It's going on 3 years now since dismantling the semi successful wind generator #3.

Now living in central Texas with a constant wind blowing and seeing all of the famous Texas windmills for pumping water scattered all throughout the country side.

I decided I wanted another generator, so I was going to buy a "ready to use" generator from Amazon, but didn't find any that had any good reviews.

There are several of those high dollar "ready to use" generators in the Austin area that have failed and no longer spin.

So 1st off from Amazon.com, I bought a $20 low RPM DC motor, a 10mm spindle adapter for an 8MM shaft and a set of 8MM pillow block bearings.

Dug out of storage all of the "stuff" that I had kept from my previous wind generators and so now it begins.

This latest attempt will be for a more durable and lasting generator, with higher voltage output.

For the design of the windmill and furling mechanism, you'll need to go to my older instructables. I will not cover that in this Instructable.

Also, I'll be letting the images do more of the explaining by putting captions to most of the images per each step

Step 1: The blades

Using a 4" PVC pipe 2' long, mark it into 1/4s, then into the actual shape of the blade using masking tape.

The handsaw worked perfect for the task of cutting the PVC pipe.


<p>I bought a 440 amp controller from EBay seller Windengineering </p><p><a href="http://stores.ebay.com/windgeneering/">http://stores.ebay.com/windgeneering/</a></p><p>Here is a video showing the controller cutting out at 14.5 volts</p><p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="281" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/D8AtZ1B3ymQ" width="500"></iframe></p>
12 volt LED Christmas lights attached to the tower's guide wires
<p>Furling mechanism being put to work during an aproaching rain storm with 30+ MPH gusts</p><p><iframe allowfullscreen="" frameborder="0" height="281" src="//www.youtube.com/embed/ut2SYXDWRz4" width="500"></iframe></p>
<p>My 1st wind generator Instructable </p><p><a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Small-Wind-Powered-Generator/" rel="nofollow">http://www.instructables.com/id/Small-Wind-Powered...</a></p><p>My 2nd wind generator Instructable </p><p><a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Small-Wind-Generator-Rebulid-Relocate-and-Repla/" rel="nofollow">http://www.instructables.com/id/Small-Wind-Generat...</a></p><p>The 10MM spindle adapter for the 8MM motor shaft</p><p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00N9VMOHE?psc=1&redirect=true&ref_=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00" rel="nofollow">http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00N9VMOHE?psc=1&amp;...</a></p><p>The Pillar Bearing for an 8MM shaft</p><p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00YINI3RW?psc=1&redirect=true&ref_=oh_aui_detailpage_o03_s00" rel="nofollow">http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00YINI3RW?psc=1&amp;...</a></p><p>The adapter/bushing set for the saw blade</p><p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004EGC16C?psc=1&redirect=true&ref_=oh_aui_detailpage_o02_s00" rel="nofollow">http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B004EGC16C?psc=1&amp;...</a></p><p>The low RPM DC motor</p><p><a href="http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00YG5Z9NI?psc=1&redirect=true&ref_=oh_aui_detailpage_o06_s00" rel="nofollow">http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00YG5Z9NI?psc=1&amp;...</a></p>
<p>I bought the exact same motor and arbor and bearings on amazon like you did but am having trouble putting the arbor on the shaft of the motor. Should it be that difficult to put the arbor on the shaft of the motor? Do you have to use a lot of force? I checked all the measurements and they are exactly like yours but the arbor won't fit. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks for sharing.</p>
sorry to hear that!!<br>I haven't had any trouble getting mine on. think maybe a set screw isn't backed out far enough. <br>it it's not that. there must be a defect.<br>hope you get it solved/fixed!!
<p>I like this project. I wonder if it would be possible to make one strong enough to run in a 50 to 80 mph santa ana wind? </p>
Thanks!!<br>not sure but the original design is going on about 3 to 4 years now.<br>it's been through lots of high winds and severe thunderstorms
<p>8/22/16</p><p>I added a 7th step that briefly shows a 2nd generator using the same idea, but different parts and mounting </p>
Hey! This is an awesome design i found a reference to your postfrom an Amazon comment!! Im looking to use this application at burning man. Im in Austin myself, could we maybe meet up so i can see this person? If not i understand! Great design!
send me an email to ddavis662@yahoo.com and well swap contact info
hey and cool..<br>I'm just North of Georgetown. <br>Those small motors put out plenty of DC voltage but very low amperage. <br>I guess it equals a trickle charge, if that.. ?
working on another wind generator
very nice indeed. well done.
<p>good work </p>
Is that the voltage with it hooked to the diode and/or the solar panel charging station?
