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Rope ladders, whether for climbing into tree forts, boarding a tall ship, or to escape out a window in an emergency, they're an adventure to use. Rope ladders are great when storage space is at a premium or if the vertical distance to cross is nonuniform and a rigid ladder will not work. If you live or work in a building that has a drop to the ground from your window and want to have a collapsible method of escaping in case of an emergency, then a rope ladder may be just what you need.

I live at the end of the hall on the second storey of an old wood-framed apartment building. An alternate exit route was deemed necessary due to the building having wood burning fireplaces, inattentive residents who burn food, and hippy neighbours conducting seances. Considering all this, my apartment building is one mistake away from becoming a fiery inferno.

Since January of this year the fire alarm has been triggered at least once a month, I've never feared for my safety more. Never one to be caught unawares, I decided to take matters into my own hands and create my own method of escape in case of an emergency.

The ladder I made uses glow in the dark rope to promote its location in darkness, hopefully offering a faster route to safety if the power goes out in an emergency situation.
A rope ladder forms part of the solution to getting out alive in the case of an emergency or fire.
Be prepared, ensure you plan and practice your safe exit prior to any actual emergency.

Enough talk, let's build a rope ladder.

Step 1: Overview

A rope ladder is a generic term used to describe any type of flexible ladder, rope ladders are different than regular rigid ladders by having a flexible stringer (vertical component - rope) and usually have rigid rungs (horizontal members - steps). There are a few varieties of rope ladders: some use all rope, some use steel wire, some have plastic rungs, while others have wood. Before you begin, explore the types and the situation you intend to use yours in to ensure it's suitability.

This rope ladder design consists of a wooden top dowel which is wider than the opening to be climbed through. The rope is attached to the top dowel and knotted to each successive rung of the ladder at regular intervals to make a ladder. Other designs exist, however the benefit of having the rope pass through each rung is the rope will not slip off the rung, and the knots cannot be untied.

This design aims to play to the strengths of the wooden top dowel by distributing the load near the window frame and leaving the vulnerable centre of the top dowel free of any point load. During operation the force exerted from climbing is transferred to the window frame, the remainder of the top dowel then acts in compression with minimal lateral load applied (meaning the top dowel is less likely to snap like a twig).

This is a good place to give the obligatory warning:
Be smart, use hardwood dowels of sufficient diameter with rope that is designed to carry the weight of the persons intended to use the rope ladder. If opening for top dowel is too large or dowel type/size or rope is inadequate you risk having your top dowel, ladder rungs or rope failing and exposing users and spectators to the possibility of injury or death.

Step 2: Tools + Materials

Scope out your desired location prior to buying anything. You'll need plenty of rope suitable for holding your weight and enough dowels to make it to the ground from your window. The rope and dowels I chose were to suit my weight and distance to the ground, the following information is given to illustrate this example:
  • 9.5mm x 15m (3/8" x 50') glow-in-the-dark rope
  • 38mm (1.5") hardwood dowels - varying lengths (based on window opening and desired rung widths)
  • drill
  • 9.5mm (3/8") drill bit

Step 3: Measure Twice...

Once you've chosen an easily accessible location for your ladder that is free from any hazards at the landing outside we can take some measurements.

top dowel:
Measure the opening width, allowing for an additional +100mm (+4") on each side. This additional amount will allow our top dowel to be placed in the opening without falling out.

rungs:
Chose a rung width that will easily allow you to slip your feet in and out while descending. Depending on application and foot size this can vary. To keep things simple I used rungs which were 305mm (12") in width. This allowed me to accommodate a foot-hold and enough room to have the rope pass through the  rung on each side.

rope:
All rope will have a weight limit printed on the packaging, or on a sticker if you buy bulk. Make sure you select rope suitable for your needs.
This design has a series of knots in the rope, as such the overall rope length will need to be longer than the distance to accommodate for the knots. Time for some math:

The distance from the opening to the ground 580cm(228")
Illustrated in Step 6, each knot used about 5cm (2") of rope.
This design calls for a knot above and below each rung, using 10cm (4") for each rung.

     I used 12 rungs:                                          10cm(4") x 12
 




 +122cm(48")
 
 
length of rope from opening to ground (height distance + knots)
 702cm(276")
7.02m (23')

This shows us that we need 7 meters (23') of rope to make it from the window to the ground.
Since our ladder has two stringers (one rope on each side of each rung), we need at least 14m (46') or rope in total to make our ladder.

