Introduction: Wooden Fire Pit

Manufactured fire pits all look the same. Make your own with hardwood, sheet metal, and off-the-shelf hardware store parts!

Step 1: Design

I loved the contradictory idea of making a wood burning fire pit out of wood, so I had to figure out a way to make that work safely. I played around with some cast concrete ideas at first, but I figured it would be much easier to just make a sheet metal bucket with a 1" air gap from all the wood.

That led me to the "clam shell" idea- a hatch with a screen that keeps sparks from flying. This in addition to the air gap seemed like the safest way to make a fire pit out of wood.

I went with Alder for the wood, 1 1/2" X 3" boards make up almost all of the wooden parts. Apparently Alder is the best wood to use when smoking salmon, so if the whole thing went up in flames I could break out the fish and the the project wouldn't be a total loss.

I used Fusion 360 for the design because it's a great solid modeling tool. It has mechanical assembly functions that let me test out the motion of the hatch, making the whole design process much faster.

Fusion 360 is free for students and hobbyists, and there's a ton of educational support on it. If you want to learn to 3D model the kind of work I do, I think this is the best choice on the market. Click the links below to sign up:

Student/Educator

Hobbyist/Startup

Step 2: Tools and Materials

TOOLS

Woodworking:

  • Saw for straight cuts: this could be a table saw, or circular saw.
  • Saw for curved cuts: this could be a band saw or jigsaw.
  • Japanese flush saw: this works great for joinery.
  • Drill: a drill press works best, but you can make do with a hand drill and a guide.
    • Bits: 1 1/2" forstner bit, 1 1/4" forstner bit, countersink bit
  • Doweling Jig
  • Chisels: for the bridle joints.
  • Mallet (for fitting and chiseling)
  • Clamps

Sheet Metal:

  • Jigsaw with metal cutting blade (fine teeth).
  • Hand drill with 1/4" metal drill bit.

MATERIALS

  • 2X10 hardwood boards (about 13 linear feet). I used Alder, but most hard wood will last outside if finished properly.
  • 1 1/2" dowel (about 12" total), 1 1/4" dowel (about 4' total), 1/4" joining dowels
  • 11 GA. stainless steel sheet (34"X32" total material). You can use mild steel for this, it's a lot cheaper and you can get it off the shelf at Home Depot, but it will rust out in a few years to be sure.
  • Fireplace curtain screens. These make the protective screen that encloses the metal enclosure.
  • 1"X1/2" corner b, 1/4" Ø machine screws 1/4" long, and nuts.

Step 3: Cutting Pieces Using Templates

For details on how to use templates to cut out complex geometry, go to my Digital Fabrication by Hand instructable. These templates are at 1:1 scale, and if you print them at 100% size at a print shop (Kinko's has large format printers), you'll have everything you need to do the cutting.

The Digital Fabrication by Hand example uses plywood, but the same technique works with metal and hardwood.

Step 4: Laminate the Pieces

The sides of the fire pit are laminated to make a single panel. The two longer ends with the rounded tops make the legs, and the board in the center protrudes to attach to one of three shelves that hold up the bucket.

I didn't bother with biscuits or dowels since the boards are 1 1/2" thick.

Step 5: Joining the Arm Parts

To join the arms into an L shape, I used joining dowels and a dowling jig. The dowling jig lets you perfectly align holes between parts quickly and ensures that your holes are perpendicular to the surface of the wood.

The reason you need either dowels or biscuits (or and other fancy joinery cutting) is that end grain doesn't glue. I didn't want exposed fasteners on the wood, so I went with dowels for this part.

  1. Clamp the two parts together so that they are aligned edge-to edge. They should be "mirrored".
  2. Mark the centerlines of your holes with a square across both pieces.
  3. Align the jig hole with the centerlines, and drill the holes. The depth is important because you want to get the most purchase out of the dowels. Make sure each hole is just over half the depth of the dowel that you'll hammer in.
  4. Squirt in some glue and hammer in the dowels, then hammer the pieces together.
  5. Clamp the pieces the eliminate a gap between the faces of the wood being joined.

Step 6: Joining the Shelves [FAIL]

Since I was already using them, I went with joining dowels to attach the shelf elements to the panels of wood. This should work in theory, but the problem is that each board needs 2 dowels on each end. That means there are 12 separate holes to align between 3 separate boards. I found this to be pretty much impossible, so I ended up cutting off a dowel from each board so there were only 3 holes I needed to align at once.

So when the glue dried, one of the panels was held on by a single dowel on each board. Now I understand why people use biscuits- there are no holes to align.

