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I like those one string guitars or can ukuleles, so I decided to make two for my kids.

only need:
- a piece of wood  (around 50cm long, not to large or thick)
- a drill
- nuts and bolts
- ukulele peg and string
- a can (better chose a nice one....)

Step 1: set the can in place

drill holes in the wooden part (one hole between each third of the can's length)
then mark the can to drill it at the same points.

nuts, bolts, and it is assembled....
<p>This is an awesome idea, I am going to try this right now, thanks for the great idea! Cheers!</p>
I love this. I'm making a 4 string tenor canjo for myself right now but i wanted to make some extra single stringers for my preschooler and her friends.
<p>how did you hold the screw while you tighten the wingnut</p>
Alternatively, you could use an angled screwdriver.
Well... With my finger..... When it's tight enough, it holds itself and I could block it.....
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Death <br><p>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p></p><p>&quot;Dead&quot;, &quot;Died&quot;, and &quot;Dying&quot; redirect here. For the Alice in Chains song, see Died (song). For the coloring process, see <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyeing" rel="nofollow">Dyeing</a>. For other uses, see Dead (disambiguation) and Death (disambiguation).</p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skullclose.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a><div><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skullclose.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>A <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skull" rel="nofollow">human skull</a>, widely used as a symbolof death<p><strong>Death</strong> is the cessation of all <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_process" rel="nofollow">biological functions</a> that sustain a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life" rel="nofollow">living</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism" rel="nofollow">organism</a>. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenomenon" rel="nofollow">Phenomena</a> which commonly bring about death include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senescence" rel="nofollow">biological aging</a> (<a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/senescence" rel="nofollow">senescence</a>), <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predation" rel="nofollow">predation</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malnutrition" rel="nofollow">malnutrition</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease" rel="nofollow">disease</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide" rel="nofollow">suicide</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder" rel="nofollow">murder</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accident" rel="nofollow">accidents</a> or trauma resulting in terminal injury.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-1" rel="nofollow">[1]</a> Bodies of living organisms begin to <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposition" rel="nofollow">decompose</a> shortly after death. There is no convincing<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_evidence" rel="nofollow">scientific evidence</a> that suggests <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness_after_death" rel="nofollow">consciousness survives the death</a> of an organism.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-2" rel="nofollow">[2]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-3" rel="nofollow">[3]</a></p><p>In society, the nature of death and humanity's awareness of its own mortality has for millennia been a concern of the world's <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_traditions" rel="nofollow">religious traditions</a> and of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy" rel="nofollow">philosophical inquiry</a>. This includes belief in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resurrection" rel="nofollow">resurrection</a> (associated with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrahamic_religions" rel="nofollow">Abrahamic religions</a>), <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reincarnation" rel="nofollow">reincarnation</a> or rebirth (associated with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmic_religions" rel="nofollow">Dharmic religions</a>), or that consciousness permanently ceases to exist, known as <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eternal_oblivion" rel="nofollow">eternal oblivion</a> (often associated with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atheism" rel="nofollow">atheism</a>).<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-4" rel="nofollow">[4]</a></p><p>Commemoration ceremonies after death may include various <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mourning" rel="nofollow">mourning</a> or <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funeral" rel="nofollow">funeral</a> practices. The physical remains of a person, commonly known as a <em>corpse</em> or <em>body</em>, are usually <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burial" rel="nofollow">interred</a> whole or <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cremated" rel="nofollow">cremated</a>, though among the world's cultures there are a variety of other methods of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disposal_of_human_corpses" rel="nofollow">mortuary disposal</a>. In the English language, blessings directed towards a dead person include <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rest_in_peace" rel="nofollow">rest in peace</a></em>, or its <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Initialism" rel="nofollow">initialism</a> RIP.</p><p>The most common cause of human deaths in the world is <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischaemic_heart_disease" rel="nofollow">heart disease</a>, followed by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke" rel="nofollow">stroke</a> and other <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebrovascular_diseases" rel="nofollow">cerebrovascular diseases</a>, and in the third place <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_respiratory_tract_infection" rel="nofollow">lower respiratory infections</a>.