Step 4: Cut Dowels

Your local lumber store should have long lengths of dowels for sale by the foot. Select the thickness of dowel based on the heaviest person intended to use this rope ladder. Using hardwood is more expensive but will result in a more robust ladder, if you have just soft wood available consider stepping-up the thickness of the dowels to ensure they hold your weight or use a shorter rung width. Inspect each dowel to ensure there is no warping, splits, or other defects.

top dowel:
Once you've gathered your wood choose the straightest and cleanest piece for your top dowel.
From the measurements taken earlier:
window opening:103cm (40.5")
allowance on each side:

2x10cm (4")

top dowel length:123cm (48.5")

rungs:
This design calls for ladder rung width of 30.5cm (12") in length. Based on my calculations I figured 12 rungs would put me close to the ground. Cut each dowel to length.

When finished, you should have one long dowel and several shorter, equal length dowels for your rungs. Gather up your goodies and head on back home to finish fabrication.

Step 5: Drill Each Dowel

This ladder has the rope passing through each side of each rung, the benefit of this design is that the rope will not slip off the rung, and the knots cannot be untied.

top rung:
Remember back in Step 3 when we allowed for an additional 100mm (+4") on each side of the top dowel? Mark 100mm (+4") (or whatever distance you need to suit your opening) from each end of the top dowel.

rungs:
Each rung will need two identical holes drilled close to the end on each side. Marks were made at 38mm (1.5") from each end.

Once you've made the marks it's time to start drilling. Chose a drill bit which is the same size or slightly larger than the diameter of the rope you intend to use.

Note:
Not a fan of drilling through each rung? There are several other rope ladder designs which you may want to explore, some use lashing to fix the rope to each rung, some use a mechanical fastener, or you can use a knot around each rung instead.

Step 6: Measuring the Knot Frequency

The distance between each rung is a personal preference. Many traditional ladders have rung spacing at 25.5-30.5cm (10-12") o.c., I chose to match my spacing with the width of each run, 30.5cm (12"). This creates a 'squared' effect when looking at the ladder (space between each rung framed by equal sized rope lengths).

This picture shows that with each knot that is tied the rope shortens by about 5cm(2"). Since this design has a knot on top of and below each rung there is a loss of 10cm(4") for each rung.

Step 7: Assembly

Once you've got all your dowels cut and drilled, it's time to put all the peices together.Start by threading in the bottom-most rung and work your way up to the top dowel.

Lay out your two even lengths of rope, begin with a knot at the end of each rope and thread on a rung. Then tie off the threaded rung on each side, measure up about 30.5cm (12") and tie another knot. Thread on another rung and tie off. Repeat for each side until all rungs are threaded and tied to the rope

It helps to have some tension on the rope as you assemble the ladder, try bracing the bottom rung once knotted and keeping even tension of both sides during threading/knotting. The top dowel is knotted the same way only with some additional space between the to top dowel and the first rung to accommodate the difference in width between the opening and the rung.

Step 8: Deploy!

Once assembled it's ready for a test-run.
Here's an short action movie of the ladder being deployed.

Step 9: Glow in the Dark

Just in case the power is out and it's nighttime, the eerie green glow should help you find your ladder in darkness and hopefully will help you escape faster.

Step 10: Be Safe

A rope ladder may save your life, however consider that this is only one possible way of escaping in case of an emergency. Whether for your apartment, house or office plan ahead and be prepared to look after yourself and your family in an emergency situation and always have a back-up plan in case your primary exit route is not available.

With my rope ladder all finished, I'm now ready for my first emergency.
Bring it, hippy neighbours!

