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With 7 VDC max input, the 3.3 V regulator will have about 3 watts at 1 Amp. Generally the TO-220 package is only good for 2 W to 2.5 W. if you limit the output current to about 0.6 Amps then you don't need any heat sinks. I suppose lost loads are lower than that.
Hi abhishek123, this looks like a great project. The new schematics answer a lot of questions, however, I am still not clear what is AC1 and AC2. Are these the two wires coming out of the AC in the wall? if so then are they ACLine and Neutral? if not then what are they? (I don't know how the wiring is for 230 VAC)sorry to bother you about this as I am trying to understand so that I can imitate what you did. (Imitation is the greatest form of flattery :). ).
Thanks. After viewing the video i understand that AC1 and AC2 are the two mains wires coming from the wall plug.
sorry i made an error above so i am correcting it with a quote from 'Journal of Electrical Engineering'"Normally air medium is widely use as aninsulating medium in different electrical power equipment asits breakdown strength is 30 kV/cm"
Thanks for sharing. this is an excellent idea and it is accurate enough for my needs
if i need to increase accuracy i can add an x10 or even a 100x op-amp powered from the 5V.there are many ways to skin a cat and this approach is very simple. and obviously one does not need two DVM's. take one reading and then the other. If as one of the readers was talking about measuring closed relay contact resistance in that case one needs to measure in the micro ohms range. i want to measure the resistance between two Nickle strips for spot welding. i was making assumptions about their contact resistance and did not know what is needed to design my battery terminal spot welder.
another point of observation. when making very low ohm measurements where a high current is passed thru the low value resistor a Kelvin connection is necessary i.e. two wires at each terminal; one pair for the high current and the other for the voltage measurement at the point of contact, so this now becomes a more elaborate instrument and is not simple anymore. again thanks for sharing this idea.
I did a search and found that if epoxy is used instead of just paint particles it has a dielectric strength of 1200V/mil using a 10 mil coating. so a 3-5 mil coating would be safe for about 500 Volts. it works up to 150C which is also plenty.
i just used 120V as an example.i designed a transformer with 30 turns on the primary at 240V which is 8 V/Turn. the wires were made of copper strip. the secondary was for 200 amps also copper strip. i needed to isolate the windings from each other and tried a few layers of paint which did not work. eventually i used mylar tape and it worked. That crazy project of mine was eventually installed in an electric vehicle built for the Marines. I did not know about powder coating when I did it in 1995. it went into production and by now i dont know how many hundreds of this crazy idea were made. so u dont have to worry about anything. None of them ever failed.
by the way, thanks for the link. it says that epoxy powder coating is a great:A typical high potential electrical test can be performed if requested, scanning all surfaces at twice the operating voltage plus 1kV. so i suppose this answers my question.
yeah, thats what i thought.... very heavy.
Cool looking table. Thanks for sharing.how much does it weigh?
Great idea! thanks for sharing. how hard is the coating? does it scratch easily? is the coating electrically insulating i.e. can it withstand 120VAC? If so I have a use for it.
Cuts of Meat
Thanks for sharing.
very nice and innovative.
how did you thread the two wires thru the hole? that's another feat!
cool idea and also funny that the cap blew up after a few weeks. what was the voltage across the cap?
how did you deduce all this?
I am an power electronics engineer and have observed that actually this new generation can do a whole lot of things better, more accurately and more efficiently that we ever did. Fortunately for me I "keep up with the times" so I am not out of the loop.
Mind you i have not done these experiments so i am just guessing at the values i am mentioning. I am confused. Why 8 watts? what is the voltage across the heater pins on the good side? at 8 watts you can apply V^2 = 200x8 = 1600; so V=40 Volts across the filament. i would think the actual applied filament voltage from the electronic ballast is no more than 4-6 Volts so a much lower wattage resistor could be used. and also is the resonant inductor really 1.3mH? with 60KHz operation i would think it is very much lower. how much is the old type inductive ballast?
dont waste your money, time or energy on that. it is dead! you should first check it out and see if there is anything worth salvaging apart from the mechanical structure. after all the way u described it, was it went off like a sparkler on the 4th of July. so many little parts to replace. and I am sure since it was made for 12 VDC, there is no rectifier. so any parts in the 120 VAC stream would be fried. dont keep it. throw it away. it will take hours of ur time to replace the parts. from the pictures it looks like 60 LED's or maybe more.
im not familiar with the term. what does AFAIK mean? thanks
LOL! u really made me laugh. yeah that too. i was commenting about what he learnt in military school and ure commenting about the lesson he learnt from his mistake. good and very true! thanks for the laugh for the day :))
yep! that is priced at $20. too bad and also you are correct, even though they say it is a 12V bulb they should not be selling it with an Edison base. where on earth do they use that kind of base for 12V?