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-5" rel="nofollow">[5]</a></p> <br>Contents [<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#" rel="nofollow">hide</a>] <ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Etymology" rel="nofollow">1 Etymology</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Associated_terms" rel="nofollow">2 Associated terms</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Senescence" rel="nofollow">3 Senescence</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Signs_of_biological_death" rel="nofollow">4 Signs of biological death</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Diagnosis" rel="nofollow">5 Diagnosis</a><ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Problems_of_definition" rel="nofollow">5.1 Problems of definition</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Legal" rel="nofollow">5.2 Legal</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Misdiagnosed" rel="nofollow">5.3 Misdiagnosed</a></ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Causes" rel="nofollow">6 Causes</a><ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Autopsy" rel="nofollow">6.1 Autopsy</a></ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Life_extension" rel="nofollow">7 Life extension</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Location" rel="nofollow">8 Location</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Society_and_culture" rel="nofollow">9 Society and culture</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Death_and_consciousness" rel="nofollow">10 Death and consciousness</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#In_biology" rel="nofollow">11 In biology</a><ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Natural_selection" rel="nofollow">11.1 Natural selection</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Extinction" rel="nofollow">11.2 Extinction</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Evolution_of_aging_and_mortality" rel="nofollow">11.3 Evolution of aging and mortality</a></ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#See_also" rel="nofollow">12 See also</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#References" rel="nofollow">13 References</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Further_reading" rel="nofollow">14 Further reading</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#External_links" rel="nofollow">15 External links</a></ul>Etymology[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=1" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]<p>The word death comes from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_English" rel="nofollow">Old English</a> dea&eth;, which in turn comes from Proto-Germanic *dau&thorn;az (reconstructed by etymological analysis).<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-6" rel="nofollow">[6]</a> This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the &quot;Process, act, condition of dying&quot;.</p>Associated terms[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=2" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]<p>The concept and symptoms of death, and varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific, legal, and socially acceptable terms or euphemisms for death. When a person has died, it is also said they have <em>passed away</em>, <em>passed on</em>, or <em>expired</em>, among numerous other socially accepted, religiously specific, slang, and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is then a <em>corpse</em>, <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadaver" rel="nofollow">cadaver</a></em>, a <em>body</em>, a <em>set of remains</em>, and finally a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeleton" rel="nofollow">skeleton</a>. The terms <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrion" rel="nofollow">carrion</a></em> and <em>carcass</em> can also be used, though these more often connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participle" rel="nofollow">participle</a> form of &quot;decease&quot;, as in <em>the deceased</em>; the noun form is <em>decedent</em>. The ashes left after a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cremation" rel="nofollow">cremation</a> are sometimes referred to by the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neologism" rel="nofollow">neologism</a> <em>cremains</em>, a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portmanteau" rel="nofollow">portmanteau</a> of &quot;cremation&quot; and &quot;remains&quot;.</p>Senescence[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=3" rel="nofollow">edit</a>] <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_magpie.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_magpie.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>A dead <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Magpie" rel="nofollow">Eurasian Magpie</a><p>Almost all <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal" rel="nofollow">animals</a> who survive external hazards to their biological functioning eventually die from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senescence" rel="nofollow">biological aging</a>, known in life sciences as &ldquo;<a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/senescence" rel="nofollow">senescence</a>&rdquo;. Some organisms experience <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negligible_senescence" rel="nofollow">negligible senescence</a>, even exhibiting <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_immortality" rel="nofollow">biological immortality</a>. These include the jellyfish <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turritopsis_dohrnii" rel="nofollow">Turritopsis dohrnii</a></em>,<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-7" rel="nofollow">[7]</a> the hydra, and the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planarian" rel="nofollow">planarian</a>. Unnatural causes of death include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide" rel="nofollow">suicide</a> and<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homicide" rel="nofollow">homicide</a>. From all causes, roughly 150,000 people die around the world each day.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-doi10.2202.2F1941-6008.1011-8" rel="nofollow">[8]</a> Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries&mdash;such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany&mdash;the rate approaches 90%, i.e., nearly nine out of ten of all deaths are related to senescence.