Have you made your own rope ladder, or have an improvement based on the design shown here? Share your creations and ideas in the comments below.
Have fun!
you sir have given me a great (and much needed) Christmas gift to make..downside is although my mom I can see using this (a feisty 60 yo) her 225 llb bf I worry will need more strength. we don't like to use metal, Hawaii rusts metal in a week lol...fishermen use heavy rope, perhaps that? harder to work with tho. <br>Ty for a great 'ible !!
<p>Great 'ible! What are your thoughts on using metal pipes or possibly heavy duty PVC pipe for the rungs? </p><p>Also, with regard to the rope weight capacity, people need to remember that with a rope ladder, you're using 2 ropes! So the weight is distributed between the 2- it's not all on 1 rope! </p><p>Certain knots can affect the rope properties- have you done any research into which knots are optimal for this purpose, in terms of being secure &amp; strong? Maybe some mountain climbers can chime in here.</p>
did you really use a hand saw? a drop saw would have made it 1000% faster<br />
<strong>skimmo</strong>, they don't let me use the power tools at Home&nbsp;Depot anymore, not since the accident.<br />
Accident? <br>
i understand the joke but we don't have home depot in Australia, what is it?<br />
It's a huge store where you find all you need for your house/construction.<br /> Wood, window, rope, tool, ..<br /> <br />
Bunning's warehouse is like that, giant stores that sell every thing like that<br />
The other links were a huge help. Thanks a ton!<br>
Glad they helped; providing other methods to solve problems is always a good idea.<br /><br />Did you make a rope ladder, care to share pictures?
I work in a building where windows are huge, about 6 feet by 6 feet. I have a cabinet that would take only sticks that would be 3-foot long. How can I go around that problem? What kind of ladder would you suggest for me?
this way may work but i would double check with a climber/rigger.<br><br>i am not sure what they are called possibly expanding fixing bolts (the kind used to fix a hammock chair to the cealing) but if you used two heacvy duty ones of those on the outside under the sil and fix two carabeaners to the top of the ladder rope. then clip in and clinb down.yhere may be other ways but this way would probebly best suit the size window you have.<br><br>
They have some that have large hooks that actually hook onto the window sill (is that the right part? I need to brush up on my window anatomy...). These would also allow you to hook them onto balcony railings, water pipes, large herbivores, etc...<br><br>
where in the world did you find the GLOW- IN- THE- DARK rope???
When weight is an issue, nothing prevents the use of a 2X4, or even a 4X4, as the top brace. Likewise, if the ladder is meant for a single specific window, one could permanently mount pairs of L-braces(1 inverted) on each wall stud to be sure the top rung is placed, and remains, in an optimally secure position.
I just built this using the same overall dimensions/measurements that you recommended. I used poplar for the rungs. I weigh 150 lbs. Do you think poplar is &quot;hard&quot; enough? I opted to get a 2&quot; poplar top dowel to increase strength. Also, I was wondering if you could tell me how far from each end of the top dowel did you attach the rope? I assume that you also drilled a hole through the top dowel to attach the rope and knot it there. It looks from the schematic that you posted that you wrapped the rope around the top dowel. Any specifics that you could give me would be helpful. Thanks!
<strong>bulls-i</strong>,<br> <br> Hardwood is really just a term of identification for the type of tree, hardwoods have leaves and softwoods have needles (deciduous /coniferous). Poplar is deciduous&nbsp;(hardwood) yet is a softer type of wood (I know, it's confusing. Who came up with these names anyway?).<br> Poplar is probably a safe choice provided the dowel is of sufficient diameter. For your weight of 150lbs (and with 1.5&quot;+ dowels) you should be fine.<br> <br> <em>&quot;Also, I was wondering if you could tell me how far from each end of the top dowel did you attach the rope?&quot;</em><br> <a href="https://www.instructables.com/id/rope-ladder-glow-in-the-dark-version/step3/measure-twice/" rel="nofollow">step3</a> mentions I measured back 4&quot; from each end for my attachment points. Picture 2 in this step shows a measuring tape indicating the 4&quot; setback before and after (though it's probably more like 5.5&quot;).<br> The point to take from this portion is not to have the rope rubbing against the sill or frame of the window.<br> <br> <em>&quot;I assume that you also drilled a hole through the top dowel to attach the rope and knot it there. It looks from the schematic that you posted that you wrapped the rope around the top dowel.&quot;</em><br> Yes, and yes. I drilled throught the top dowel and knoted the rope, then wound the extra rope around the dowel towards the middle.<br> <br> Let me know if there's any other help I can provide. Care to share photos of your finished product?<br>