No Larry, you learned that u cannot put a 12V bulb into a 120V socket.
or even a diode in the right direction. but anyway, one jumper instead of an LED will not affect anything. there are probably 50 to 100 LED and jumpering one is not a significant change in current.
Great work. thanks for sharingas seamster said. i got a cutting board like this as a present and just kept it as a decoration.
if a prisoner wants a weapon he will make one. you are not the first to think of that! they will come up with the craziest things. TV and movies also give them ideas.
Thanks for sharing!
Great idea! It gave me an idea. I had a letter opener and i mis placed it. i have some Brazilian Walnut which is a very hard wood and i have used some of it to make various things. A letter opener would be a great use for some of it.
could you use CD's instead of HDD? where are you getting all the old hard drives from?
First off... $400 to replace a piece of 2'x3' is a complete rip-off. you can cut out the defective parts with a saw and replace it with fresh waterproof plywood. just place the 4x8 plywood sheet (from your local lumber yard) on the floor and cut around it. Rip out of dig out the old defective layer and place the new sheet in its place then do the next one. the waterproof plywood may not be cheap but will certainly cost less than $400.for the whole area
you are missing the duty cycle. short pulses and long off time. so average power is much lower
oh yeah, I just read what he wrote about "dont short the output of the boost converter" another thing my modification will allow you to do is to short the output without blowing up the converter.... LOL.
I actually checked for the legal maximum brightness of car headlights. neither in Canada nor in California are there any limits. looks like 55 Watts is the biggest manufactured lights on the road but I am sure there are those who make their own and use them. especially when off-roading, marine or RV types.
yeah the schematic is a mess but if u can spot the errors then u should also be able to fix them for yourself. no biggie !!!
infrared is not visible light. what will you do with it? there are infrared LED's but they are not "high brightness" because most of the high brightness are made in either red or green or white. if u can get the high brightness infrared LED's then just use them like this guy has made his white LED's.
maybe you showed it to one of your friends or someone saw your drawing. they stole your design. too bad. some of my own designs were stolen and patented by co-workers of mine. but that's life.
very cool design. elegant and pretty.
COOOOLLLLL IDEA. thanks for sharing.
I made a drill bit from a 3/8" foot longthreaded rod I had bought from Home Depot. Just hammer the end of the rodflat and then file it to shape like a wood drill bit and make sure your sharpedges are facing the right direction. Works great. You can usealmost any diameter as long as you can hammer the tip flat and shape it. HD also carries 3 foot long rods of various diameters.I don’t know enough about heat hardening so if itis possible maybe the tip can also be hardened so it does not wear out too soon.
is that for a parts kit or is it for the plans? $5.76 is pretty good for avoiding all the hard work.
Not really a good option. you are handling the cheese all over and that's quite unhygienic Plus what he has done looks very nice and adds flair when you have guests.
Looks SOLID. I'm sure it will not come down in an earthquake (I live in California). Looks like you had a lot of wood and wanted to use all of it. Were you practicing so you can work on Trumps plan to repair the Nations Infrastructure, like Bridges, etc.? I have a nice large corner in my "office" and I think that is a good way to go. I was planning on doing that when I moved into the house but got sidetracked by "other stuff". Thanks for sharing.
thanks for sharing. great idea!! we old folks have forgotten what we knew when we were kids. made whistles with leaves and tin can tops too. thanks for reminding me of my younger days. everything was fun.
thanks for sharing. that was a huge amount of work. is there a storage hole in the center for the pepper corns or do u put them into the metal top part when ure ready to grind?
Welding Tools and Materials
Welcome to Welding
wow! really great project although it is very expensive in terms of cost of materials. I suppose it may be possible to make it in wood for a little lower cost. but thanks for sharing this wonderful idea.