Step 7: Screwing the Shelves Together [WIN]

Since I didn't want exposed fasteners on the wood, I decided to countersink the screws and hide them with dowels. This part is pretty straightforward- the countersink bit drills a pilot hole for the screw plus a shallow wide hole for the screw head.

Once you've got the screws in (screwing them into clamped, glued pieces), add a drop of glue and hammer in the joining dowels.

A japanese flush saw to trim off the end of the dowel works really well- it keeps you from scratching the surface of the wood when you're sawing.

Step 8: Attach the Legs

The legs are joined with a bridle joint. The geometry is laid out in the the templates with measurements. I used a japanese flush saw to cut the sides, then chiseled out the back end of the female part of the joint.

When chiseling, it's important to clamp a guide board aligned with the edge you want to chisel out- this keeps the chisel flush. I used a file to clean up the edges.

The bottom treads of the legs have the male ends. After cutting one on the band saw, I used it as a template for the other leg.

Then I glued and clamped everything together, and added a countersunk screw and dowel for extra stability.

Step 9: Assemble the Clam Shell

The hinge action comes from a dowel glued into the larger hole on the top of the clam shell arm, and fitting snugly into the hole on the side of the wood enclosure. The dowels we had in the shop were actually 1 5/8" Ø and 1 3/8", so I had to sand them down to fit the holes. It would have been prudent to measure the dowels before designing the piece and drilling the holes.

The dowels at the back act as a hinge, and the dowels are pins that hold the clam shell in a closed position. All four dowels are 3" long.

Step 10: Sanding and Finishing

Once the wood glue is cured, it’s times to sand and finish everything. I used an orbital sander to do most of the work and stopped at 100 grit. You could go finer and the piece might last longer- fewer nooks and crannies for water to creep into.

After sanding I used an off-the-shelf deck finish on all the wood, applied twice with 1/2 hour penetration each time.

Step 11: Assemble the Fire Bucket

After filing down the edges of the metal pieces, I started bolting the parts together. The fire bucket templates are set up for 1"X1"corner braces, so with the screws I mentioned in the Tools and Materials step, the whole thing fits together really quickly. The bucket is open in the front and has extra holes for attaching it to the wood via standoffs.

Step 12: Attach the Bucket

If you cut all the pieces to size, you end up with a consistent 1" gap between the wood and the bucket on all sides. Using some 1" MDF scraps, I clamped the bucket to the wood enclosure and aligned it so that it was centered on all sides.

Using standoffs I made by cutting a 1/2" steel tube, I aligned them with the holes in the steel using a pair of pliers and screwed the wood and steel together with stainless steel screws. I fastened it in 4 places at the top of the sides, and in 4 places on the bottom. The bucket is very snug with 8 screws attaching it to the wood.

Step 13: Attach the Clam Shell

Having made sure everything fit together properly, I then moved on to attaching the clam shell.

The dowels that make the handles are 1 3/8" Ø, so I had to sand down the ends to make them fit into my 1 1/4" holes. Don't do it like me kids, MEASURE TWICE, CUT ONCE.

Laying one arm with the handles attached on its side, I glued the holes, fitted in the fireplace, and hammered everything together with a rubber mallet. I let it sit overnight with clamps on the handles for go

Step 14: Assemble the Screen

The screen is very important. Without it, you might ignite the wooden part of the fire pit with a flying spark.

The screen I found is a curtain for a brick fireplace- it comes in two sections that are 18” X 24”. I designed the pit so that the screen would cover the open side of the bucket, wrap over the top, and cover the back of the bucket as well. This way, you get complete protection over the open part plus an extra barrier at the back of the box, which will undoubtedly get super hot.

To connect the two curtains, I just threaded some wire through the open end of each side. I started with bailing wire, but I ended up using welding rods- they are stiff enough to keep the screen from slumping in the middle.

With the two screens connected, I added a rod at the front end. To keep it in place, I looped it back to make a hook. Once the first rod was in, I screwed it into the bottom of the wooden flanges on the clam shell using washers and wood screws.

I then wrapped the screen over the top of the pit. At this point I realized that I could just use the existing bolts on the fire bucket to attach the screen on at the back, so I broke out some 1/2” long bolts and added a washer. It’s important to use two nuts for this- the first nut keeps the box securely fastened, the second nut with the washer just holds the screen on. You’ve got to make sure the bucket is secure, because the heat will undoubtedly warp it.