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-doi10.2202.2F1941-6008.1011-8" rel="nofollow">[8]</a></p><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiological" rel="nofollow">Physiological</a> death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-9" rel="nofollow">[9]</a> Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vital_signs" rel="nofollow">vital signs</a>. In general, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_death" rel="nofollow">clinical death</a> is neither necessary nor sufficient for a determination of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_death" rel="nofollow">legal death</a>. A patient with working <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_heart" rel="nofollow">heart</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_lung" rel="nofollow">lungs</a> determined to be <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_death" rel="nofollow">brain dead</a> can be pronounced legally dead without clinical death occurring. As <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science" rel="nofollow">scientific knowledge</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine" rel="nofollow">medicine</a> advance, a precise medical definition of death becomes more problematic.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-10" rel="nofollow">[10]</a></p>Signs of biological death[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=4" rel="nofollow">edit</a>] <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_rat_blood.JPG" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_rat_blood.JPG" rel="nofollow"></a>A dead <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rat" rel="nofollow">rat</a><p>Signs of death or strong indications that an animal is no longer alive are:</p><ul> <br><li>Cessation of breathing<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrest" rel="nofollow">Cardiac arrest</a> (no <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_rate" rel="nofollow">pulse</a>)<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Pallor mortis</a></em>, paleness which happens in the 15&ndash;120 minutes after death<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Livor mortis</a></em>, a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion of the body<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Algor mortis</a></em>, the reduction in body temperature following death. This is generally a steady decline until matching ambient temperature<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Rigor mortis</a></em>, the limbs of the corpse become stiff (Latin <em>rigor</em>) and difficult to move or manipulate<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposition" rel="nofollow">Decomposition</a>, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor.</ul>Diagnosis[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=5" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]Problems of definition[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=6" rel="nofollow">edit</a>] <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:StillLifeWithASkull.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:StillLifeWithASkull.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>A flower, a skull and an hourglass stand for <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life" rel="nofollow">Life</a>, Death and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time" rel="nofollow">Time</a> in this 17th-century painting by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_de_Champaigne" rel="nofollow">Philippe de Champaigne</a> <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:French_-_Pendant_with_a_Monk_and_Death_-_Walters_71461.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:French_-_Pendant_with_a_Monk_and_Death_-_Walters_71461.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>French &ndash; 16th/17th century ivory pendant, Monk and Death, recalling mortality and the certainty of death (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walters_Art_Museum" rel="nofollow">Walters Art Museum</a>)<p>The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-MohammadSamir-11" rel="nofollow">[11]</a> There are many scientific approaches to the concept. For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-MohammadSamir-11" rel="nofollow">[11]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-12" rel="nofollow">[12]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-13" rel="nofollow">[13]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-14" rel="nofollow">[14]</a></p><p>One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life" rel="nofollow">life</a>. As a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment at which life ends. However, determining when death has occurred requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between life and death. This is problematic because there is little consensus over how to define life. This general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine.</p><p>It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness. When consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the notable flaws in this approach, however, is that there are many organisms which are alive but probably not conscious (for example, single-celled organisms). Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different definitions given by modern scientists, psychologists and philosophers. Additionally, many religious traditions, including<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrahamic_religions" rel="nofollow">Abrahamic</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmic_religions" rel="nofollow">Dharmic</a> traditions, hold that death does not (or may not) entail the end of consciousness. In certain cultures, death is more of a process than a single event. It implies a slow shift from one spiritual state to another.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-15" rel="nofollow">[15]</a></p><p>Other definitions for death focus on the character of cessation of something.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-16" rel="nofollow">[16]</a>[<em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Please_clarify" rel="nofollow"> inline in the article (see WP:CITE) to source the specific facts provided by this reference. (January 2014)&quot;&gt;clarification needed</a></em>] In this context &quot;death&quot; describes merely the state where something has ceased, for example, life. Thus, the definition of &quot;life&quot; simultaneously defines death.