Thanks mikeasaurus, for your reply, sure I could take a few photos and share them. First, I have a question about rope. I purchased a twisted nylon rope using the same dimensions that you recommend. The working load limit on the package says 278 pounds, but was alarmed by all of the fine-print warnings on the label saying that 1) knots can cause the rope to lose up to 40% of its capacity, and 2) that it should not be used to support human weight, 3) that the rope can lose up to 1/3 of working loads under shock (stress, jerk). I have already assembled the entire ladder, but will use a different rope to reassemble if there is any danger of going splat. Any suggestions?
<br> <strong>bulls-i</strong>,<br> <br> Considering this project is intended for life-safety, it's important to use materials which are safe and also provide peace of mind.<br> <br> Unfortunately, I have no answers for your questions. The rope manufacturer feels that knotting rope and jerking motions can reduce the effectiveness of the product and should not be used for human weight. This is their insurance against lawsuits from doing projects just like this, and I can't say I disagree.<br> That being said, we've all tied knots and hung of rope before. With the right design, appropriate for the intended weight and use, this ladder works.<br> If I could offer a suggestion:&nbsp; braided nylon weave rope with an inner core is more suited for this type of application, not twisted nylon.<br> <br> <em>&quot;...[any] danger of going splat?&quot; </em><br> Yes.<br> I mention in this project: <p style="margin-left: 40.0px;"> If opening for top dowel is too large or dowel type/size or rope is inadequate you risk having your top dowel, ladder rungs or rope failing and exposing users and spectators to the possibility of injury or death.</p> If you are concerned about your design, beef it up!&nbsp; After all, it's <em>your</em> safety. Remember that if you go with a thicker diameter rope you'll need to beef up the rung diameters too if you plan to drill through them.<br> <br> I hope that helps, good luck!<br>
Glow in the dark rope may look cool but in less it is in a lighted area charging it is useless when you need it a night. Florescent rope or just white rope would suffice. Painting the rungs white would help for seeing them at night and give the person climbing down it at night in their skivvies confidence. I would make the ladder longer reaching the ground and adding a long rung at th end. The people first down can place their feet on it helping to stabilize it for the others and offering encouragement for others that it is safe to climb down. Plus if they slip your body will break their fall! If you have one everybody in the house should practice climbing down it during the day just to build confidence. They should all know how to deploy it even young children. Chem lights should be attached at both sides at top and bottom. They will define where the rope ladder is in the dark that some one has deployed it and the light at the bottom will guide them down. You would be surprised at how many people are afraid of the dark. Attach the chem lights with sewing thread at the bottom after the last person is down you have a instant light to do a head count and guide yourself to safety. Good instructable mate.
Thanks mikeasaurus, for your reply, sure I could take a few photos and share them. First, I have a question about rope. I purchased a twisted nylon rope using the same dimensions that you recommend. The working load limit on the package says 278 pounds, but was alarmed by all of the fine-print warnings on the label saying that 1) knots can cause the rope to lose up to 40% of its capacity, and 2) that it should not be used to support human weight, 3) that the rope can lose up to 1/3 of working loads under shock (stress, jerk). I have already assembled the entire ladder, but will use a different rope to reassemble if there is any danger of going splat. Any suggestions?
any idea what the weight limit for this particular design is?
<strong>Lorddrake</strong>,<br> <br> The weight limitations will vary drastically depending on type of rope used, type of dowel used, length of dowel used, method of rung attachment, and method of ladder bracing.<br> All these things considered, this design was easily able to accommodate my weight at 82kg (180lbs), and even my <strike>heavier </strike>friends' weight of 96kg (210lbs).<br> <br> Hope this helps. Good luck on your build, post some pics here when you're done!<br> <br>
I guess I will have to go for a thicker rope and a larger diameter dowel then since I am a little over 300lbs.
Oh my, your apartment sounds like a death trap, what with those hippies and wood stoves there. This instructable makes me wish that I had a 2 story house so I could climb in and out of my window as I please. It just wouldn't be the same if I were to climb down only about 4 feet to the ground...
LOL I know what you mean Sunbanks.....If I climbed out my window, I'd touch ground before getting all the way out the window :-)
Yeah, and where's the fun in that!? There is none!