With both ends fastened, I then added more rods along the top of the screen to keep it from slumping. The placement of the lower rod on the front makes the screen fold under the front of the bucket, this keeps anything from spilling out.

Step 15: Start the Fire

Starting a fire seems to work best by doing the tipi method leaning against one of the corners. Paper in the center, kindling over that, logs over the kindling.

Once it’s going, kick back and enjoy it! Don’t worry about the wooden handle across the top that’s precariously close to the blaze, I’m sure it will be fine.

Step 16: Rethinking the Design

After about 10 minutes of watching the fire and touching the wood to see how hot it was getting, my wife (the ever present voice of caution) convinced me that this is a stupid feature that’s useless after you’re done carrying the thing, so I cut it off. More fuel for the fire!

Step 17: Done!

We watched it carefully all night, testing to see if the standoffs were conducting enough heat to cause a problem, making sure the screen was staying in place, making sure no errant sparks were getting out, all the while having a fire extinguisher at the ready. It works great, and it looks awesome!

We’ve just has the worst storm in 10 years and the pit’s been sitting out in the rain. The deck finish is doing its job- water just beads and runs off. I know I’ll have to refinish it in a year, but it’s worth it.

Comments

author
SeanS65 made it!(author)2017-06-24

Has it burned up yet, Thinking of doing this myself, but with propane.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2017-06-25

It sure did! It caught fire after about the 4th use. Good thing I had a fire extinguisher around. It might not have if I'd stuffed fireproof insulation in the gap between the metal and the wood. Definitely do that and have a charged fire extinguisher around if you're going to try this project.

author
Tangski made it!(author)2014-12-16

This is a great idea! However, one does need to check with the local fire department to see if it would pass their inspection before using. I would suggest a heavier bottom and a grill insert. Maybe from an old electric and cut it down, and raised off the floor by about 1 inch, so the fire is not direct on the metal plating. I find that has worked great for me and made my copper fire bowl last a whole lot longer! Also, perhaps line the inside of the wood area between the metal and wood with something more fireproof, like fire proof cloth...one can get liner and staple it on that area, which would probably make the fire department happier. And it does not have to show either. Also make sure the handles in front of fire mesh are not wood. That has been a big no-no in the past for selling them on the market. That area too tends to get very hot. Fires are great, and I sure love mine, but they can get away from us so easily...even a very small fire can get steel red hot....and warp the metal. etc. Anyway, a great project, just might need a couple of tweeks yet...or not! I sure loved the wood working skills here...and metal..very talented! Not many know how to use hand tools the right way! Good show!

Cheers!

author
nhampto9 made it!(author)2014-12-17

Not everyone has a "local fire department" or feel the need for authorization or approval from others. If I was waiting for authority & approval to get married, have children, or breathe, the red tape would still be in committee.

author
dsantil71 made it!(author)2014-12-18

It's all about safety first. I remember when I had my first son & the fire dept was doing free car seat installation safety checks. I learned a lot, had no clue what I was doing & I lived in a major city too. It's not about asking for approval, it's better safe than sorry. My husband spent 20+ yrs in the AF & the 1st thing on everyone's mind - SAFETY! Ur no good to anyone if ur dead.

author
nhampto9 made it!(author)2014-12-19

Lesson I learned (got drilled intoy head) while in the AF was "It's easier to get forgiveness than permission". Brass will NEVER approve, but they won't punish you for doing it w/o asking. Some fire dept will NEVER approve ANY fire pit. "Get a screensaver." But the neighbor (who didnt ask) could have a backyard fire every week for years w no problems.

author
nhampto9 made it!(author)2014-12-19

If a small backyard fire pit seems "life threatening" to u, them maybe u shouldn't even try this project. Put the matches down!

author
Jack+Rodgers made it!(author)2016-03-26

A work of art even if you never set it on fire...

author
Jack+Rodgers made it!(author)2016-03-26

Backyard OK. Inside in a multi-story apartment building, questionable...

Darn, I keep think of it as a self-cleaning firepit... :)

author
forgault made it!(author)2015-01-02

Nhampto9, Glad to see there are still some people out there not trying to out-safety each other. I can hear it now, Wilbur.. Yes Orville... Don't do that its not safe.

author
nhampto9 made it!(author)2015-01-03

The Wright Brothers are the classic example of people (American patriots in their heyday) who firmly believed that there were things more important than life & limb. As my namesake Nathan Hale said, "Is life so dear or peace so sweet to be purchased at the price of chains & slavery. Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take, but give me liberty or give me death!

