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This was designed to attach to a stepper motor, but you could drive it with a normal DC motor which would remove the need for a microcontroller.Running 24/7 would depend on how fast you are running it, the quality of your 3d print, and the stamina of your motor. As long as it isn't something vital, I don't see a problem with constant operation, however this pump design has a lot of hose wear and the hose will eventually fail.
It is very common for stepper motors to get hot. Many 3d printer and CNC mill designs include heatsinks and fans on each stepper motor, and in robust designs a temperature sensor is added to each stepper to allow the control circuits to shut down before the motor is damaged.The ULN2003 is pretty much just an amperage amplifier that steps up the Arduino's power signal to be enough for the motor. Specialized stepper motor drivers have different amperage settings for 'moving' and 'holding' states, which can drastically lower heat and power usage. They are a bit more expensive, though.With that all said, the typical use for this stepper motor does not have a dedicated fan, and generally no temperature based shut-off. It is probably not getting too hot for its design, but if you are concerned, adding a 40mm fan ( like this one: http://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/sunon-fans/HA40101V4-000U-999/259-1616-ND/3694183 ) wouldn't hurt.
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