## Step 3: Grain

Understanding grain is essential to wood carving... This is where your intuition will develop over time. While I will not go into the science behind the structure of wood, I will say that it grows in regular patterns that appear as grain. The orientation of the grain is going to determine how easily you can carve the wood. If you've ever had a splinter, you know what grain is and how its orientation matters.

You will want to start with straight-grain wood (which is exactly what it sounds like), where the grain runs in one direction. You can use the ends to determine what direction the grain runs in. The pictures below show you what to look for. Note that the grain can go down slightly... this will be important.

Basic vocabulary is as follows: when you are carving in the same direction as the grain, you are carving with the grain. If you are carving opposite the direction of the grain, you are carving against the grain. If you are carving perpendicular to the grain, you are carving across the grain.

Which way to carve:
You always want to carve with the grain or across the grain. The grain can also run up and down slightly, so make sure you are carving with the grain in the down direction. The next step contains pictures of carvings in each direction for your reference.

<p>Whittling utilizes several cuts like thumb brace(pairing) cut, Rough (push) cut, V-notching (V-cut), and thumb-push cut to achieve a shape or sculpture.</p><p><a href="http://www.bestwoodcarvingtools.com/wood-carvers-beginner-guide/" rel="nofollow">http://www.bestwoodcarvingtools.com/wood-carvers-b...</a></p><p>That's pretty important information to leave out of your technique step. Failing to have the proper grip style for a cut can result in an accident. </p>
How long did it take you to make tthat dinosaur?
Could you possibly use a x acto knife. And what tpe com wood would be the easiest Tony work for beginers. Thanx for any answrs d:
<p>You can certainly use Xacto knives, but you have to be very careful not to exert much sideways pressure or they will snap. They are very sharp but quite brittle. I would suggest using Xacto blades only for very soft woods like bass, balsa, and poplar; maybe white pine and mahogany. </p><p>Also the handles aren't very comfortable. If you look at a good detail knife like a Flexcut or Helvie, you'll see a lot more &quot;meat&quot; in the handles, which allows for more control. Xacto knives are a good way to get started for not much money, but after a while you'll probably want to upgrade.</p>
<p>You're right about the handles. I buy the cheap X-acto knives, cut them down, and epoxy them into wooden handles. Much better.</p>
<p>Cedar is a good soft wood and you can find it at a hardware store.</p><p>Also it smells good :)</p>
<p>A Kevlar glove is a great safety item.</p>
Im having a harder time understanding the &quot;Grain&quot;. Im new and would like to try whittling as a new Hobby. I have many because i like to keep occupied and to try things new. Do you have any more tips for a beginner? -Tyler
<p>Wood grain is one of those things that's hard to explain but is pretty obvious in practice. Find a piece of straight-grained wood, and try carving it with a sharp knife from all angles; in about 10 minutes you'll have grain figured out. Some directions will be difficult and the wood will want to split instead of cut; other directions you'll get an easy, smooth cut. You'll soon learn how to avoid the first and achieve the second.</p>
Grain, you see the lines in the wood. Always try to carve with the grain. When you must cut across it, go slow and make little cuts. As for what direction the tree grew, it makes a difference when you carve. If your knife or chisel starts to bite into the wood deeper than you want, turn the piece of wood 180 degrees and try it from that side. I've saved <br>many carvings from this tip.
<p>Are there any other types of wood you guys can recommend? I'm in the UK and having trouble finding basswood/lime. :(</p>
<p>Look for a Linden tree, or whatever else the Brits call it. Here it is Tilias Americanus and is a linden tree, or basswood , there it is more likely known as a lime tree. Once you see one in bloom you never forget it. Some people pick the flowers and dry them for sleeping draft, (draugh?) , Spanish name Tilo. If you go to an herbalist/spice store and ask to see it you will not forget it. You can also carve sycamore or English the plain tree, It drops wood all by itself. I learned to carve linked chain on it as it is free all over NYC. There are thousands of them, all donating carvable wood on a yearly basis. </p>
<p>Look for a Linden tree, or whatever else the Brits call it. Here it is Tilias Americanus and is a linden tree, or basswood , there it is more likely known as a lime tree. Once you see one in bloom you never forget it. Some people pick the flowers and dry them for sleeping draft, (draugh?) , Spanish name Tilo. If you go to an herbalist/spice store and ask to see it you will not forget it. You can also carve sycamore or English the plain tree, It drops wood all by itself. I learned to carve linked chain on it as it is free all over NYC. There are thousands of them, all donating carvable wood on a yearly basis. </p>
<p>serious? lime trees? in UK........COME ON........</p><p>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tilia</p>
<p>Hey great article. Lots of information. If anyone is looking for more info on the topic you can check out this website dedicated to whittling http://www.whittlewise.com/</p>
that is cool i don't have the patients for wood but it looks like you do good job<br />
It doesn't make sense that you would have patients for wood. Unless you were a doctor for trees or something of that sort. Have a good day, be well.
<p>This is great woodworking project. I will to try it</p><p>My woodworking project</p><p><a href="http://tedswoodworkingprojectplans.blogspot.com/" rel="nofollow">http://tedswoodworkingprojectplans.blogspot.com/</a></p>
<p>haha I think he meant he is not patient enough to carve in wood, not that e doesn t have patiens for wood</p>