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

These are great suggestions! I'm going to get a grill before I start my next fire, very smart.

author
Tangski made it!(author)2014-12-16

Hey no worries. It's all about helping each other out. I always love to see the skills others have and you have them! Keep honing them as they will serve you well! Nice job!

author
Jack+Rodgers made it!(author)2016-03-26

Beautiful. I enjoy seeing others skills when I don't seem to have them...

My first impulse was to think, wow, a self cleaning firepit made of wood... :)

author
Jack+Rodgers made it!(author)2016-03-26

Beautiful. I enjoy seeing others skills when I don't seem to have them...

My first impulse was to think, wow, a self cleaning firepit made of wood... :)

author
nlewkowitz made it!(author)2015-03-08

Love the contradiction of the elements here. Really cool.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2015-03-09

You're savvy! Thanks for noticing.

author
pamelou99 made it!(author)2015-02-04

Wow, some ppl just like to hear themselves talk.... no matter who hears it, or who out thinking of how the others wold feel about what there saying. Nope this is about a person making something very cool. Maybe you should try making something and then post it, and I would hope that no one would diminish the project that you came up with.

author
Zevion made it!(author)2015-01-18

interesting twist on fire pit using wood, love it.

author
Tangski made it!(author)2015-01-03

Goodness! Had no idea that to be safe had anything to do with being a slave! I have no problem with exploration. The Write brothers also only risked themselves not those in their lives, and even those who went to the moon spent years to correct mistakes to make the journey as safe as possible! Apollo 13 carried duck tape with them which was a huge factor that saved their lives when constructing the air filter. To be safe as possible in any venture is not stupidity or slavery. It is in reality what makes creations great, lasting and nears perfection. We cannot go to Mars with anything less than the best we have to offer those who risk it all to get there. And safety is certainly a factor at the top of the list! One faulty part can kill more than just the crew members as we have all seen through the years. Yes they know the risk but when we can fix something to prevent it we certainly do so! Anyone who engineers a machine will tell you that accuracy within the half human hair is what makes something possible above and beyond expectations. What is more this kind of work is often accomplished by those who care about how safe and secure such a project can be. And they seek to save lives not risk them. This is what brings us all closer to ideas and ways that can save our earth rather than destroy it. When old ideals and ways are no longer for our good it is time to move on and get on with creating things that will save us rather than destroy us in the long run. Just my own thoughts however. One can be as stupid as they please. I would rather think and research my way to something better than rely on status q mediocrity. To risk your ownife is one thing. To risk the lives of others is another story.
Anyway. Loved the woodwork skills this person has created and loved also the care to seek ways to be safe in enjoying the project!

author
rokkripprapp made it!(author)2014-12-26

I showed this to my wife and she asked dryly, "Oh, is it for one use?"

author
rhkramer made it!(author)2014-12-19

It is good looking, but I'm really concerned about the fire safety and insurance aspects. Most building codes require quite a bit more clearance between a fuel burning stove (or fireplace) and combustibles. Further, if the unfortunate should happen, your insurance company would probably be able to avoid paying the claim.

Also as someone has already, the wood will dry out and char and become more susceptible to burning.

I fear you've designed this for the best case, but Murphy says that won't always apply.

So, be careful.

author
hughw99 made it!(author)2014-12-18

Just by the way instead of using deck oil you could use 1:1 mix of turpentine and boiled linseed oil- cheaper, hard to stuff up and easy to make as well as apply ( coat. Wait 10mins, repeat as many times as necercary) Hope this helps:)

author
tomatoskins made it!(author)2014-12-15

This turned out great! I've decided that I need to do more ibles with fire.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-15

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OeUqjYwhEik

author
tomatoskins made it!(author)2014-12-15

Hahaha!!! I love it!

author
nhampto9 made it!(author)2014-12-17

That is PERFECT! I see a lot of the commenters here just like that couple. Wild inside & wanting to let it out but unwilling to actually do so. Chaos & control are at war. A fire pit is exactly that: controlled chaos!

author
The+Green+Gentleman made it!(author)2014-12-17

Man! You with the crazy (and dope) fire indoors!

author
cqaigy made it!(author)2014-12-16

I have to admit, that sure looks nice and is pretty cool to boot. I like the suggestion of soaking the wood in boric acid.

Im sure it's common knowledge that Wood/paper changes chemically, when exposed to sub ignition temperatures that reduces ignition temperature over time.

Still, i'd be pretty tempted to do this for my rock paved patio.

Thanks for the instructable!