Not unless you want to dive out head first......that sidewalk outside my window would make an interesting wake up call, for sure ;-)
Great instructable. Addresses what too few think about. Personally I'd tether the window anchor to the floor. With my luck in all the confusion it would slip away from me and end up on the ground. I surprised to read that there are wood framed apartment buildings that still have functioning wood burning fireplaces, scary stuff. Around here you would have to worry more about pot smoking rednecks than hippies conducting seances.<br />
thanks, <strong>static</strong>!<br /> <br /> Yup, safety is something we should all consider. Home, or otherwise.<br /> <br /> As for the fireplace, I was shocked to find out they allowed it in a wood framed building, and a heritage one too. Bylaws here prohibit it now, but there's a handful left.<br /> <br /> also <em>hippies conducting a seances</em> is a euphemism, Vancouver has some peculiarities. <br />
i made this thanks to u :D<br />
that's great <strong>xixperimentor</strong>!<br /> <br /> Did you make yours with glow rope, how high is your descent, have you had to use it yet?&nbsp; If you post a picture of your ladder in these comments you can earn yourself a digital patch.<br />
would it be worth using glow-in-the-dark paint to mark the rungs, rather than trying to find&nbsp; rungs in the dark on a swaying ladder?<br />
yes, <strong>lucifa365</strong>, glow in the dark paint for the rungs would work as the paint and the rope share a common principle. An upgrade to this version would be both the rungs and rope illuminated.<br />
&nbsp;Great instructable! Funny, I've been looking at rope ladders on instructables, and I had some questions: What type of rope did you use, and have you tested the ladder?<br /> <br /> Geekazoid / LukowStudios<br />
<strong>geekazoid,</strong> I used a 9.5mm (3/8&quot;) braided nylon rope with a phosphorescence nylon sheath. The rope was rated to hold 70kg(150lbs), since I was using two stringers that beefs up my rating some (though not exactly double, more than what I weigh so suitable enough for my needs).<br /> <br /> <em>Have I&nbsp;tested the ladder?</em> Yes, please see <a href="https://www.instructables.com/id/rope-ladder-glow-in-the-dark-version/" rel="nofollow">the title shot</a> showing my friend passing through the window.<br /> <br />
&nbsp;Thanks, missed that shot!<br /> <br /> Geekazoid<br />
Did the Home Depot people look at you funny when you were taking photos in the store? <br />
The Home Depot people <em>always</em> look at me funny. I'd like to think that my relationship with them has progressed some as the years pass, the &quot;don't ask, don't tell&quot; policy seems to keep the uneasy alliance.<br />
Yep, all hardware store people treat me the same way. Most of the hardware store workers in my area have learned to not even bother asking what I'm making. <br /> <br /> Huh, and the old ladies at the fabric stores too... they're especially condescending to non-female, anti-quilt sewing-types. <br />
A:&nbsp; How do I determine the diameter of the rope and rung prior to buying material?<br /> <br /> B:&nbsp; How do I keep the knots all nice and even, distance-wise?<br /> <br /> Thanks
<strong>hardlec,</strong><br /> <br /> A: Almost all rope has a safe operating weight printed somewhere on the packaging (or sticker if you buy bulk). Make sure you find that weight limit and see if it jives with what you want to do. The weight may be in lbs(pounds), kgs(kilograms), or kN(kilonewtons), if the rope doesn't have a safety rating then it's not suitable.<br /> <br /> Without resorting to a formula to discover the rung diameter based on type of material, best to test one rung diameter against a static hanging load to determine if it meets your weight. When in doubt always default to a thicker diameter to be safe. PM me if you want more details.<br /> <br /> B: The knots were the trickiest part of this build. As shown in&nbsp; <a href="https://www.instructables.com/id/rope-ladder-glow-in-the-dark-version/step6/measuring-the-knot-frequency/" rel="nofollow">Step 6</a> and <a href="https://www.instructables.com/id/rope-ladder-glow-in-the-dark-version/step7/assembly/" rel="nofollow">Step 7</a> start from the bottom of the ladder and work your way up to the top dowel. Frequently stop and measure your knots to ensure they are the correct distance apart. Consider that when the ladder is used for the first time the knots will tighten which is bound to throw some spacing off. <br /> Go slow, and make sure you measure the distance as you are tying the knots.<br /> <br /> I&nbsp;hope this answers your question, good luck!<br /> <br />
haha, love it! great idea<br />
I could only be more impressed with a fan-descender, I think. Quality stuff.<br /> <br /> L<br />
&nbsp;Just be sure to store the ladder near a lamp or light source so it will always be glowing, ready for use.
Wow, this is a really great idea, superb implementation. I like it!<br /> Props to you!<br />
very nice! looks strong and stable.<br />

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