</p><p>Historically, attempts to define the exact moment of a human's death have been problematic. Death was once defined as the cessation of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart" rel="nofollow">heartbeat</a> (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrest" rel="nofollow">cardiac arrest</a>) and of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breath" rel="nofollow">breathing</a>, but the development of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiopulmonary_resuscitation" rel="nofollow">CPR</a> and prompt defibrillation have rendered that definition inadequate because breathing and heartbeat can sometimes be restarted. Events which were<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causality" rel="nofollow">causally</a> linked to death in the past no longer kill in all circumstances; without a functioning heart or lungs, life can sometimes be sustained with a combination of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_support" rel="nofollow">life support</a> devices, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_transplants" rel="nofollow">organ transplants</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_pacemaker" rel="nofollow">artificial pacemakers</a>.</p><p>Today, where a definition of the moment of death is required, doctors and coroners usually turn to &quot;brain death&quot; or &quot;biological death&quot; to define a person as being dead; people are considered dead when the electrical activity in their brain ceases. It is presumed that an end of electrical activity indicates the end of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness" rel="nofollow">consciousness</a>. However, suspension of consciousness must be permanent, and not transient, as occurs during certain <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-rapid_eye_movement_sleep" rel="nofollow">sleep</a> stages, and especially a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coma" rel="nofollow">coma</a>. In the case of sleep, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroencephalography" rel="nofollow">EEGs</a>can easily tell the difference.</p><p>However, the category of &quot;brain death&quot; is seen by some scholars to be problematic. For instance, Dr. Franklin Miller, senior faculty member at the Department of Bioethics, National Institutes of Health, notes: &quot;By the late 1990s, however, the equation of brain death with death of the human being was increasingly challenged by scholars, based on evidence regarding the array of biological functioning displayed by patients correctly diagnosed as having this condition who were maintained on mechanical ventilation for substantial periods of time. These patients maintained the ability to sustain circulation and respiration, control temperature, excrete wastes, heal wounds, fight infections and, most dramatically, to gestate fetuses (in the case of pregnant &quot;brain-dead&quot; women).&quot;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-Miller-17" rel="nofollow">[17]</a></p><p>Those people maintaining that only the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo-cortex" rel="nofollow">neo-cortex</a> of the brain is necessary for consciousness sometimes argue that only electrical activity should be considered when defining death. Eventually it is possible that the criterion for death will be the permanent and irreversible loss of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognition" rel="nofollow">cognitive</a> function, as evidenced by the death of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_cortex" rel="nofollow">cerebral cortex</a>. All hope of recovering human thought and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_psychology" rel="nofollow">personality</a> is then gone given current and foreseeable medical technology. However, at present, in most places the more conservative definition of death &ndash; irreversible cessation of electrical activity in the whole brain, as opposed to just in the neo-cortex &ndash; has been adopted (for example the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniform_Determination_Of_Death_Act" rel="nofollow">Uniform Determination Of Death Act</a> in the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States" rel="nofollow">United States</a>). In 2005, the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terri_Schiavo_case" rel="nofollow">Terri Schiavo case</a> brought the question of brain death and artificial sustenance to the front of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_United_States" rel="nofollow">American politics</a>.</p><p>Even by whole-brain criteria, the determination of brain death can be complicated. EEGs can detect spurious electrical impulses, while certain <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drugs" rel="nofollow">drugs</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoglycemia" rel="nofollow">hypoglycemia</a>,hypoxia, or <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothermia" rel="nofollow">hypothermia</a> can suppress or even stop brain activity on a temporary basis. Because of this, hospitals have protocols for determining brain death involving EEGs at widely separated intervals under defined conditions.</p>Legal[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=7" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]Find more about <strong>Death</strong> at Wikipedia's<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikimedia_sister_projects" rel="nofollow">sister projects</a><a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/death" rel="nofollow">Definitions and translations</a> from Wiktionary<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Death" rel="nofollow">Media</a> from Commons<a href="http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Death" rel="nofollow">Quotations</a> from Wikiquote<ul> <br><li><a href="http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Death" rel="nofollow">Death</a> at <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DMOZ" rel="nofollow">DMOZ</a><li><a href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/death/#2" rel="nofollow">Death (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)</a><li><a href="https://web.archive.org/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18368186/20070503021611" rel="nofollow">&quot;Doctors Change the Way They Think About Death&quot;</a>. Archived from <a href="http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18368186" rel="nofollow">the original</a> on 2007-05-03. (2007 article archived at the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayback_Machine" rel="nofollow">Wayback Machine</a>)</ul></div></div></div></div></div></div></div>
