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This is my school project for the 5th year of high school (I'm Italian, we have 5 years of high school).

It consists in an artificial hand controlled by a glove with flex sensors. The artificial hand reproduces the movements of the hand with the control glove, wirelessly. The hand and the glove works both with Arduino.

I just wanted to share my work for everyone interested :)

This guide is still in development, sorry if some parts are not clear, I'll put some 3D images in future.

I'm sharing something about my project on my facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/Gabry295

Step 1: Materials needed

I bought almost everything from https://www.sparkfun.com/, they have fair prices (I don't mean to advertise!)

Total cost: ABOUT 160$

Materials for the control glove:
• an elastic glove;

LilyPad Arduino board (there are different versions, which usually only have 4 analog inputs, so pay attention and buy the one in the image): it works exactly like the classic Arduino UNO, so you can use even an Arduino Nano, but pay attention to the voltage needed;

XBee module: for the radio communication;
Shield to connect the Xbee module;
• 5 Flex sensors;
• 5 resistors: 47 KΩ;
battery pack with 3x1.5 V batteries (Lilypad can be powered from 2.7 to 5.5 V, so 4.5 V it's ok);
LilyPad FTDI adapter: to connect the LilyPad board to the PC and load programs with the Arduino IDE (quite optional, because you can use also the Arduino UNO board removing the ATmega chip, but it's tricky to make this kind of connection every time).

-

Materials for the robotic hand:

• a steel structure for the palm of the hand and wood for the fingers;
Arduino UNO board;
XBee module;
• 5 servomotors 5V powered (I used TowerPro SG90);
• a servomotor shield for Arduino UNO: to connect the servomotors I used the Robot_Shield from FuturaElettronica, which has also a switching regulator to power the entire circuit, but you can use any shield made for controlling servomotors. Link: https://store.open-electronics.org/index.php?_rou... ;
Shield to connect the XBee module (I made an horrible one, but it's economic and I needed to make one small because of the size of the Robot_Shield);
fishing wires;
• (optional) fihing sinkers, to secure the fishing wire, can be done also simply making a knot;
9 V Battery.
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Tools needed:

angle grinder (mainly to cut wood and steel);
axial grinder;
welding machine (with electrodes);
drill;
soldering station and solder;
• electrician's scissors;
pliers;
heat shrink tubing.

Step 2: Making the glove

To make the control glove I suggest first to choose the right position of the different components, then connect everything with the proper length of wire.

To make an analog read with Arduino LilyPad you need to make a voltage divider, since that flex sensors don't work like potentiometers (they have only 2 contacts).

So following the scheme, first solder the 5 resistor on the LilyPad board, one side to the 5 different Analog pins, the other in common to the ground. Then solder the flex sensors, one side to the 5 different Analog pins and the other in common to the positive.

Then connect the XBee Shield: two wires for the power, the oter two for the signal. Solder the Tx pin to the Rx and vice versa.

Now you need the battery pack, and the glove it's done.

BE CAREFUL: don't power the Arduino LilyPad over 5.5 V and don't power it conversely (even if sometimes I did it by mistake... And it still works!)

Step 3: Making the Robotic Hand

This is the most complicated part, because you have to choose the proper materials to make the hand, but it can be also easy if you have the possibility to 3D print the hand (there are many different 3D projects on the web for printing hand parts).

I started making the fingers with cork, to find the proper structure for the movements, then I made it with a branch.

So make three wooden cylinder per finger, two of them with 1 cm over the normal lenght of your phalanx, needed to fit one piece into another.

Then with an angle grinder make the grooves to make the pieces fit together (see the images, you'll understand better).

You'll need some sandpaper to make the pieces curved, so that they can rotate.

Use a drill to make the holes for the hinge, then you have to make other two holes for the fishing wire, vertically, one towards the inside of the hand and one outwards. So when the wires are set at the top of the finger, when you pull the one inwardsthe finger will close, and when you pull the one outwards the finger will open.

The palm was problematic, beacuse I made it initially with wood and the thinner parts always broke. So I decided to make it of steel and I've had no problems.

Cut it and do some protrusions similar to those made for the fingers to fix them to the palm (see the images as a reference). Then use the drill to make the other holes for the fishing wire, the thumb will be tricky because it's not vertical as the ther fingers.

Afer making the hand, you need to make a support for the five servomotors and a support for the Arduino UNO boards. Be sure to choose the right position of the servos, so they don't touch each other while rotating.

The last part consists in connecting the fingers to the servomotors: fix the fishing wires at the top of the finger and make them pass through the holes; then, when the wires are at the bottom of the hand, turn the rotor (manually, without powering it) at his maximum rotation (180°) so that it's in a vertical position, then set the wire that closes the finger to the lowest hole of the rotor, for example making a knot; turn again the rotor at 0° (it's again vertical and the knot made before is at the top) then set the other wire (wich opens the finger) to the lowest hole of the rotor. Follow the last image in this step to understand better.