straight off the leads from the generator
securing the wind generator for possible record breaking storms :-\
<p>....unless something changed drastically since I left Engineering school - I think you got it exactly opposite.</p><p>You can easily step up/down voltage on the DC (DIRECT Current).</p><p>AC (ALTERNATING Current) is your solution for long distance travel as in DC you quickly loose most of your power to resistance - which doesn't show in AC in the same form as it does in DC.</p><p>Eddison was screwed with his DC-power-grid plans - he hardly could leave a village before crashing the circuit.</p><p>It wasn't until Tesla came up with AC and showed the world, that you can transmit AC basically without distance limits - too bad for Tesla that Westinghouse scooped up his AC patent....</p><p>Cheers all,</p><p>thjakits</p>
<p>No, you have the wrong end of the stick. The losses for AC and DC will be as far comparable as far as basic wire resistance is involved. But, if you use EITHER at a huge voltage, then the losses over long distances will be proportionately lower. And I mean huge: 50 to 100,000V. That's why over-head power lines are overhead, a long way overhead.</p><p>However, only AC can be easily down-converted to a useable domestic voltage ( by a transformer ). With DC you're stuffed.</p><p>Just my $0.02 worth</p><p>Bruce</p>
<p>Actually I think you are both partially right and partially wrong. The determining factor for line loss, ( the voltage lost to the carrying cable) is determined by the amount of current being carried, as in the formula E=I*R, voltage (drop) equals the line current times the line resistance. The higher voltage used for power transmission lines means the same amount of useable power can be carried at a lower current, P=I*E (power(watts) equls I(current in amps) * E(voltage). </p><p>What screwed Mr. Edison was the fact that DC voltage is not easily changed up or down, where AC voltage can be easily changed through the use of a transformer. This meant that the farther that Mr. Edison's wires stretched, OR the higher the load that was put on them, the larger the wires had to be, since he was effectively limited to the voltage that the end user needed. </p>
<p>WOW, we have 2 bat159's on here.</p><p>Nice to meet you</p><p>Bat159</p>
I watch a program on PBS about that exact situation. Telsa (sp) was a genius. They said he had a 3D type visionary mind.
does this make any sense to any one? looks like .01 amps around 6-8 volts to lighting the LED(s)
<p>I worked for Sears for 8 years as a co- contractor of wind turbines instulation for attic ventilation, Why can't a car alternator, 12 Volts be hooked up to one of these and be used to charge 12 Volt battery's. Once installed on your roof if you also have an attic fan it makes the turbine spin at who knows how many mph. All thats needed is the turbine, a 12 volt alternator and battery's placed in sequence as you would do a motor home with 2 battery's that run the motor home and the electricity needed to run the motor home. It seems that this set up would charge the battery and keep them charged. You can still buy 12 to 14 inch turbine vents made of aluminum from Sears that spen with the smallest breeze I know that someone would need to design the mount for an alternator, weather it be by belt and pully or a stright connection from the alternator to the turbine. Iv been thinking of this plan since early 2009. The Turbine vents turn on the hot air riseing from your attic. But with an attic fan they turn many mph's</p>
another good use of the Dish TV tripod
Here is an example of what I am powering with the solar panels and wind generator. I have a lead running from the main regulator to the back of the camper that has a douple plug socket with a phone charger and a 12 volt turbo fan plugged in with a lead that is plugged into a Harbor Freight power pack with a Bell USB port/3 outlet strip plugged in, with the LED salt lamp and the overhead LED truck bed lights controlled by the Night Watchman light sensor.
Each evening, I unplug the power pack after it has been charged up from the solar panels and wind generator, so that it won't put a drain on the rest of the 12 volt system during the night.
<p>This should be an instructable in itself!</p><p>From a anonymous contributor to this instructable...</p><p>His email...</p><p>Well an idea I did have to keep the load constant is to use a <br>different type of power source. It does add some cost to the situation, <br>but it may prove better for your application.</p><p>By my guesstimate <br>when you are running the generator of the wind you have it doesn't <br>exceed 24v with a load on it right? (Not sure)</p><p>If you can <br>absolutely keep the voltage below the max series voltage, I would say <br>this setup is a prime candidate for a super-capacitor setup. Capacitors <br>and super-capacitors are very different. Super-capacitors have very <br>small voltages such as 2.5, 2.7, or 2.9. You put them in series to make <br>the most of your voltage you are getting. The smallest I recommend would <br> be 350 farads for cost and this application. So with 6 of them your <br>voltage would be at max 15v (with 2.5v caps), and you would get about 58 <br> farads at 16.2 volts. That sounds pretty dinky, but that will start a <br>diesel engine. The key being that they are linear just like your motor. <br>The motor can output 0 to 120 volts, just like the supercaps can input <br>and output 0-15v with no change in resistance. At 0v they act like a <br>dead short so you will need bigger wires or a way to limit the current, <br>but you could make more out of this voltage and keep it in parallel with <br> your 12v battery for maximum usage with a power inverter. The 2.5v are <br>the older models you can find 2nd hand or out of metro electric city <br>buses. The bus caps are more than likely 3000Farads each so 500Farads <br>out of 6 of them. </p><p>I love alternative energy projects, so feel free to ping me if you have any questions.</p><p>(The DIY for the supercaps)</p><p><a href="http://laserhacker.com/" rel="nofollow">http://laserhacker.com/</a></p><p>(complete modules built by the manufacturer, safest, but not cheap)</p><p><a href="http://www.maxwell.com/products/ultracapacitors/16v-small-modules/documents" rel="nofollow">http://www.maxwell.com/products/ultracapacitors/16...</a></p><p><a href="http://www.maxwell.com/products/ultracapacitors/16v-large-modules" rel="nofollow">http://www.maxwell.com/products/ultracapacitors/16...</a></p><p>My reply..</p><p>WOW! That is very interesting. </p><p>So your saying... where as in <br>say, 6 volts will not build the charge to a 12 volt battery. That low <br>voltage capacitors in series will increase your total voltage out put?</p><p>His answer...</p><p>Correct, the voltage would have to be at least 13.5 to break the <br>internal resistance of the lead acid battery. The capacitors do not have <br> resistance like the battery does, so they accept what they can get. It <br>is typically at least 1 volt for Lead Acid packs.</p><p>So for example a <br> single 2.5 volt supercap holds 350 farads, which are a wacky unit of <br>measure for this application. The only suitable conversion is to Joules <br>and it is just annoying in a sense. So if you put &gt; 2.5 volts into <br>it, it would eventually explode. So you put 6 of them in series to get <br>15 volts max. Your storage capacity stayed exactly the same, as did the <br>resistance. But now they are 58 farads at 15 volts. Unlike a 12v battery <br> amps are rated at every voltage between 0 and 15 volts, so you can't <br>really use amps in this case. </p><p>If your generator is outputting 13 <br>volts, and going through a diode, you get (-0.7 volts for the diode) <br>12.3/6 so each capacitor gets a little bit. With a 12 volt battery it <br>has to &quot;crack&quot; open like a pressure valve or the circuit is incomplete <br>in a sense. </p><p>The other item is how much voltage you have with a <br>load on the battery or capacitor. Freespinning the motor will output a <br>higher voltage, whereas, it will output a lower voltage if charging the <br>caps and running something on the other side of the battery.</p><p>Generator <br> or Solar Panels ----&gt; Diode --------&gt; Battery -------&gt; Fuse <br>-----&gt; Load or object running -------&gt; Ground of battery or <br>negative.</p><p>You want to measure volts before the diode and just <br>subtract .7 in your head. you can also put a &quot;load on it&quot; like a 12v LED <br> headlight that draws around 1 amp to get a more precise measurement. A <br>typical automotive light bulb draws 55 watts, so around 4 amps. </p><p>So, I did a search and found a few interesting Instructables dealing with this idea.</p><p><a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Converting-a-UPS-to-run-on-Super-Capacitors/" rel="nofollow">http://www.instructables.com/id/Converting-a-UPS-t...</a></p><p></p>
<p>I believe that a turbine produces AC current, and a generator produces DC current. Many people like to use AC producing devices because they can save money on the lower cost of the cable to bring in the power. With AC, smaller wire can be used to provide the power. The AC is then converted to DC at the point of usage, using diodes. If a DC producing motor is used, then the size of the cable diameter has to be larger, to minimize the resistive power loss of the wire. </p>
<p>What determines the required wire size is the current to be passed through the wire, not whether it is AC or DC. The main benefit of AC in electricity distribution is the ease with which it is transformed into different voltages. As the power must remain the same, transforming an AC current into a higher voltage means that a proportionally lower current is transmitted and a smaller diameter wire may be used.</p>
well y'all are going way over my head with my rural west Alabama highschool education on the wiring size and resistance :-\ all I know is that the voltage meter shows plenty of DC voltage going to the regulator.
