Magnets.Almost everyone heard of it before .But how does it work? Does it only attract iron?Is its properties only attracting ferromagnetic elements?If not what are its uses?Is it easy to make a magnet?If possible, how?
In this instructable i will be trying to answer a few of theses questions as easy as possible.It is a beginners guide for magnets.I know there are many experts of magnets on these website, so if I make any mistakes then help me correct,cause I am not at least professional. And i hope it will be a helpful guide for you.If any ideas about it, feel free to post, and if you like it it will be my pleasure.
If you like this you might want to see some more of my such projects and ideas on my profile on the link below here: https://www.instructables.com/member/argha halder/
And most important some of the pictures used in the instructable is made by me,and others are taken from other websites,and i fully give them credit for the beautiful pictures.
Step 1: Basics of Magnets
Every magnets have many properties some discovered ,some yet undiscovered.But some common basic properties every magnet has and we see are:
1) Every magnet has two poles.The two ends of a magnet are its two poles and these are north and south.The magnetic fields of magnets are highest at its two poles, and if a magnet is broken into half or smaller or any size the ends of the new broken pieces are also the two poles. So if a magnet having two poles broken int two pieces then the newly produced magnets will have two poles each.
2)The opposite poles of two magnets attract each other.And the same poles of two magnets repel each other.
3)Magnetic force affect most of the substances,but the effect is more in some materials and less in some material.
4)Magnets attract ferromagnetic materials like iron,steel,cobalt,nickel etc.
5)If magnets are moved in between a coil of wire it produces electricity .
Step 2: How Does a Magnet Work?
Every magnet or matter has atoms and molecules.And the electrons moving in every atom creates a small force ......... (1)
every magnet and metals have atoms and electrons in them create a force and they stay in groups named domain .......(2)
every domain has a north and a south poles.And in a magnet all the domains,remain aligned in the same direction ,all the south poles of the domain remains facing one direction and the north all facing same direction.but in a iron the domain remains unorganized,one domains south faces one direction an the others in other directions.And when this type of domain containing iron comes near an organized domain containing matter like magnet,the domains start to get aligned and attracted towards magnets coming in the area of the magnetic field created by each of atoms through movement of electrons.and the force created by the movements of electrons is both magnetic and electric.
this is a simple description,maybe with many errors, but can be helpful.
Step 3: Poles of a Magnet?
A magnets force is most concentrated at the two ends, and these two ends are called poles of magnet, named south pole and north pole. basics of pole:
1)same poles of two magnets repel each other and opposite poles attract each other.
2)the pole of the electromagnet switches in a wire when the electric source is reversed.
3)the force of magnetism is the strongest on the two poles.
magnets are classified into different types on basis of different things,like strength,permanency,shape etc.
now i will be discussing magnets on permanency.Based on permanency magnets can be divided into two types.they are:
2)non permanent magnet
the magnets that retain magnetism in normal situation is a permanent magnet.But the magnets that need special requirements to retain magnetism is called non permanent magnet. electromagnets are example of non permanent magnets.
when electricity is passed through a wire ,the electrons start to move,as we learned earlier movement of electrons in atomic level makes small magnetic moments,like that here the moving electrons create a magnetic field.so the wire gets to produce magnetic field and this is called electromagnet.but whenever the current supply is turned off it will not produce magnetic fields,and so it is not permanent,so it is a non permanent magnet.
Step 5: What Do We Use It For?
We use magnets for many many uses,some are complex and some are simple,some of them and how they work are given below :
1)speakers:magnets and magnetism are one of the main parts needed for producing sound through speakers.Speakers have three parts ,a diaphragm ,a magnet and a coil of wire.the diaphragm is a cloth type light weight object,and the coil of wire is attached to it.there is also a magnet under the coil of wire.when electricity is passed through coil of wire it produces magnetic field and the magnet near the wire attracts and repels the wire(electromagnet) and the diaphragm moves and vibrates, and as we know vibration is sound.so in this way it produces sound.
2) if a magnet is moved through a wire then it makes the electrons in it flow through the wire and so it produces electricity,so it is used in generators of electricity.
3)magnetism is used in transformer.
4)magnets are used for making motors, and so wrist watches ,vehicles,fans etc.
5)electromagnets are used for picking and then keeping objects.
and it has also thousand types of uses,which i dont know yet,but others may know.
Step 6: Lets Make a Magnet!
many of you have got the idea how to make a magnet, but although lets make and test one!
for this you will need :
2)a power source like a battery.
3)some iron light weight objects.
4)an iron core(just to make the electromagnet more powerful)
Step 7: Making a Magnet
first take the iron core and start to wrap wire around it .wrap almost 20 turns.now take a sandpaper and scrap of the insulation from the two ends of wire,and then connect the two ends to the battery,the pole you attach does not matter.now bring it close to the iron pieces, and see it attracts the irons!
there are also some easy ways, take a sewing needle and rub it with a magnet.after rubbing on end of the needle on one of the poles of magnet,now change the end of magnet and the needle and start to rub 50 times again, you will see it will attract lightweight iron objects. but it will stop attracting by time.i dont know how to stop it, but you might try by hammering the needle hard when it is magnetized.
maybe there are more ways to make a magnet easily awaiting discovery.
Step 8: Lets Make Something Interesting!
now i will make a generator using the characteristics of magnets and wire.as you know when a magnet is passed through a wire it produces electricity.as you know the structure of motors, wire produces magnetic field when electricity is passed through it,and magnets repel and attract the wires and it moves.when the wires are moved then it produces electricity because of the magnetic field of the magnet near it pushing the electrons in the wire,and so its like a generator.so lets use it as a battery!
so firstly take a motor and attach an led to the two poles and then rotate the shaft of the motor you will see it will light up the led! if not rotate the motor shaft faster.in this way you can make a generator.
Step 9: Some Other Beneficial Properties of Magnets,
a very useful property of magnet is that ,when it is passed through a coil of wire it makes the electrons in the wire move,causing production of electricity.
it can be used to move things, because it attracts and repels magnets poles and it is what used in motors,
electromagnets can be turned on and off ,and thus can be used for lifting and releasing things made of magnet.
i am argha halder studying in grade 8 in Robert Anthony van wick school in new york .my mother tongue is bangla and so if any mistake in english help me correct.have a nice day .bye!