In certain climates a whole house fan (WHF) is an effective way to offset the high cost of air conditioning. The theory works particularly well in areas with very hot days and nice cool nights like the Central Valley of California where we happen to live. The WHF is installed in the ceiling and blows upward into the attic to force the hot air accumulated during the day out your roof vents while sucking cool nigh-time air into the house through open doors and windows. In the morning, the fan is turned off and windows and doors are closed up to prevent the cooled interior from warming up.

For many homes, installation of a pre-manufactured WHF is quite simple. Calculate the volume of your home (square feet of floor space times average ceiling height) and use readily available formulas to determine the size of the fan you need. Then cut a properly reinforced hole in your ceiling based upon the size of the fan you are using and mount the unit. You also need to calculate and allow for the proper amount of roof venting. There are many pre-manufactured WHF units which can be found at big box stores and on the internet.

In our case, however, we ran into two snags during the planning phases of the project. While our home has a relatively modest 2,383 square feet of floor space, our ceilings are 10 feet tall rather than the normal eight. As a result, the volume of air we needed to move was larger than most typical homes and beyond the capacity of most lower cost WHFs.

Our second, and larger, problem was that whole house fans are designed to operate in a horizontal position. Unfortunately, due to truss design and a maze of duct work, there was virtually no area in our attic where a “store bought” WHF could be mounted horizontally.

As a result, we ended up designing and building our own vertical WHF. We used a “drum fan” which is made to operate an a vertical position and has the additional benefit of moving large amounts or air at a lower cost than typical whole house fans.

[Note to readers: After publication of this instructable, member g1981c offered some additional information about fan design and effectiveness which can be found in the comments section. Based on those comments, I just (6/12/14) swapped out the original drum fan (which is NOT designed as an exhaust fan) and installed a fan specifically designated as an exhaust fan. The improvement in air movement and cooling is clearly evident. We can run this new fan for half the time we ran the drum fan and draw in more cool night air than we did before. I was also able to find just enough unobstructed flat surface in the attic to get this new fan installed in the horizontal position. This note is just to recommend that readers not only insure that the fan they select is installed in the correctly designed position (vertical or horizontal) but that the fan be designed specifically as an exhaust fan.

Fortunately, our drum fan is being put to good use keeping out breezeway and my workshop cool and usable during the heat of the day.]

Step 1: Prepping the Fan.

After doing a good bit of comparison shopping on the web we chose the Q Standard 36" belt drive drum fan model #10265.  The fan has a 2/3 HP 2-speed motor and delivers 11,200 CFM of air transfer which is more than adequate for our home.  We paid $307 (Northern Tool via Amazon) delivered to our door.  The cost per cubic foot of air movement is typically much better for drum fans than for whole house fans.   Our fan did arrive with a few dents and dings due to poor packaging.  But these were easily hammered out and made straight.

To mount this fan vertically and draw air up out of the house a large plenum must be built.   This can be constructed of sheet metal or plywood.   For our fan we used two 4x8 sheets of 7/16" USB plywood.   The first step in constructing the plenum is to remove any wheels, handles or fan guards that might be attached to the drum fan.  Then level the fan on a flat, level floor.  Note the stack of 2x4's used to get the fan mounting bracket to a vertical position.   Also note the closed cell foam under each foot of the fan.  The foam is used to help reduce vibration and noise transfer and must be in place during mock up and final assembly to insure the plenum opening will be at the proper height.
<p>how about the noise I live in Miami townhouse only have 5ft of attic I pay $450. a month in a 2000 sq ft Ill try anything thank you very much</p>
All whole house fans will create noise. Some are worse than others but there is no industry-wide data to compare one to another with any degree of accuracy. Also, fan noise might be a huge distraction to one individual while quite comfortable to another. Location of the fan will also make a difference (too close to bedrooms, too close to tv etc.) <br><br>Regarding your location in Miami, my best advice is to consult with as many other WHF owners as possible regarding their experiences. WHF's are not a cure-all for all environments. We happen to have very hot days and fairly cool nights where we live, so the WHF is perfect...turn it on to cool off the house over night then close up the house and shut off the fan during the day. If you have hot/humid nights AND hot/humid days, then I would be less optimistic about the effectiveness of a WHF. Fortunately, a WHF is far less expensive than many other alternatives, such as A/C, so you can install one without risking a fortune.
I'm wondering what the model you settled on was? I'm considering a similar project for my attic, but wanted to see if you had the model of the exhaust specific fan. Thanks!
<p>I bought the Cool Attic CX30BD2SP (30&quot;, belt drive, two speed). It was $384 on Amazon with free shipping. You might have sales tax depending on your location. The fan has been great. We installed a timer which automatically turns it on from 4-7 in the morning. If it gets hot enough during the day, we also turn it on manually for about an hour in the late evening (when outside temps drop under inside temps) for about an hour to blow out the hot air in the attic and to draw in some cooler evening air for sleeping. We live in the central valley of CA and have only had to run our A/C on just three days this summer (May-July) and will probably need it a couple more days here in Aug and Sept. Other than that the whole house fan does it all to keep us comfortable.</p>
<p>What size fan is that? I was looking at some fans that were 24in, but that doesn't seem big enough. Great idea!!</p>
<p>Some of the newer style of whole house fans are extremely quiet and do not require any framing. We recently purchased a ducted whole house fan from Centric Air and hired an electrician to install it. It took him a couple of hours to do the job but after he was done he said it was the easiest whole house fan he ever installed. We often sleep with our whole house fan on; it's so quiet you can barely hear it.</p>
<p>Some of the newer style of whole house fans are extremely quiet and do not require any framing. We recently purchased a ducted whole house fan from Centric Air and hired an electrician to install it. It took him a couple of hours to do the job but after he was done he said it was the easiest whole house fan he ever installed. We often sleep with our whole house fan on; it's so quiet you can barely hear it.</p>
<p>what you may have not realized is that blower fans are not designed to work against a pressure gradient - they are designed to work in zero static pressure environment. using a blower fan as an exhaust fan is like using a sports car to tow a boat - a sports car may have more horsepower than a diesel pickup - that doesn't mean it will tow better, because it has lower torque and different transmission gearing. as such, your CFM / dollar calculations are somewhat meaningless because once the blower is placed in an exhaust fan application its CFM will plummet. it would be wiser IMO to use tools for their intended application and not to try and be smarter than engineers who designed them. i like your project overall - more fresh air, less electrical bills - but the choice of fan for the job i disagree with.</p>
<p>To Follow Up: Based on the observations of g1981c I ordered a fan specifically designated as an exhaust fan and just this week swapped it for the drum fan shown in this instructable. I don't understand the physics of intake vs. exhaust fans nearly as well as g1981c but I can report that the dedicated exhaust fan does create a notable increase in the amount of air it moves through the house and the overall cooling effectiveness. I would therefore agree with g1981c's comments and recommend that readers not only insure the fan you buy is intended for either the vertical or horizontal position but that it be designed specifically as an exhaust fan. We are even happier now with our WHF thanks to g1981c.</p>
<p>How did you know that the fan couldn't be upright? Some drum fans have that position as an option? <br>Great idea and work and instructions!!!</p>
<p>Sorry if my introduction wasn't clear. The drum fan IS built to operate in the upright (vertical) position. And most whole house fans are manufactured to operated in the horizontal position. This is why I chose the drum fan. To determine if any particular fan can be operated in the horizontal or vertical position you can usually find that information in the product description on line, by bringing up the installation manual on line (if available) or by emailing the manufacturer or supplier.</p><p>One note of caution. As another individual posted here a few weeks ago, fans are ALSO rated as intake fans and exhaust fans. The drum fan I used is, unfortunately, not rated as an exhaust fan. Therefore it is less effective and not as efficient when used in this manner. I'm no engineer so I can't tell you the design differences. But just this week I did swap out the drum fan for a fan specifically designed as an exhaust fan and the resulting improvement in air movement is quite noticeable. So folks should not only insure fan choice is designed for the position you want to install it (vertical or horizontal) but also for its use (intake or exhaust).</p>
<p>Not sure my response to g1981c posted up correctly...so I'll try it again. Hopefully it doesn't appear twice now.</p><p>Looks like I need to go fan shopping. Fortunately, I was thinking about buying the identical fan I used in this project to cool my shop, which has no A/C. Based on g1981c's comments, I think I'll swap out the drum fan and move that out to the shop and then purchase a new dedicated exhaust fan that will work in the vertical position and mount it to the existing plenum.</p><p>Thanks for the info and education. </p><p>Dewey</p>
<p>I grew up in OH using an &quot;attic fan&quot;....and I just loved it...plus it was in my bedroom ceiling...<br>I went to sleep listening to the sounds.<br>I had a super little room with 2 doorways..I would shut one and get twice the air....YUM!<br>After I moved out my Dad added a fan at the end of the house too...so they had 2 attic fans...<br>I miss them....</p><p>Living in TX these past 31 years sure would have had a use for them!</p>
<p>Hi Dewey, I bought a big drum fan years ago to help cool our shop down during the hotter summer days but we had a heat wave last summer and ended up taking it to the house and placing it at the foot of the bed at night. It almost takes the sheets off. I really like this system you have!</p>
Hi, good one. have you considered increasing the thermal capacity? How's about epoxying ally soda cans end to nd
I'm not quite sure what you mean by thermal capacity? Are you referring to more mass inside the house to store heat/cold?
This is a very good idea. <br> <br>I am using an old turbo fan, one of these cheap chinese, put in a hole at the attic wall. I turn on it in hot nights when the outer temperature lows, at late afternoon. It is very effective.

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