<p>Nice tutorial, is that your TRex? It be nice to have some videos demonstrating the techniques. I found some here: <a href="http://www.beginnerwoodcarving.com" rel="nofollow">www.beginnerwoodcarving.com</a></p>
<p>Certainly you can use a pocket knife, they're my standard tools, curved blades of various sizes are the most useful.</p><p> Flexcut &amp; Pheil are a good brands of knife if you prefer a fixed blade type of knife.</p>
<p>could you give me a specific brand or type of knife used? I tried searching for what was suggested and couldn't find it. I'm interested in picking it up as a hobby and the information was super helpful!</p>
<p>Get a knife from flexcut. I love them.</p>
<p>could you use a pocket knife?</p>
<p> I've been whittling for 30 odd years &amp; I would differ from the author in his choice of a straight edge blade. I have found that a curved edge allows many more types of cuts to be made &amp; more easily with less force. This allows for much more sophisticated whittlings to be made, using gouge like hollow cutting making convex &amp; concave surfaces. The image below is 4&quot; tall &amp; carved with a curved bladed knife alone.</p>
<p>if you made more you could play a really big dinosaur chess game</p>
That's a pretty nice kangaroo you carved, but you forgot that Kangaroos also have ears. Unless this piece was meant to not have ears then you nailed it. Good work, be well.
<p>bwhahhahah!<br></p>
its a dinosaur :|
LOL
Hand carving tray a must have for all whittlers and wood carvers. <br> <br>Check it out! <br>https://www.instructables.com/id/Carvers-Whittlers-Lap-Tray/
&quot;It's cheap and you should be able to find it locally&quot;.<br /> <br /> You know this internet thing is global, right? Could you possibly explain what properties of basswood make it good for carving and suggest alternatives?<br /> <br />
don't know about basswood but when I was into carving Lime was the wood to have. Very even and fine grain and also relatively soft to cut, but hard enough to wear well. Guy in our joinery had an epic eagle he'd carved from an old lump of lime. This is wittling (whitling? sp?) though so it may be different. We carved with fine chisels and gouges.<br /> <br /> As for dry wood is best, I know wet wood will warp and crack as it dries but wood is just sooo easy to work when its green off the tree. Totally different though, I agree.<br />
Lime is the same as linden and basswood, so you are talking about the same wood, although the exact species might be different. All three are names for various trees of the Tilia genus. Check out Tilia on Wikipedia if you want to know more.
&nbsp;Now I'm curious. I'm no expert but I've done some carving and some projects, especially those that call for carving initially with an axe (my favorite part) call for using green wood.<br /> <br /> Maybe it's just to make the initial rough work easier?<br />
When he says find it locally he means at a nearby hardware store, not youre backyard<br />
Hi Everybody and especially Schroeder8!<br /> <br /> Basswood is a light colored,straight. even grained wood that is exceptionally easy to carve. In many parts of the world, it is called Linden. It is recommended as a beginning wood for most carvers. The grain is not pronounced and it will not conflict with the design of the carving. The structure of the wood is very consistent and that means that the cuts made find uniform resistance when the blade cuts through the wood. To understand the importance of this, think of pine. Pine has noticeable lines of harder, resinous wood that alternate with softer wood in between. When carving pine, the blade glides through the softer wood and has to be urged harder to go through the harder bits. Linden, or basswood, often has lengths that are free of knots which are another obstacle in the beginners carving experience.<br /> <br /> As it was explained to me some time ago, any wood can be carved but some lend themselves to the process better than others. Basswood, pine, and butternut, all carve fairly easily and well. Butternut has a very noticeable grain [dark and light sections that look like lines] and so will compete with the overall lines of the design. This means that the carver must choose his or her project carefully.&nbsp; Mahogany carves easily but along the grain and tends to leave a powdery deposit along with any chips. It is a sturdy wood but resists fine detail.<br /> <br /> Hard woods, like walnut, hold details well but are harder to carve and darker so that the design often is harder to see. For woods like walnut or oak, gouges and chisels are often necessary to achieve what the artist is aiming at.<br /> <br /> One interesting bit of information that seems to be counter intuitive is that your blade or tool must be sharper to carve soft woods than it needs to be to carve hard woods. Softer woods must be sliced through the grain and, if the tool is too dull, the grain simply gets crushed and detail is lost. Hard woods resist the cutting action of the tool and thus the tool slices through them more cleanly.<br /> <br /> I do hope that this helps!<br /> <br /> J.F.Kendall<br />
Good Information regarding the Basswood. I found it locally and it's a pleasure to work with
ruffly how tall is this figure?<br>
I like to carve myself I use a different set up in the form of a carving knife... However I am more interested in what you have carved. What kind of critter/creature are you carving?<br>Very cool!<br>
wow! thanks man i really neede those pointers you are really good at explaining to 5 stars young man
it looks preagnint
You should DEFINATELY make an instructable for the dinosaur!
You should enter <a href="https://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Enter-the-Dinosaur-Contest/" rel="nofollow">the dinosaur contest</a>! <br />
!!!<br /> <br /> i didn't even know about it! i most certainly will, thanks<br />
what wood did you use to make the dinosaur???
Com: of. Tony: Tony.
&nbsp;Excellent t Job! Sounds to me like that dinosaur would be a great wingman. Just go to bars with him, &quot;Hey ladies, have you met my wooden dinosaur?&quot;&nbsp;<br /> <br /> I can see no downsides to that at all!<br />
If there was an award for the funniest comment, this would be in the top five
&nbsp;LOL!&nbsp;<br /> Me Neither.