Death <br><p>From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</p><p></p><p>&quot;Dead&quot;, &quot;Died&quot;, and &quot;Dying&quot; redirect here. For the Alice in Chains song, see Died (song). For the coloring process, see <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dyeing" rel="nofollow">Dyeing</a>. For other uses, see Dead (disambiguation) and Death (disambiguation).</p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skullclose.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a><div><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Skullclose.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>A <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skull" rel="nofollow">human skull</a>, widely used as a symbolof death<p><strong>Death</strong> is the cessation of all <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_process" rel="nofollow">biological functions</a> that sustain a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life" rel="nofollow">living</a> <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organism" rel="nofollow">organism</a>. <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenomenon" rel="nofollow">Phenomena</a> which commonly bring about death include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senescence" rel="nofollow">biological aging</a> (<a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/senescence" rel="nofollow">senescence</a>), <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predation" rel="nofollow">predation</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malnutrition" rel="nofollow">malnutrition</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disease" rel="nofollow">disease</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide" rel="nofollow">suicide</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Murder" rel="nofollow">murder</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accident" rel="nofollow">accidents</a> or trauma resulting in terminal injury.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-1" rel="nofollow">[1]</a> Bodies of living organisms begin to <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposition" rel="nofollow">decompose</a> shortly after death. There is no convincing<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_evidence" rel="nofollow">scientific evidence</a> that suggests <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness_after_death" rel="nofollow">consciousness survives the death</a> of an organism.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-2" rel="nofollow">[2]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-3" rel="nofollow">[3]</a></p><p>In society, the nature of death and humanity's awareness of its own mortality has for millennia been a concern of the world's <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_traditions" rel="nofollow">religious traditions</a> and of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy" rel="nofollow">philosophical inquiry</a>. This includes belief in <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resurrection" rel="nofollow">resurrection</a> (associated with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrahamic_religions" rel="nofollow">Abrahamic religions</a>), <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reincarnation" rel="nofollow">reincarnation</a> or rebirth (associated with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmic_religions" rel="nofollow">Dharmic religions</a>), or that consciousness permanently ceases to exist, known as <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eternal_oblivion" rel="nofollow">eternal oblivion</a> (often associated with <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atheism" rel="nofollow">atheism</a>).<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-4" rel="nofollow">[4]</a></p><p>Commemoration ceremonies after death may include various <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mourning" rel="nofollow">mourning</a> or <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Funeral" rel="nofollow">funeral</a> practices. The physical remains of a person, commonly known as a <em>corpse</em> or <em>body</em>, are usually <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burial" rel="nofollow">interred</a> whole or <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cremated" rel="nofollow">cremated</a>, though among the world's cultures there are a variety of other methods of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disposal_of_human_corpses" rel="nofollow">mortuary disposal</a>. In the English language, blessings directed towards a dead person include <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rest_in_peace" rel="nofollow">rest in peace</a></em>, or its <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Initialism" rel="nofollow">initialism</a> RIP.</p><p>The most common cause of human deaths in the world is <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischaemic_heart_disease" rel="nofollow">heart disease</a>, followed by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke" rel="nofollow">stroke</a> and other <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebrovascular_diseases" rel="nofollow">cerebrovascular diseases</a>, and in the third place <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lower_respiratory_tract_infection" rel="nofollow">lower respiratory infections</a>.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-5" rel="nofollow">[5]</a></p> <br>Contents [<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#" rel="nofollow">hide</a>] <ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Etymology" rel="nofollow">1 Etymology</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Associated_terms" rel="nofollow">2 Associated terms</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Senescence" rel="nofollow">3 Senescence</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Signs_of_biological_death" rel="nofollow">4 Signs of biological death</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Diagnosis" rel="nofollow">5 Diagnosis</a><ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Problems_of_definition" rel="nofollow">5.1 Problems of definition</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Legal" rel="nofollow">5.2 Legal</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Misdiagnosed" rel="nofollow">5.3 Misdiagnosed</a></ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Causes" rel="nofollow">6 Causes</a><ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Autopsy" rel="nofollow">6.1 Autopsy</a></ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Life_extension" rel="nofollow">7 Life extension</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Location" rel="nofollow">8 Location</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Society_and_culture" rel="nofollow">9 Society and culture</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Death_and_consciousness" rel="nofollow">10 Death and consciousness</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#In_biology" rel="nofollow">11 In biology</a><ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Natural_selection" rel="nofollow">11.1 Natural selection</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Extinction" rel="nofollow">11.2 Extinction</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Evolution_of_aging_and_mortality" rel="nofollow">11.3 Evolution of aging and mortality</a></ul><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#See_also" rel="nofollow">12 See also</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#References" rel="nofollow">13 References</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#Further_reading" rel="nofollow">14 Further reading</a><li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#External_links" rel="nofollow">15 External links</a></ul>Etymology[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=1" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]<p>The word death comes from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_English" rel="nofollow">Old English</a> dea&eth;, which in turn comes from Proto-Germanic *dau&thorn;az (reconstructed by etymological analysis).<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-6" rel="nofollow">[6]</a> This comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *dheu- meaning the &quot;Process, act, condition of dying&quot;.</p>Associated terms[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=2" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]<p>The concept and symptoms of death, and varying degrees of delicacy used in discussion in public forums, have generated numerous scientific, legal, and socially acceptable terms or euphemisms for death. When a person has died, it is also said they have <em>passed away</em>, <em>passed on</em>, or <em>expired</em>, among numerous other socially accepted, religiously specific, slang, and irreverent terms. Bereft of life, the dead person is then a <em>corpse</em>, <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadaver" rel="nofollow">cadaver</a></em>, a <em>body</em>, a <em>set of remains</em>, and finally a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeleton" rel="nofollow">skeleton</a>. The terms <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrion" rel="nofollow">carrion</a></em> and <em>carcass</em> can also be used, though these more often connote the remains of non-human animals. As a polite reference to a dead person, it has become common practice to use the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participle" rel="nofollow">participle</a> form of &quot;decease&quot;, as in <em>the deceased</em>; the noun form is <em>decedent</em>. The ashes left after a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cremation" rel="nofollow">cremation</a> are sometimes referred to by the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neologism" rel="nofollow">neologism</a> <em>cremains</em>, a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portmanteau" rel="nofollow">portmanteau</a> of &quot;cremation&quot; and &quot;remains&quot;.</p>Senescence[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=3" rel="nofollow">edit</a>] <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_magpie.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_magpie.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>A dead <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Magpie" rel="nofollow">Eurasian Magpie</a><p>Almost all <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal" rel="nofollow">animals</a> who survive external hazards to their biological functioning eventually die from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senescence" rel="nofollow">biological aging</a>, known in life sciences as &ldquo;<a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/senescence" rel="nofollow">senescence</a>&rdquo;. Some organisms experience <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Negligible_senescence" rel="nofollow">negligible senescence</a>, even exhibiting <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_immortality" rel="nofollow">biological immortality</a>. These include the jellyfish <em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turritopsis_dohrnii" rel="nofollow">Turritopsis dohrnii</a></em>,<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-7" rel="nofollow">[7]</a> the hydra, and the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planarian" rel="nofollow">planarian</a>. Unnatural causes of death include <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide" rel="nofollow">suicide</a> and<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homicide" rel="nofollow">homicide</a>. From all causes, roughly 150,000 people die around the world each day.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-doi10.2202.2F1941-6008.1011-8" rel="nofollow">[8]</a> Of these, two thirds die directly or indirectly due to senescence, but in industrialized countries&mdash;such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany&mdash;the rate approaches 90%, i.e., nearly nine out of ten of all deaths are related to senescence.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-doi10.2202.2F1941-6008.1011-8" rel="nofollow">[8]</a></p><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physiological" rel="nofollow">Physiological</a> death is now seen as a process, more than an event: conditions once considered indicative of death are now reversible.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-9" rel="nofollow">[9]</a> Where in the process a dividing line is drawn between life and death depends on factors beyond the presence or absence of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vital_signs" rel="nofollow">vital signs</a>. In general, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_death" rel="nofollow">clinical death</a> is neither necessary nor sufficient for a determination of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_death" rel="nofollow">legal death</a>. A patient with working <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_heart" rel="nofollow">heart</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_lung" rel="nofollow">lungs</a> determined to be <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain_death" rel="nofollow">brain dead</a> can be pronounced legally dead without clinical death occurring. As <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science" rel="nofollow">scientific knowledge</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine" rel="nofollow">medicine</a> advance, a precise medical definition of death becomes more problematic.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-10" rel="nofollow">[10]</a></p>Signs of biological death[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=4" rel="nofollow">edit</a>] <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_rat_blood.JPG" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_rat_blood.JPG" rel="nofollow"></a>A dead <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rat" rel="nofollow">rat</a><p>Signs of death or strong indications that an animal is no longer alive are:</p><ul> <br><li>Cessation of breathing<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrest" rel="nofollow">Cardiac arrest</a> (no <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart_rate" rel="nofollow">pulse</a>)<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pallor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Pallor mortis</a></em>, paleness which happens in the 15&ndash;120 minutes after death<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Livor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Livor mortis</a></em>, a settling of the blood in the lower (dependent) portion of the body<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Algor mortis</a></em>, the reduction in body temperature following death. This is generally a steady decline until matching ambient temperature<li><em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigor_mortis" rel="nofollow">Rigor mortis</a></em>, the limbs of the corpse become stiff (Latin <em>rigor</em>) and difficult to move or manipulate<li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decomposition" rel="nofollow">Decomposition</a>, the reduction into simpler forms of matter, accompanied by a strong, unpleasant odor.</ul>Diagnosis[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=5" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]Problems of definition[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=6" rel="nofollow">edit</a>] <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:StillLifeWithASkull.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:StillLifeWithASkull.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>A flower, a skull and an hourglass stand for <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life" rel="nofollow">Life</a>, Death and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time" rel="nofollow">Time</a> in this 17th-century painting by <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_de_Champaigne" rel="nofollow">Philippe de Champaigne</a> <br><p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:French_-_Pendant_with_a_Monk_and_Death_-_Walters_71461.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a></p><div><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:French_-_Pendant_with_a_Monk_and_Death_-_Walters_71461.jpg" rel="nofollow"></a>French &ndash; 16th/17th century ivory pendant, Monk and Death, recalling mortality and the certainty of death (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walters_Art_Museum" rel="nofollow">Walters Art Museum</a>)<p>The concept of death is a key to human understanding of the phenomenon.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-MohammadSamir-11" rel="nofollow">[11]</a> There are many scientific approaches to the concept. For example, brain death, as practiced in medical science, defines death as a point in time at which brain activity ceases.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-MohammadSamir-11" rel="nofollow">[11]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-12" rel="nofollow">[12]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-13" rel="nofollow">[13]</a><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-14" rel="nofollow">[14]</a></p><p>One of the challenges in defining death is in distinguishing it from <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life" rel="nofollow">life</a>. As a point in time, death would seem to refer to the moment at which life ends. However, determining when death has occurred requires drawing precise conceptual boundaries between life and death. This is problematic because there is little consensus over how to define life. This general problem applies to the particular challenge of defining death in the context of medicine.</p><p>It is possible to define life in terms of consciousness. When consciousness ceases, a living organism can be said to have died. One of the notable flaws in this approach, however, is that there are many organisms which are alive but probably not conscious (for example, single-celled organisms). Another problem is in defining consciousness, which has many different definitions given by modern scientists, psychologists and philosophers. Additionally, many religious traditions, including<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrahamic_religions" rel="nofollow">Abrahamic</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dharmic_religions" rel="nofollow">Dharmic</a> traditions, hold that death does not (or may not) entail the end of consciousness. In certain cultures, death is more of a process than a single event. It implies a slow shift from one spiritual state to another.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-15" rel="nofollow">[15]</a></p><p>Other definitions for death focus on the character of cessation of something.<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-16" rel="nofollow">[16]</a>[<em><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Please_clarify" rel="nofollow"> inline in the article (see WP:CITE) to source the specific facts provided by this reference. (January 2014)&quot;&gt;clarification needed</a></em>] In this context &quot;death&quot; describes merely the state where something has ceased, for example, life. Thus, the definition of &quot;life&quot; simultaneously defines death.