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

Thanks! Yeah, I'm going to keep a close eye on the parts closest to the heat and see who they're fairing. The deck finish is very waterproof (water beads up and rolls off). I wonder if that's helping prevent some of the evaporation that lowers the combustion temperature over time.

author
starslayer made it!(author)2014-12-16

This is a fantastic project, very well thought out.

A suggestion, which you unfortunately can't do NOW with your current frame, consider adding a combustion retardant to the wood. A good soak (day or two) in boric acid (different from borax, can be acquired by buying 'roach killer powders' which are normally 99.99% boric acid) and a dry (several days in a dry room with ok heat) before your joining sanding and finishing will create wood that will smoulder but virtually never burn. Which means in a worst case scenario you get a bunch of scorched wood, but never a fire.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

This is an awesome tip! I've never heard of that.

author
tak44 made it!(author)2014-12-16

Super Idea I'd do Mine out of local mesquite lumber just for some local flair.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

There you go. I used alder because it was the localest one the lumber yard had in stock. The least thing you can do is lower your carbon footprint of transportation while you're spewing more carbon into the atmosphere.

author
James+R made it!(author)2014-12-15

It's nice, but I have a all metal pit and that thing has had the bottom glowing red.

Be careful, but still great looking

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-15

The steel on the bottom of this thing definitely glows red when it gets going, but the wood on the other side of the air gap is cool to the touch. You'd be surprised how much head gets lost over the gap. The only thing I was worried about was conduction through the steel standoffs, but I don't think they get anywhere near the temperature needed to ignite wood, judging from the first test.

author
rbeck1 made it!(author)2014-12-16

I would worry more about radiant heat than conduction through the standoffs though I don't think either is a major issue. You could always put a layer of sand in the bottom or let ash build up. My guess is the temp for wood is similar to paper (wood based) as in Fahrenheit 451 the famous book.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

Looks like it's a bit higher at 540º, which makes sense when you consider how much denser it is that paper.

author
snashold made it!(author)2014-12-16

Give it some time; once volatiles in the wood evaporate, the wood facing the metal will begin to char and then the autoignition temperature will decrease. I would be surprised if you did NOT eventually end up with a fire in the wrong place. Please update and let us know how many fires you get out of it before the wood catches on fire. Then when you rebuild it, adding a layer of kaowool outside the metal (still keeping an air gap) might help it to last longer. Fire bricks in the burn chamber will also help.

After a few fires, inspect the wood facing the fire. You will see what I am talking about. Saunas sometimes burn down because of this.

I do like how it looks and am not against building one for fun, with the idea that it is disposable and cannot be used in the proximity of any combustibles.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

Thanks for the tip, I'll certainly keep an eye on those parts and keep you guys updated.

author
Spokehedz made it!(author)2014-12-16

All I ask of you is that if this happens to all go up in flames, you post another instructable on what you would do differently to make it not go up in flames.

Thanks~

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

Ha! Will do. I'll add some fire extinguisher tips too.

author
Tangski made it!(author)2014-12-16

Yup, your wife is right! smart guy to listen!:)LOL

Cheers!

author
Lazy+Glen made it!(author)2014-12-16

This looks really nice!

If anyone is really worried about the wood, add a second sheet-metal shell and another air gap. I wonder if you could use a Peltier device or two and add a fan that would increase air flow in the gap.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

For sure. You could even use that fireproof insulation they use to line brick fireplaces.

author
Warholm made it!(author)2014-12-16

My first thought was 'OMG' and I still think the fire extinguisher is a good idea ;-)
(Here iIn Denmark there is a legal requirement for at least 30cm (1') air gap round a stove...)
But the proof of the pudding is in the eating ;-) if it works it works!

I too love 'the contradictory idea of making a wood burning fire pit out of wood' !
Great idea, beautiful execution!

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-16

Thanks! That's the beauty of this community, you've nailed it- "the proof of the pudding is in the eating".

author
rtardino made it!(author)2014-12-15

Great tutorial!

author
Sowee made it!(author)2014-12-15

Beautiful, but this mixture of wood and fire worries me.

author
JON-A-TRON made it!(author)2014-12-15

Always smart to keep a fire extinguisher at the ready, but it's really not that much different than having a fire pit on a wooden deck.

About This Instructable

70,354views

707favorites

License:

Bio: I'm a full-time Designer at the Instructables Design Studio (best job ever). My background is in residential architecture, film set design, film animatronics, media ... More »
More by JON-A-TRON:Retro Bluetooth BoomboxZoetrope Fidget SpinnerLearn to Draw
Add instructable to: