive & remove with matching tool, but cannot be removed with Phillips® driv�ue to the design of the Tamper Pin Phillips® Security Screw it is suitable for higher torque applications and is "2 way". Available in sizes #1, 2, 3.
Step 51: ACR® Phillips®
Maintainers prefer the ACR® Phillips® system because they do not have to push hard on the driver, reducing fatigue and the risk of injury. The results are securely removed screws every time with lowered cost, more productive workers, fewer drill outs, and fewer problems to fix in overhaul. ACR® Phillips® screws are also compatible with common Phillips® drivers allowing emergency modifications and repairs.[[br]]
Step 52: Phillips Square Driv®
This drive system has an increased driver bit cross-section significantly increases the longevity of the driver bit, reducing overall tool costs. Combines positive characteristics of both the Phillips® and the Square Drive with few negative characteristics. Not as prone to camout; higher torques than either original drive. Screw damage is minimized and drive tool life is extended. In addition, there is a consistent stick between the driver and the screw, making hard to reach joints a simple task.[[br]]
Step 53: ACR® Phillips Square Driv®
Step 54: Phillips Square Drive 2®
Step 55: Phillips II®
The rib-to-rib connection allows for more torque, off-angle driving, heads that will not snap off, and screws that will not strip. You will never have another stripped screw that cannot be removed! You can not drive a square drive or a star drive off angle! Proprietary threads means faster drive. Patented anti-camout ribs (ACR®), guarantee stick fit, easier drive and less fatigue. Deck Mate™ screws can be driven with #2 Phillips® or #2 Square Driver bits but for best performance use Deck Mate™ driver bits with ACR®. You will never have a stripped screw that cannot be removed.
Deck Mate is owned by Home Depot and they have changed manufacturers so they no longer use this bit. The manufacturers website: http://www.deckmatescrews.com/ These can now be purchased at Lows under the Phillips II Plus label.
Step 56: Quadrex®
This controlled radius recess has been designed for optimum driver engagement while providing clearance for wear and plating buildup. Added features include: Universal Application, Increased Productivity, Reduced Inventories, Assembly Line Economics and Universal Acceptance.[[br]]
Step 57: Recex Recess
Information by Brian J. Cooley, Robertson Inc., Tools Division Product Line Manager for North America.
Step 58: Frearson or Reed & Prince
Today it is mostly referred to as Frearson but occasionally still by its former name of Reed & Prince. This drive is very similar to a Phillips but has a more pointed 75° V-shape. It is found mainly in marine hardware. The tool recess is a perfect cross, unlike the Phillips head, which is designed to camout.
Its advantage over the Phillips drive is that one Frearson driver or bit fits all Frearson screw sizes, although there are 2 sizes available. Advantages include improved torque with minimal camout. Unfortunately the screw head recess appears to be a Phillips and so it is too easy to use the wrong tool or screw.
Instructables member whit3rd adds: The Reed & Prince tip isn't blunted, so won't fit 'normally' in a Philips #1, #2, or #3 screw; anyone who pays attention to the feel of the screwdriver will not mistake it for a Philips. [[br]]
Step 59: JIS Japanese Industrial Standard
Many people and companies outside of the Asian market have no idea what JIS is/are. With the similarity in appearance to the Frearson and the Phillips the screws are often damaged in removing and installing with the wrong tools. The JIS driver can be used on Phillips quite easily but not reciprocally. Drivers are not easily available in North America; try your local Radio Controlled Airplane hobby shop. Most RC Helicopters use JIS screws to mount the propellers.
Fellow instructable members gentry & Joe Katz: talk about the early Japanese motorbikes, as in the 1950's and 60's, the first Japanese motorbikes that came into the US were so frustrating to work on. The case screws looked like Phillips but all a Phillips driver did was strip out the recess. Both talk about needing to use vice-grips and even impact drivers - 'cause an impact would get 'em out even if the bit didn't fit well.
Eiko ISO Screw
Fellow instructable contributor Gecik says: In the 1970's and early 80's -- back when "movies" were strips of photographic film I repaired those movie projectors. Eiki was a Japanese company with very good, easily maintained 16mm projectors used extensively at colleges and universities (at least in the USA). Eiki projectors used what they called "ISO screws" and which sound very much like your JIS description. The ISO screws were difficult to remove with a Philips screwdriver, but were a breeze with the ISO screwdrivers supplied by Eiki. These screwdrivers also worked well with Philips. I had to purchase ISO screwdrivers through Eiki; a company in Kobe, Japan manufactured the tools. After the big earthquake in Kobe, the manufacturing company did not rebuild. The present-day Eiki has no historical knowledge of the ISO screwdrivers or that they had even used these screws. The "ISO screw" that I remember -- and still see in VCRs (soon-to-be-extinct also) and other Japanese manufactured goods has what I would describe as a "dimple" or a depression/dot between two sides of the "X."
I'm almost sure what Gecik refers to, as Eiki ISO screws were actually JIS-Type screws with ISO metric threads. Two ways of saying the same thing. Similar to if I'd call them Yuyama ISO screws.
You see my own JIS experience is with a medication-dispensing machine made by Yuyama of Osaka Japan. During the service training on these units along came JIS as they called it. Each screw has an identifying "dimple" on the head which I take to understand indicates that the cross-point head is not a Phillips. The screws are also all metric.
Step 60: Sel-O-Fit®
The Sel-O-Fit® bit places torque on the strongest and most mechanically advantageous portion of the driver tip. This allows more torque to be applied while minimizing the possibility of breakage and camout.[[br]]
Step 61: BNAE or French Recess
Step 62: Mortorq® Super
Aerospace designers have had to compromise on fastener performance. Previously, shallow head styles had poor torque transfer and damaged easily while robust drives required thicker material and added weight. The unique shape provides full contact of the driver over the entire recess wing resulting in extremely high torque capability without the risk of damage. Depth of the recess in the fastener head is minimized resulting in true high performance in 100° flush head and shear head applications. The open recess concept allows driver to recess misalignment and compensates for paint build-up without degrading torque performance. Workers can easily install and remove panel and structure fasteners at odd angles without high muscle stress or fear of damage to surrounding surfaces. Larger driver cross-sections and curved surfaces provide extended tool life and resistance to tensile fatigue fracture when used with high load pulse tools.[[br]]
Step 63: Torq-Set®
Step 64: Torq-Set® ACR®
A single driver inserts and removes the fasteners. The interlocking ribs - applied to the removal side of the driver bit and screw surfaces - eases fastener removal, even after a threaded fastener has become corroded, seized, or frozen. Camout is never a problem when driving in either direction with the ACR® system. When meeting demands of high torque applications, the Torq-Set® ACR® drive system delivers ultimate performance while protecting against camout. The offset cruciform shape with interlocking ribs of the Torq-Set® ACR® design is unmatched for sure steady driving. Additionally, all Torq-Set® ACR® driver bits and recesses are interchangeable with standard Torq-Set ® components, thereby eliminating potential difficulties during emergency field maintenance. Available in sizes #0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10.[[br]]
Step 65: Sentinel® Security Screws
There is no surface to catch for counterclockwise force. This unique feature renders the Sentinel® Security Screw tamper proof, reducing the risk of vandals or intruders tampering or undoing the screws. Due to the design of the Sentinel® Security Screw it is suitable for higher torque applications and is a 1-way permanent vandal resistant security screw.[[br]]
Step 66: 4-Hole Security Nuts & Bolts
Step 67: Microtech® 4-Pin
Step 68: 4-Notched
Step 69: Bristol 4-Spline Drive
Bristol Spline Drive suggested applications include set screws and smaller cap screws requiring severe tightening, and for screws with shallow sockets. For frequent removal and resetting of screws and plugs, such as for tool inserts, purge screws, drain/filler plugs, template retainers, and replacement of worn parts. In applications requiring softer screws such as stainless steel or non-ferrous materials.
Decades ago, Bristol engineers invented the Bristol Spline Drive System for use in electromechanical instruments. They required screws and wrenches that could stand up to industrial environments, vibrations, and frequent removal and resetting. Bristol wrenches have been in continuous production in the United States since their original introduction. Usual number of flutes is 6, but some diameters come with 4 flutes. Sized in inches:
0.048, 0.060, 0.069 (4 flute), 0.072, 0.076 (4 flute), 0.096, 0.111, 0.145, 0.183.[[br]]
Step 70: Torx-Plus® Security
Manufacturers the world over are discovering how the Torx® Drive increases torque transfer, extends tool life, and increases productivity on their assembly lines. Features include a non-symmetrical, elliptically-based geometric configuration; five lobes with solid post in center of recess; concentricity and tight tolerances of special tools make them very difficult to counterfeit.
Currently, Torx-Plus® heads and drivers are patented, slowing adoption in the marketplace, but is licensed to a number of tool manufacturers including Camcar and Facom. The control for these licenses are held by Textron.[[br]]
Step 71: External Torx-Plus® Low-Profile 5-Lobe
The external hex drive allows high torque transmission, but can fail quickly due to weaknesses inherent in its design. External Torx-Plus® low-profile head drive system is engineered to provide optimal torque transfer and extended tool life, with a head height similar to hex or pan head fasteners. The drive utilizes a 0° angle. Lobe engagement spreads forces over large area to prevent stress risers that cause tool and fastener damage. Higher torque transfer capability than corresponding internal recesses. Drive system strength 5 to 6 times greater than normal seating torque. Excellent high-torque drive system for miniature fasteners
An external Torx® version exists, where the screw head has the shape of a Torx® screwdriver bit, and a special Torx® socket is used to drive it. These are found primarily on automobile engines. [[br]]
Step 72: Cinstar® Security
Step 73: Penta® Drive
Step 74: Penta-Head™ Bolt
Step 75: Penta Nut™
Oversized Penta Security Nut sizes are available in sizes from 5/16" (M8) to 7/8" (M16). All nuts feature compression rings for binding & sealing, recess that provides high torque, deep sockets for overrun of bolts, cone shape to repel vice grips & are manufactured out of 316 stainless steel stock.[[br]]
Step 76: Penta-Plus™
Center pin is oversized. Configured to keep Torx® hex-pin bits out. Bit tips are tight fitting, allowing more torque than almost all other tamper-proof screws. The Penta-Plus™ screw and drivers are controlled. The bit tips are only sold to the user of the screws. The pentagram geometry is extremely secure and difficult to make.[[br]]
Step 77: Penta-Plus® Tamperproof
Step 78: Uni-Screw® Security
Step 79: Kinmar® Removable Two Way Security Nut & Screws
Step 80: Hexagonal Recess Head, Unbraco® or Allen Key
The Unbrako® fastener brand name is widely recognized throughout the world. Unbrako® socket screws are used in machine tools, tools and dies, earth moving and mining machinery, and a wide range of industrial and engineering applications.
To find the size of wrench needed to turn a hex head recess, measure from flat to flat. Common smaller hex sizes include -
0.050", 1 / 16 ", 5 / 64 ", 3 / 32 ", 7 / 64 ", 1 / 8 ", 9 / 64 ", 5 / 32 ", 3 / 16 ", 7 / 32 ", 1 / 4 ", 5 / 16 ", 3 / 8 "; Metric sizes:
1.27 mm, 1.5 mm, 2 mm, 2.5 mm, 3 mm, 4 mm, 4.5 mm, 5 mm, 5.5 mm, and 6 mm. [[br]]
Step 81: Tamper Proof Hex-Pin™ Drive
Step 82: External Hex Drive
Step 83: Bristol 6-Spline Drive
Decades ago, Bristol engineers invented the Bristol Spline Drive System for use in electromechanical instruments. They required screws and wrenches that could stand up to industrial environments, vibrations, and frequent removal and resetting. Excellent for set-screws and smaller cap screws requiring severe tightening, and for screws with shallow sockets. For frequent removal and resetting of screws and plugs, such as for tool inserts, purge screws, drain/filler plugs, template retainers, and replacement of worn parts. Bristol wrenches have been in continuous production in the United States since their original introduction. Thanks fellow Instructable member fernblatt for assistance on these. Usual number of flutes is 6, but some diameters come with 4 flutes. Bristol spline drivers are available from Xcelite/Cooper and are SAE-sized (non-metric). Sized in inches:
0.048, 0.060, 0.069 (4 flute), 0.072, 0.076 (4 flute), 0.096, 0.111, 0.145, 0.183[[br]]
Step 84: Torx® Drive
Torx® screws are commonly found on automobiles, hard disk drives, computer systems (Compaq® uses almost exclusively T15 screws) and consumer electronics, but are also becoming increasingly popular in construction.
This style of head is now very common in trucks and automobiles. The walls of the recess are not tapered. Drivers greatly outlast similar hex head drivers.
Torx® head sizes are described using the capital letter "T", followed by a number. A smaller number corresponds to a smaller point-to-point dimension of the screw head. Common sizes include T10, T15 and T25, although they reach as high as T100. Only the proper driver can drive a specific head size without risk of ruining the driver or screw. The same series of Torx drivers is used to drive SAE, metric and other thread system fasteners, reducing the number of bit sizes required. Excellent sizing charts available on the Wiha Toolswebsite.
Fellow instructables contributor peter_broach adds: CNC machines often use rotary broaching tools to make forms like these in custom screws.
Step 85: E-Torx® (External)
Step 86: Torx Plus® Drive
Step 87: Torx Plus® External Low Profile Drive
Fastener Sizes - from H7EP (#0000, M0.6) through 42EP (1", M24). Note: Special sockets are required.[[br]]
Step 88: Tamper Pin TX Security Screws
The Tamper Pin TX Security Screw as its name states has an internal pin within the 6-lobe socket (star drive) of the head, requiring a special insert bit or key wrench to insert and remove. This unique feature renders the Tamper Pin TX Screw tamper proof, reducing the risk of vandals or intruders tampering or undoing the screws. Due to the design of the Tamper Pin TX Security Screw it is suitable for higher torque applications and is "2 way".
Except for the pin, the Tamperproof Torx® heads are the same as the internal recess heads, with sizes including - TT-7, TT-8, TT-9, TT-10, TT-15, TT-20, TT-25, TT-27, TT-30.[[br]]
Step 89: TTAP®
Currently, TTAP® heads and drivers are patented, slowing adoption in the marketplace. Information hints there is also a tamper resistant version of TTAP® but found no information yet.[[br]]
Step 90: Polydrive®
A Polydrive® bit has 6 teeth at equal spacing and with flat tips to the teeth. Size is determined by OD diameter at the star points. Functionally, it is similar to Torx® and Bristol Spline drive, all of which are systems using internal bit-socket drivers along with specially-designed bolts, screws, and other fasteners. Its primary advantage over older fastener driver standards, such as the common Phillips® head (and its sibling Pozidriv®), is that it resists camout, and is thus used in higher torque applications such as brakes and drive-shafts.[[br]]
Step 91: 6-Lobe Screw Drives
Step 92: Tam-6-Lobe™
Step 93: Tamperproof System Zero® Security
The System Zero® Security Screw has an external non-slip drive head, requiring a special tool to insert and remove. This unique feature renders the System Zero® Screw tamper proof, reducing the risk of vandals or intruders tampering or undoing the screws. Due to the design of the System Zero® Security Screw it is suitable for higher torque applications and is "2 way", also with the non slip external drive damage to adjacent components is avoided.
The unique head-style requires a dedicated driver for installation and subsequent, authorized removal. In combination with the driver the head design gives high torque transmission, which in turn generates high clamp loads. Virtually 100% secure without associated removal tool. Sizes from M3 to M8 machine and No.2 to No.14 self tapping. They have uses in beekeeping and are especially easy to apply. [[br]]
Step 94: Seton Security Screw Kit
Step 95: Uni-Screw®
A new design of screw head, the Uni-Screw®, has been developed to rival the well-established slotted, Phillips® and Pozidriv® screws. It is based on a series of hexagonal recesses that avoids camout, which occurs with the other designs when higher torques are applied.
The company website claims Uni-Screw® to be the first driver to drive both imperial and metric fasteners, virtually eliminates camout and stripping, positive control with stick fit, and increased productivity. Other benefits include the need for only one driver over a wide range of screw sizes and easy alignment of driver to screw.
Other recess forms can be used including pentagon and heptagon to provide high tamper resistance, and these can be tailored for a single user to give total security.
Step 96: 7-Node Drive
Step 97: Posidrive®
Pozidriv® is similar in appearance to the classic Phillips® crosshead, but in fact is substantially different. On close examination you will notice a second set of cross-blades at the root of the large cross-blades. These added blades are for identification and match the additional makings on the head of Pozidriv® screws, known as "tick" marks, single lines at 45° to the cross recess. So, the marks are for more than identification purpose. Pozidriv® also does not have the rounded corners that the Phillips screw drive has. The tip or the driver is blunt which also helps it to seat better into the recess in the screw, unlike the Phillips® which comes to a sharper point.
Identified in ANSI standards as type IA. Pozidriv® screws can be turned by Phillips® screwdrivers, but Pozidriv® drivers won't turn Phillips® screws, although they should not be used as they tend to ride out of the recess and round the corners of both the tool and screw recess.
The largest advantage it offers is that, when used with the correct tooling in good condition, it does not cam out, allowing great torque to be applied. The chief disadvantage of Pozidriv® screws is that they are visually quite similar to Phillips®, thus many people are unaware of the difference or do not own the correct drivers for them, and use incorrect screwdrivers. This results in difficulty in unscrewing the screw and in damage to the slot, rendering any subsequent use of a correct screwdriver unsatisfactory.[[br]]
Step 98: SupaDrive®
The Supadrive® basic shape is similar to Posidriv® and the drive blades are about equal thickness. The main difference is close to a near vertical surface to drive the screws into the drivers. With this superior "bite" screw driving is more efficient, with less come out.[[br]]
Step 99: Spider Drive™
The patent pending Spider Drive™ system was developed for the HeadLok®, both trademarks of OMG, Inc. in Agawam, MA. The eight-lobed design offers the highest level of positive bit engagement and drivability allowing you to drive these screws in with your arm extended with no camout.[[br]]
Step 100: Kinmar® Permanent One Way Security Nut & Screws
This fastener can be re-torqued if required. Requires matching tooling to instal. Available in sizes M5 to M12.[[br]]
Step 101: Scrulox®8
Step 102: 12-Point Double Hex
From fellow instructable member lordzion: 12 Point Double Hexagon usually associated with a flange head and in high torque applications where there is a restriction on head size or when space is limited hexagon driving tools eg inside access.
An internal wrenching nut exists, known as an Allenut or Allen nut, is a cylindrical nut that is internally threaded on one side and has an Allen socket on the other side; the outside of the nut is smooth or has knurling on it.
The Allen socket may be 6 point or 12 point (also known as a double hex socket). They are used where hex or square nuts won't fit. Screw sizes from #4 to 1", body diameters from 0.187" to 1.533", heights from 0.179" to 1.532, and socket sizes from 1/8" to 1".[[br]]
Step 103: External 12-Point Double Hex
Step 104: 12-Point Triple Square or XZN
Other names used for Triple Square screws and drivers are "Double Hex", "Double Allen", and "Aircraft Screws". Despite this, "Double Hex" and "Double Allen" are misnomers. The recess in these bolts is actually (as the name suggests) made of three squares, not two hexagons. The corners are 90°, not 120°. As they are not double hexes, an Allen key will not fit them properly.
Common sizes are 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm. Triple square drivers can be purchased at auto parts stores and through automotive tool distributors.[[br]]
Step 105: External 12-Point Triple Square
Step 106: LOX® Recess
In 2001, John "Brad" Wagner patented LOX® recess and driver bit designed specifically for power tools. LOX® features twelve contact points, three times as many as the four points of Phillips and Robertson designs. Twelve points that transfer extraordinary torque while holding a positive engagement drive after drive. In a recent independent test, LOX® screws demonstrated more than triple the torque capacity of square.
The patented LOX® recess easily outperforms every competing drive system on the market, delivering three distinct advantages: 12 points of contact and a near zero degree drive angle, the LOX® recess is engineered to accept torque loads many times higher than competing technologies. LOX® has vertical sidewalls that transfer forces radially, keeping the bit seated and minimizing end load. The near zero drive angle (4°) optimizes torque transmission and eliminates radial stresses, dramatically increasing bit life.
The unique four offset square design four projections that effectively eliminate stripping. These projections maximize bit life while minimizing material waste. Directional stability with multiple, concentric driving surfaces are directionally stable to within less than two degrees which makes this a ideal choice where there is poor access or no direct line of sight to the fastener location.
The design also works as a tamper resistant feature and is suitable for high RPM drives (up to 2000 rpm). Because of its precise fit and evenly distributed forces, the LOX bit life is at least 5-10 times longer than competing systems. Even if the material costs are negligible, workers don't like stopping to replace worn bits. It throws off their rhythm and slows their progress. They often wait until bits are completely worn before stopping to changing them.[[br]]
Step 107: Key-Rex™
Used in the most difficult security applications such as voting machines, parking lot lock boxes, gambling machines and city copper security. Sizes available from 3/56-5/8 x 11 (M2-M12)[[br]]
Step 108: Combo Slot - Phillips
Step 109: Combo Slot - Square
Step 110: Combo Slot - Square
Step 111: Combo Slot - Torx
Step 112: Combo Slot - Hex
Step 113: Combo Hex - Phillips
Step 114: Shouldered Security Keys
Channell Commercial Corporation
Security StarLock key designed for opening Cable TV PEDs and some MDU lock boxes for apartments.
Slamlock Shouldered StarLock Key
Available from NewElectronx, the Shouldered StarLock Key does not have a pin in the middle of the tool. The Key will fit any 1/4 inch screw driver. Many CATV Telecommunications enclosures use this slamlock/starlock tool to open and lock Shouldered Star Locks / Slam Locks / Lock Box (lockbox) / secured cable line pedestals. The Shouldered StarLock Key is designed to fit most low profile pedestals and can be used on many Cable TVS outside lock box enclosures / boxes. This tool can be used to replace any Diversified, Channell Commercial Corporation, etc security key. Only sold to licensed or authorized field technicians.
They have several configurations available including 4, 5 (2 types), 6, 7, 8 lobes.
The Nutdriver Key is also known as a Sided Slam Lock Star Key, Diversified PED Key, Pedestal Key, Flower Shape Key, Slamlock Nutdriver Point Star Key, Slam Box CATV Security Open Tool, CATV Key Diversifed Star Tool, Cable TV Security, or Cable Box Enclosure Opener Tool.
Step 115: Gamer Drives
Nintendo 4.5mm System Security Tool
This is used to open SNES, N64, SEGA, Virtual Boy, Turbo Duo, TG-16 and Gamecube Systems; as well, it is also used with SEGA Genesis (any model) and SEGA 32X Games (cartridges); for easy access to interior parts and vital cleaning that can help your system/games to work perfectly again. Youll have a rather difficult time opening these systems or games without this tool.
Nintendo 3.8mm Gamebit Security Tool
This tool opens NES, SNES, Virtual Boy, Game Gear (SEGA), some Gameboy and N64 Games (cartridges) for easy access for cleaning and repair.
Nintendo Repair Tool
This custome Triwing/Trigram Screw Driver Opens original Gameboy, GBC, GBA, GBA SP, Nintendo DS, Nintendo DS Lite, and Wii systems; GC controller, and GBA game cartridges for repair and cleaning.
Happy Meal Toy Tool
Roomba Robotic Vacuum Cleaners and Happy Meal Toys use a small solid Triangle tip screwdriver.
Step 116: Appendix
Camout (or cam-out) is a process by which a screwdriver slips out of the head of a screw being driven once the torque required to turn the screw exceeds a certain amount. Frequently, camout damages the screw, and possibly also the screwdriver, and should normally be avoided. However, the Phillips head screw and screwdriver combination was designed specifically to camout, as at the time of its invention torque sensing automatic screwdrivers did not exist.
Phillips is a trademark used for a screw with a head having two intersecting perpendicular slots and for a screwdriver with a tip shaped to fit into these slots.
Recess refers to the shaped socket into which a driver can be inserted
End-Load is the force required to keep the bit to not camout. Low end-load is usually most desirable.
1-Way refers to a screw that is designed for permanently single use only.
2-Way refers to a screw that is intended to be both inserted and removed, used more than once etc.
History of Screws and Screwdrivers, by Mary Bellis, About.com
Phillips or Pozidriv? Healey Magazine, Feb 1996
Why did this guy Phillips think we needed a new type of screw by Adams, Nov 24 1989
Screw Drive Systems, Wheeling, IL, Hitchcock Publishing, annual.
A New Design of Screw Head by Brian Rooks, Assembly Automation Vol 21-4, 2001
Furniture screws: primitive to gimlet by Fred Taylor, Discover Mid-America - Aug 2007
Robertson Screws by Ricketts
Hands-On: LOX Screws by Chuck Cage
Testing and Understanding Screwdriver Bit Wear. Thesis submitted to Virgiania Polytechnic and State University.
A New Design of Screw Head by Brian Rooks: Assembly Automation, 2001; Vol 21, Issue 4, Page: 329 - 333.
Inspection-6 Lobe Recess.pdf, article by Joe Greenslade found at www.greensladeandcompany.com
A Light Duty Parallelogram T Nut, version 3; by R.G. Sparber
Robertson Screw and Screwdriver - Incredible Inventions - Cool Canada - Library and Archives Canada, Collections Canada.
Manufactuers & Suppliers of Interest
Phillips Screw Company
S.C.F. Fasteners, Taiwan
Uni-Screw Worldwide, Inc
Complete FastenersBristol Wrench
Free Patents Online
DIY Security Bits.
Cam Car Solutions
Discussion Forum; Re Phillips vs Square
Helpful Fools / Does Anybody Know?
Electronics Point Discussion and Advice on All Things Electronic
Instructables feedback of article by several contributing members.
Book on Screw History
Rybczynski,Witold - One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw, Harper Flamingo Canada, Toronto, 2000, ISBN 0-00-200031-8
Rybczynski, Witold - One Good Turn: A Natural History of the Screwdriver and the Screw. New York: Touchstone, 2000. Good read on topic. It mentions some of the patent and economics of why we have so many of these darn things. "Screw your courage to the sticking-place, and we'll not fail," from Macbeth can go with your obscure party conversation and anecdotes about screws... (from contributor PMstagewarrior)
Step 117: Another Project by Arcticpenguin
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