</p><p>Historically, attempts to define the exact moment of a human's death have been problematic. Death was once defined as the cessation of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart" rel="nofollow">heartbeat</a> (<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiac_arrest" rel="nofollow">cardiac arrest</a>) and of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breath" rel="nofollow">breathing</a>, but the development of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiopulmonary_resuscitation" rel="nofollow">CPR</a> and prompt defibrillation have rendered that definition inadequate because breathing and heartbeat can sometimes be restarted. Events which were<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causality" rel="nofollow">causally</a> linked to death in the past no longer kill in all circumstances; without a functioning heart or lungs, life can sometimes be sustained with a combination of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_support" rel="nofollow">life support</a> devices, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_transplants" rel="nofollow">organ transplants</a> and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_pacemaker" rel="nofollow">artificial pacemakers</a>.</p><p>Today, where a definition of the moment of death is required, doctors and coroners usually turn to &quot;brain death&quot; or &quot;biological death&quot; to define a person as being dead; people are considered dead when the electrical activity in their brain ceases. It is presumed that an end of electrical activity indicates the end of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consciousness" rel="nofollow">consciousness</a>. However, suspension of consciousness must be permanent, and not transient, as occurs during certain <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-rapid_eye_movement_sleep" rel="nofollow">sleep</a> stages, and especially a <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coma" rel="nofollow">coma</a>. In the case of sleep, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroencephalography" rel="nofollow">EEGs</a>can easily tell the difference.</p><p>However, the category of &quot;brain death&quot; is seen by some scholars to be problematic. For instance, Dr. Franklin Miller, senior faculty member at the Department of Bioethics, National Institutes of Health, notes: &quot;By the late 1990s, however, the equation of brain death with death of the human being was increasingly challenged by scholars, based on evidence regarding the array of biological functioning displayed by patients correctly diagnosed as having this condition who were maintained on mechanical ventilation for substantial periods of time. These patients maintained the ability to sustain circulation and respiration, control temperature, excrete wastes, heal wounds, fight infections and, most dramatically, to gestate fetuses (in the case of pregnant &quot;brain-dead&quot; women).&quot;<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death#cite_note-Miller-17" rel="nofollow">[17]</a></p><p>Those people maintaining that only the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo-cortex" rel="nofollow">neo-cortex</a> of the brain is necessary for consciousness sometimes argue that only electrical activity should be considered when defining death. Eventually it is possible that the criterion for death will be the permanent and irreversible loss of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognition" rel="nofollow">cognitive</a> function, as evidenced by the death of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebral_cortex" rel="nofollow">cerebral cortex</a>. All hope of recovering human thought and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_psychology" rel="nofollow">personality</a> is then gone given current and foreseeable medical technology. However, at present, in most places the more conservative definition of death &ndash; irreversible cessation of electrical activity in the whole brain, as opposed to just in the neo-cortex &ndash; has been adopted (for example the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniform_Determination_Of_Death_Act" rel="nofollow">Uniform Determination Of Death Act</a> in the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States" rel="nofollow">United States</a>). In 2005, the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terri_Schiavo_case" rel="nofollow">Terri Schiavo case</a> brought the question of brain death and artificial sustenance to the front of <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politics_of_the_United_States" rel="nofollow">American politics</a>.</p><p>Even by whole-brain criteria, the determination of brain death can be complicated. EEGs can detect spurious electrical impulses, while certain <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drugs" rel="nofollow">drugs</a>, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypoglycemia" rel="nofollow">hypoglycemia</a>,hypoxia, or <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothermia" rel="nofollow">hypothermia</a> can suppress or even stop brain activity on a temporary basis. Because of this, hospitals have protocols for determining brain death involving EEGs at widely separated intervals under defined conditions.</p>Legal[<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Death&action=edit&section=7" rel="nofollow">edit</a>]Find more about <strong>Death</strong> at Wikipedia's<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikimedia_sister_projects" rel="nofollow">sister projects</a><a href="http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/death" rel="nofollow">Definitions and translations</a> from Wiktionary<a href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Death" rel="nofollow">Media</a> from Commons<a href="http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Death" rel="nofollow">Quotations</a> from Wikiquote<ul> <br><li><a href="http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Death" rel="nofollow">Death</a> at <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DMOZ" rel="nofollow">DMOZ</a><li><a href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/death/#2" rel="nofollow">Death (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)</a><li><a href="https://web.archive.org/http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18368186/20070503021611" rel="nofollow">&quot;Doctors Change the Way They Think About Death&quot;</a>. Archived from <a href="http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/18368186" rel="nofollow">the original</a> on 2007-05-03. (2007 article archived at the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wayback_Machine" rel="nofollow">Wayback Machine</a>)</ul></div></div></div></div></div></div></div>

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