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Picture of make a solar cell easily
today i want to share how to make a solar cell at home easily and it is fun to make.but firstly i want to tell you dont expect to light your house with these solar cells because it produces small voltage and may need acres of them to power the house!but yet it is easy and need ordinary stuff .but little caution is needed to handle and make the cell.it is great for science classes and projects

visit my profile:http://www.instructables.com/member/argha+halder/ to see some more of such interesting projects.
 
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Step 1: Things needed:

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the things you will need:
1)gas or electric stove 
2)copper plate or flashers -2
3)a transparent plastic or glass container
4)some wire
5)some water
6)salt
the tools you will need:
1)voltmetre(just for testing)
2)pliers
3)soldering iron

Step 2: Making the semi conductor layer part-1

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every solar cell has a semi conductor plate and our cell contains one which is cuprous oxide that is made by burning or heating copper,why it is necessary is given in the step "how does it work".so first take one of the two copper plates and hold it with a pliers.now turn on the stove and put the copper on the fire.the colour of the copper would start to become mixed like orange red and many other colour in one copper.heat it in that state for 20 minutes.
be extremely careful not to burn your hand and dont touch or dip the copper in water while its hot.

Step 3: Making the semi conductor part-2

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now take the heated copper and put aside on a dry place to cool.after some time you will see some black flakes is starting to pop and break and flying away.the skin will start to appear.now when it fully cools down the flakes will fall from the full copper plate and the copper will take reddish brown colour.now using hand or sand paper remove the flakes from the copper surface.

Step 4:

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now take the transparent plastic container and pour some water in it.now take some salt and keep dissolving until any more salt does not get dissolved. 

Step 5: Making the connections well

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now take the heated copper and solder a wire to it.now take a normal copper plate and add an wire to it.

Step 6: Setting everything up!

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now lets set everything.first take the two copper plates and place on the two inner sides of the tranparent plastic container containing salt water.make sure the two copper plates does not touch each other.its ready!the cuprous oxide end is the negative end and the copper is the positive end 

Step 7: Lets test it!!

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now first add the wires of the solar cell we made to a voltmetre.now in the dark see that it is producing a small volt around 0.02-4.now bring the cell in the sun and see the metre jump to almost 0.40 volts!i know it is not very much.but i can't think of anybody who wont be happy to see it work.now dont expect it to run your house.

Step 8: How does it work?

Cuprous oxide is a type of material called a semiconductor. A semiconductor is in between a conductor, where electricity can flow freely, and an insulator, where electrons are bound tightly to their atoms and do not flow freely.

In a semiconductor, there is a gap, called a bandgap between the electrons that are bound tightly to the atom, and the electrons that are farther from the atom, which can move freely and conduct electricity.

Electrons cannot stay inside the bandgap. An electron cannot gain just a little bit of energy and move away from the atom's nucleus into the bandgap. An electron must gain enough energy to move farther away from the nucleus, outside of the bandgap.

Similarly, an electron outside the bandgap cannot lose a little bit of energy and fall just a little bit closer to the nucleus. It must lose enough energy to fall past the bandgap into the area where electrons are allowed.

When sunlight hits the electrons in the cuprous oxide, some of the electrons gain enough energy from the sunlight to jump past the bandgap and become free to conduct electricity.

The free electrons move into the saltwater, then into the clean copper plate, into the wire, through the meter, and back to the cuprous oxide plate.

As the electrons move through the meter, they perform the work needed to move the needle. When a shadow falls on the solar cell, fewer electrons move through the meter, and the needle dips back down.

Step 9: How to make it stronger

you can add two or three cells in parrallel and charge a battery of 1.5 volts with it.or you can make a joule thief to increase the volt.here is a link to make a joule thief instructions:http://www.instructables.com/id/make-a-joule-thief-easily/.or you may increase the size of copper plates and use a magnifiying glass to increase the brightness of light and centerise the light alling on a large place.you may put covering or sealing to not let the salt water dry.the ways are limitless. 

Step 10: Troubleshooting

if your cell does not work then be sure you properly made the cuprous oxide or not.see whether you have not kept the copper place touching each other.make sure the plates are not touching each other.make sure you dont use cuprous oxide even instead of the bare copper plate.remember one plate should be copper and the other should cuprous oxide.i dont know or faced any more problems.
i am argha halder living in naogaon bangladesh.i read in class 7.i dont know english much as it is not my mother tongue language.and so if any mistake help me find it.give some more ideas.feel free to ask questions.i will try to answer them as much as possible for me.oh! i am soon shifting to usa.so maybe this will be my last instructable in 1 or 2 months.till then bye!have a nice day

The wire has to be positive or negative?

argha halder (author)  leoforjadores 6 months ago
I did not completely understand your question, but in case you wanted to know the polarity of the wires, the wire from the burnt copper is negative and the wire from the regular copper is positive. I hope it helps :)

Can I turn up a lightbulb with this proyect, if i put alot of cells together can i ?

argha halder (author)  leoforjadores 6 months ago
you could, but to light up a l.e.d light you will probably need 6-7 of those cells. and what is the point of lighting up a light bulb using the light from the sun??

both ccopper plats are in burren state .how joule theif work or help in making mor voltag

argha halder (author)  naqash-akhtar546 months ago
sorry for the late reply. so only one of the copper is burnt. Joule thief circuit is a voltage booster. so adding the Joule thief would increase the voltage of the output at the cost of ampere...

Dude both cells are burned?

argha halder (author)  leoforjadores 9 months ago

No, only one of the copper plates are burned.

SparkySolar9 months ago

I love this instructable thank you so much

argha halder (author)  SparkySolar9 months ago

Welcome!! It would be my pleasure if it helped you!!

saadj11 months ago

its good but producing tooo small voltage how to increase it

argha halder (author)  saadj11 months ago

You might make many of them and attach them in series, or you can put a lense on top of it so that you get brighter light,, etc.. You might be creative and find out some ways by yourself!!

rimar20001 year ago
You could connect many cells in serie to get more volts.
What if you bring the electrodes closer?
argha halder (author)  rimar20001 year ago
bringing the electrodes closer can increase only a few nano or mili volts.
HOw can we bring the electrodes closer ??
argha halder (author)  secret solar11 year ago
you will just need to build the cell in a smaller plastic cylinder or anything. if the jar is smaller it will eventually decrease the space between the electrodes . so it will bring the electrodes closer.
thanks !!!
Simply bring them closer. They don't need to be near the wall of the container. You could place a grille separator between both, like the car batteries have. This avoid its accidental contact.
thanks !!
But you will gain surely a lot of milliamperes. You need more mW, and Watt = Amp * Volts
argha halder (author)  rimar20001 year ago
oh then thanks for the suggestion!
thanksss!!!
crees0911 year ago
Thanks for saying cell and not panel as panels heat water
argha halder (author)  crees0911 year ago
yeah, that what used to make me confused, i looked for cell, but mostly i found panel, so i decided not to make such mistake.
Very Cool!
argha halder (author)  Ronald Joseph1 year ago
thanks!!!!!!!!
ThePuzzler1 year ago
Nice instructable. I'm very interested in making new improvements to see if I could get it to produce more electricity.
argha halder (author)  ThePuzzler1 year ago
thanks.oh and if you want to increase its voltage then use a bigger cuprous oxide that is the heated copper.then use a voltage step up converter.or use many cells together