I do see something wrong with your logic here. I think you aren't giving yourself enough credit here. Anyone can memorize words in a book, but it takes a different mindset, skill set, and observation set to see a wind generator in a PVC pipe, and other associated materials. There is something very brilliant in simple machine logic and simple principles that are not over engineered. Not all engineering happens on paper, and some of the best projects are made of recycled parts other engineers decided where not viable for their project. So I will leave this at; brilliant thanks for the share, and you should give yourself more credit for your inter engineer.
Thanks for the great encouragment. It's not a matter of how many volts/watts/amps does my generator produce, but more of a matter will it work and survive the extreme conditions. Will the idea of the male and female connection spin but yet stay connected. Will the pillow bearing releave pressure
part #2 :-\<br>and keep it off the bearings in the motor? could it be used in a much larger scale?
<p>Doesn't A/C travel on the outside of the wire, or something like that, which makes stranded wire desirable for A/C?</p>
<p>The skin depth in copper at 60 Hz is 8mm, and varies inversely as the square root of frequency.</p>
<p>That's a function of frequency. At higher frequencies, there is a tendency for the electrons to flow along the perimeter of wires, called the skin effect, so in radio applications, coils are often wound with Litz wire (individually insulated multi-strand wires). <br>At 60Hz, multi-stranded wire is often used because it is more flexible. You will note that the strands in such wire are not individually insulated. House wiring is usually solid core until you get to larger gauges.</p>
<p>The skin effect is also a function of voltage because both frequency and voltage affect rise time. Current travels over the skin of overhead high voltage lines even though the frequency is only 60 Hz.<br><br>Skin effect will not happen with this wind turbine because neither the frequency or voltage are high enough.</p>
<p>I've done some reading on the skin effect and it seems that voltage does not play a role in the effect. The skin effect is produced by back EMF and eddy currents in the conductor which &quot;push&quot; the electrons to the surface of the conductor. The skin depth in copper at 60Hz is 8.5 mm. High voltage power lines may have a steel core surrounded by aluminum conductors. Though the steel is not a great conductor, it adds strength to the cable and the current stays in the more conductive aluminum due to the skin effect.<br><br>What high voltage does do is cause electrostatic distortion in the insulator (air) between the lines and ground.</p>
<p>True, the forces interact to produce the effect. The skin effect will be present in any AC line, it becomes more pronounced at higher frequencies and voltages.</p>
<p>Actually, the wires don't care whether you are carrying AC or DC, they are sized ONLY on the total Amperage they are required to carry. With long runs, there will also be voltage drop so the wires will need to be upsized for that as well.</p><p>Since your total Power (Watts) is simply VoltsXAmps, Ideally, you want the generator to produce the highest voltage it can with little amperage for smaller wires and smaller voltage drop. That high voltage/low amperage can then be transformed to just the right voltage for your battery bank and the much higher amperage with a MPPT controller</p><p>While there is a small amount of loss in the MPPT controller's conversion, it more than made up for with the efficient charging of your batteries and MUCH smaller wires required on a long run from a turbine to the house.</p><p>As an aside, a 3-phase AC generator is more efficient at extracting the total power coming from the blades and transmitting it down the wires. Most decent commercial wind generators use a 3-phase AC alternator which is then rectified into DC before going into your battery pack.</p>
<p>A turbine is a machine (think a jet engine) and a generator is a device that generates electrical power (AC or DC). A generator can usually be used as a motor and vice versa.</p>
<p>In automotive:<br>Generator = DC<br>Alternator = AC<br>Though an alternator may be just an AC generator?</p>
<p>The blue part is the turbine and the grey part to the left is the generator - if you want to generate power, but you can also power the generator as a motor to use the turbine to compress/decompress air. (dependant on the direction of travel)</p><p>I always find it interesting how different disciplines (Automotive, Aviation, Electrical) have their own words/meanings for &quot;in principal&quot; the same item and how the use determines the name.</p>
<p>Cool pic and Thanks! . The TVA in Chattanooga TN at Raccoon Mtn, use <br>something similar but on a much larger scale. The motors/turbines pump <br>water to the top of the mountain when electricity is at a low demand, <br>then release the water and generate power when there is a higher demand for electricity.</p>
<p>&quot;...pump water to the top of the mountain when electricity is at a low demand, <br>then release the water and generate power when there is a higher demand for electricity.&quot;<br><br>Storing potential energy. Nice.</p>

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