So, when the motor is at 0° (vertical) the finger is opened and when the rotor is at 180° (vertical again) the finger is closed.

Step 4: Circuit of the Robotic Hand

For the circuit, you can choose to use a servomotor shield for Arduino UNO (search on eBay or Amazon) with a XBee shield, or make a custom shield (I'll make one as soon as possible) with the XBee Module and the pins for the servomotors, and power the Arduino UNO by its jack port.

The DIY XBee Shield I made uses a 12 KOhm resistor and a 22 KOhm resistor, you can see the wiring in the pictures.

So I used what I had already bought before, but you can use everything that let you control the servomotors and the XBee.

The servomotors have 3 wires:

  • yellow: signal (connect to a digital pin);
  • red: power (+5 V);
  • brown: ground (GND).

So now you won't make mistakes :)

I used the simplest type of servomotor, working at 5 V, with a rotary angle of 180 degrees (that's the perfect angle, we don't need more).

The USB ports of a computer can't give anough power to control 5 servomotors, so I suggest to use a 12V power supply to test everything and then use the 9V battery (Alkaline are preferred).

Step 5: The programs

The program of the hand and the glove, with all description, are in links below.

REMEMBER: to load the program you have to remove everything connected to the TX and RX pins of the Arduino (in this case the XBee module), else the program won't load. Remember also to set the correct kind of Arduino in the IDE (LilyPad or Arduino UNO).

Links for the two codes:

https://codebender.cc/sketch:59559

https://codebender.cc/sketch:55013

Try this code to test the flex sensors on the glove: https://codebender.cc/sketch:56264

and this to test the connection between the Lilypad and Arduino Uno: https://codebender.cc/sketch:55014

<p>hi.I am very close to completing this project. The readings on the hand are showing some issues. The PIinky finger readings show only either 0 or 180 irrespective of the position of the corresponding flex sensor. Also middle and annular values change simultaneously even though i m only bending my middle finger. however the test readings on the glove are perfectly fine. Where did i go wrong and how can i correct this?? Thanks in advance</p>
<p>Hi,</p><p>you mean you tried the &quot;test code&quot; i put on the last page and it shows the correct values on the Serial Monitor?</p><p>If you mean so, it's really strange that with the GloveTx and HandRx codes you have errors... I suggest to check the connection and welds you made on the flex sensors.</p>
<p>yes, the test code for the glove works fine and gives good values but i dont get the same values when i run the test code for the robotic hand</p><p>actually the first two values are accurate sometimes but the remaining values are never correct</p>
<p>actually i modified the glove code to print the angle values so what i see in the serial monitor are mapped angle values.</p>
<p>I suggest to control the joints you made on the glove, if necessary make new connection.</p><p>Anyway the values you get from the glove don't have to be precise, but you need a quite &quot;linear&quot; passage of the values from 0 to 180 when you bend the finger</p>
<p>which flex sensor are you using? 2.2 inch one ya 4.5 inch one? <br>Thanks! </p>
<p>Hi, 2,2 inch is enough, it's the one I used :)</p>
Great job, thanks for sharing. I remember way back when I was a kid (8 years old) , I made a &quot;robot&quot; made of wood :). I was inspired by Mazinger Z, :). One of the chapters, kids had a robot competition... I made mine :). I was using hand saw-saw; I cut myself and I still have scarf in my hand. Be careful, don't cut yourself. :)
<p>hello</p><p>I am new to arduino and i tried building this project but it didnt work :(. probably because i have xbee s2 and i have not configured it correctly. If i directly connect the tx and rx pins of the lilypad arduino to the tx and rx pins of the arduino board using connecting wires, should it work?? I am asking this because i wat to know where i went wrong.</p>
<p>Hi :) if you have the XBee S2, you probably need to configure them via PC (you need the adapter). I'm sorry but I don't know how to configure them, because I know the S1 don't need it, you should search on google for it :)</p>
<p>Ciao Gabriele, mi sapresti dire come hai fatto dei fori cos&igrave; sottili e precisi nelle dita per far passare i fili?</p>
<p>Col trapano, usi una punta sottile: per far passare i fili ne devi fare due paralleli, e la posizione dei fori deve essere fatta in modo tale che il foro per la vite del vincolo sia in mezzo, nello spazio tra i due canali per i fili (se non sono stato chiare dimmi pure, provo a spiegarlo meglio).</p>
<p>Bro it is a wonderful project. But I am wondering that can you make a whole body rather than the hands only. </p>
<p>Thank you! :)</p><p>What you say it's possbile, for sure! I don't know what kind of motors I could use for wrist and elbow</p>
<p>HI EVERY BODY I JUST NEED THE CONFIGURATION OF XBEES2 </p>
<p>Hi, if you have the XBee S1 you don't need to configure the module :)</p><p>If you have other model I can't help you, but Google is the way ;)</p>
<p>Hello Gabry and everyone else.</p><p>I completed this project using a 3D printed hand from an open source robot called inmoov from<a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/Wireless-Controlled-Robotic-Hand/" rel="nofollow">inmoov.fr</a>. I then followed this instructable as well as another that was similar that used the inmoov hand. That instructable can be found at:</p><p><a href="http://www.instructables.com/id/DIY-Robotic-Hand-Controlled-by-a-Glove-and-Arduino/" rel="nofollow">http://www.instructables.com/id/DIY-Robotic-Hand-Controlled-by-a-Glove-and-Arduino/</a></p><p>I had some trouble using Gabry's code so I combined how he sent data between the two XBees with the code from the other instructable. You can follow my build and also see videos at:</p><p><a href="http://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fbocabearingsworkshop.blogspot.com%2Fsearch%2Flabel%2F3D%2520Printed%2520Robotic%2520Hand&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AFQjCNEjoGp7oconXGogKnPxpbA635eTWQ" rel="nofollow">http://www.google.com/url?q=http%3A%2F%2Fbocabearingsworkshop.blogspot.com%2Fsearch%2Flabel%2F3D%2520Printed%2520Robotic%2520Hand&amp;sa=D&amp;sntz=1&amp;usg=AFQjCNEjoGp7oconXGogKnPxpbA635eTWQ</a></p><p>Gerardo</p>
<p>Hi <a href="http://www.instructables.com/member/bocabearing" rel="nofollow">bocabearing</a> , i cannot find the full programming code for both the 3D printed hand and the glove on the site u provided above.<br>Can you please help how you do the wireless communication?</p>
Hi jesher777,<br><br>The link that I provided directs you a page filled with different parts that I went through for the project. <br><br>Part 5 includes the first code that I used. http://bocabearingsworkshop.blogspot.com/2015/05/3d-printed-robotic-hand-part-5_15.html<br><br>Part 7 includes a code that I used that didn't require the use of a servo shield for the Arduino. Instead, I just used a breadboard to provide an external power source to the servos.<br>http://bocabearingsworkshop.blogspot.com/2015/11/3d-printed-robotic-hand-part-7-last.html<br><br>Part 8 includes the robotic hand's schematic that is to be used for the code from part 7.<br>http://bocabearingsworkshop.blogspot.com/2016/01/3d-printed-robotic-hand-part-8-wiring.html
<p>Hey Gabry,</p><p>Why didn&acute;t you use the LilyPad board on the reciever hand instead on the UNO? </p><p>ty.</p>
Hi AndresM41, I used the Arduino UNO because there are shields made for it that are convenient to do different things, in my case I used two shields that allow to connect the servomotors and the XBee module to the Arduino UNO. Also Arduino UNO has a higher current output and I think the LilyPad couldn't manage to control 5 servomotors.<br>Maybe it's possible, but there is still the problem of connecting the servomotors to it, it's not so handy.
<p>can i use 5 servo without any shield</p>
<p>Yes, but any servo shield help you connecting the 5 servos to the Arduino board, I suggest to use one because it's more convenient.</p>
<p>Replay me as soon as possible</p>
I am not sure where to find the item on step 4 picture 5 and I am not entirely sure on how to assemble it with the sheild and arduino. If I could get a better explanation that would be great
<p>That is the Robot Shield I bought from futurashop: <a href="https://www.futurashop.it/shield-per-arduspiderin-ardubipe-e-ardufilippo-8190-robotshield">https://www.futurashop.it/shield-per-arduspiderin-...</a></p><p>If you can't find that you can buy any other servo motor shield for Arduino.</p><p>The shields for Arduino simply fits on the two row of pins that Arduino UNO has on its bard. You have to know a little about the circuit of the shield before use them and start to programming :)</p>
<p>Hey Gabry, thanks for your info, but i was wondering what did you use to code both of your xbee? And did you use a dongle?</p><p>Thanks, hope to hear you soon.</p>
<p>You don't need to program the XBee modules if you have the Series 1. Anyway it's possible to program them by an XBee adapter and downloading its tool (X-CTU): http://www.digi.com/support/productdetail?pid=3352&amp;osvid=57&amp;type=utilities</p>
<p>Hi Gabry,</p><p>I like your design. I was wondering whether it could be adapted to replicate full limb movement using additional bend sensors (such as lower arm rotation and elbow bend, shoulder movement? )</p>
<p>Yes it's possible :) but you have to consider the number of analog input pins of the Arduino Lilypad, I think you would need different boards for a project like that.</p>
What did you use for connecting the different joints of the hand together?
<p>the fingers are made of wood, I jointed them with a simple screw and nut. Then I used some fishing wire to connect the top of the finger to the servomotor</p>
does it must be a Xbee module because its really cheap<br>
<p>I don't know about alternatives of the XBee module, if you find something different but that work the same it's perfect, otherwise you'll need to modify the circuit and the program</p>
<p>bro can we use any other servo shield</p>
<p>Other servo shields are ok, the important part is to both control servo and use the XBee module. The servo shield I used has only an advantage, a better use of the battery.</p>
<p>how to program the lilypad arduino pls reply</p>
<p>You'll need an FTDI adapter like this: <a href="http://www.ebay.it/itm/FTDI-Basic-Program-Downloader-USB-TTL-3-3-5V-FT232-For-Arduino-/221950992411?hash=item33ad4f601b:g:ooIAAOSwp5JWbf94">http://www.ebay.it/itm/FTDI-Basic-Program-Download...</a></p><p>or use the Arduino UNO board, but it's difficult to do and you need to temporarily remove the Atmel chip. I suggest to use the FTDI adapter, it's really cheap.</p>
<p>is the shield for the XBEE really required or can we just connect it</p>
<p>The XBee shield is optional if you can do the connections without it, but I think it's more convenient to use it</p>
<p>Could someone please tell me or link me the materials and step needed in order to make a hand with just two fingers?</p>
<p>hi gabry, how are you ? <br>i&acute;m doing this project, i have almost the glove done, but it is in the robotic hand that i have some doubts.<br>At the beggining i thought that the &quot;motor shield&quot; could be used to connect the servomotors instead the &quot;robot shield&quot; or &quot;servomotor shield&quot;. But for the servomotor work in the &quot;motor shield&quot; i got to change two wires one for the other of the servomotor, and then it works fine, but even if it works it only have 4 entries.<br>i&acute;m thinking in making my own board in program called &quot;eagle&quot; to connect the servomotors and then connect my board in the &quot;proto shield&quot;. What you think ? i need your advice.<br>hope you can answer </p>
<p>Hi, you should make a row of 5 connection pins each one with three contacts (for the servomotor wires). So you'll have a 5x3 grid: solder together a row of 5 pins and connect it to 5V of the Arduino UNO board, then the same to the next row but connect it to the GND, and then connect the 5 last pins each one to his respective Digital Output( 9 -10 -11- 12 - 13 ).</p><p>This should work, but you don't have the switching regulator of the Robot_Shield that can save many energy for the battery.</p><p>On the other hand, you should have enough space in this &quot;proto shield&quot; to mount the XBee module, installing only one shield on the Arduino instead of two.</p>
<p>Hi again. How are you? <br><br>Everything is already done but i have some issues </p><p><br>In the robotic hand i have an arduino UNO, PROTO shield with the XBEE module, and above this, the board that i made to connect the servomotors, but in the board i followed you advice and i installed a switching regulator and it&acute;s everything working.</p><p>The glove is all well mouted, it is equal to your. I will send you pictures when i can <br><br>At the end when i made a test with your programs is not communicating and i think it could be the XBEE modules, i&acute;m using the XBEE module S1.</p><p><br>Can it be that they are not configured ? <br><br>Can i use XBEE PRO module ?</p>
<p>Hi, I used XBee S1 and I didn't configured them (they are pre-configured to work at 9600 baud) I think you can use XBee PRO but I don't know if you need to configure them (probably you have to). It's strange that S1 doesn't work... Could you attach any picture of your Proto Shield?</p>
<p>hi, here it is some pictures of the project. But i have another question, the xbee pro module can be used in this proto shield of the picture ? <br><br>i&acute;m very grateful of your answers.</p>
<p>hope you can answer </p>
<p>Hello Gabry,</p><p>I'm trying to do this project. I have already made the glove and finished making the hand. But for the hand part, I got a sparkfun XBee shield. I also got a servo shield from adafruit.com</p><p><a href="https://www.adafruit.com/products/1411" rel="nofollow">https://www.adafruit.com/products/1411</a></p><p>Is this a good shield for the project? Or is it the wrong type of shield for this project? I chose it since it can run up to 12 servos. I'm still new to Arduino and programming it. Your code doesn't work with this shield. Do I need to convert the incoming data from the glove to some form of PWM? By using the map() function? I'm really sorry to bother you with all this. Also, I would need to #include the shield's library right? Do I still need to include the Arduino's Servo.h library?</p>
<p>Hey! Remember me? I finally got my version finished after multiple glove designs (3rd time's the charm!) and a final hand construction. I'm about to upload a video of it to YouTube, I'll post a link on here in a little bit!</p>

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Bio: Hi, I'm Gabry295, and I like doing electronic things, even if at the moment I have only one Instructable :) I like robots and everything ... More »
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