It is a beautiful chair but is it comfortable to sit on for any prolonged time? I would think that with the 1" spaces between the slats it would feel uncomfortable after a while.
if I was building that now, I think I would stop at step 6. any further would mean a life time of hard work
wow that's a cool exercise machine. Did your wife get a surprise when she tried to walk in the bedroom door and found it was blocked by the machine :)) I guess it is the closet door. there are 3 men in the pictures. which one is you? the one with the bald patch or the guy doing the pull-ups? I made one at work once and everyone got a chance to use it. it was not as Impressive as this one. we did pull ups and standing push ups (I don't know what they call it, like the guy lifting himself on the bars) thanks for sharing.
wonderful job. the idea of burning the wood sounds great. awesome gift thanks for sharing.
very nice, but u show it lighted with an LED lamp which costs $28 plus shipping. windows do not have sunlight for more than a couple of hours a day so one needs the lamp to get any kind of growth indoors. this looks like click bait to me. why do people do this game? I don't know how the Instructables works. do u get something for every click that u get?
I am familiar with the voltage regulator he used in this ible. it puts out DC with a lot of filtering so it is not pulsing (Look at the first pic and u will see the filter cap mounted near the transistor or go to ebay and see close up pics of it) . also he is using a pot to adjust the light to whatever brightness he needs so there is nothing wrong with this.apart from that at 180KHz neither ur eyes nor your camera will see the blinking.LED's require current control for brightness adjustment but since the strip already has a resistor for each set of 3 series LED's they form a crude current source which is again ok for this to work.The fact that he has made it so cheap, and is sharing the idea with us is very generous of him. no matter if it is a competition or not.The power supply AC ...see more »I am familiar with the voltage regulator he used in this ible. it puts out DC with a lot of filtering so it is not pulsing (Look at the first pic and u will see the filter cap mounted near the transistor or go to ebay and see close up pics of it) . also he is using a pot to adjust the light to whatever brightness he needs so there is nothing wrong with this.apart from that at 180KHz neither ur eyes nor your camera will see the blinking.LED's require current control for brightness adjustment but since the strip already has a resistor for each set of 3 series LED's they form a crude current source which is again ok for this to work.The fact that he has made it so cheap, and is sharing the idea with us is very generous of him. no matter if it is a competition or not.The power supply AC to 12VDC to power the buck regulators can be bought for about $6 each from dx.com or ebayThanks for sharing.
yes I also saw the flicker on the wall. it may be from this LED light. perhaps his power supply is doing it because the flicker is at a very low frequency (after all we can see it). it may be his DC-DC or even his AC-DC power supply is unable to handle the load so it is oscillating
I looked at the first picture and thought: Wow, it is a solid heavy piece of lumber, and then the first words I read in the comments were:"Please be careful when installing a wooden mantle." my first thought was if that thing fell on your foot then waaaaaaaaaaaaaa!!!!!!!!!!then I started reading the instructible and it is hollow. fooled me. very good job..
Ok I missed it. in the text you mentioned a 220 Ohm load resistor for the CT making the amp gain no more than x4.5. or max current of 0.303 Amps with your values. how does this work? what were you intending to measure with this instrument? very small currents. perhaps I am missing something? I thought also that the Arduino ADC input is limited to 5 Volts but I may be wrong, cos I don't know anything about it.
ac couple 50 Hz?
ahhhh...:) thanks. 100 mA explains it. I usually think in terms of 20 to 1000 Amps and forgot that there is another world out there. I was thinking of 10 Amps in the CT and got wayyyy out of the ball park.
nice project. thanks for sharing also all the calcs and files.Its a lot of work but a good project.the following is just suggestions and not intended to find fault with what you did:why did you use a gain of 150? seems very high. the current transformer spec sheet shows the linear range to be 10 Amps and a suggested load resistor of 50 Ohms. Most home appliances will use that full range. what was the load resistor you used for the CT?Since ur amplifier uses +/- 12 Volts as the DC Buss its output linear range is restricted to approximately 10 Volts. if you used the 50 Ohms resistor then your amp gain has to be no more than 1000/50 = 20. a lower value resistor allows u to use a larger amp gain but that reduces the accuracy of the CT because the wire resistance of the CT becomes a majo...see more »nice project. thanks for sharing also all the calcs and files.Its a lot of work but a good project.the following is just suggestions and not intended to find fault with what you did:why did you use a gain of 150? seems very high. the current transformer spec sheet shows the linear range to be 10 Amps and a suggested load resistor of 50 Ohms. Most home appliances will use that full range. what was the load resistor you used for the CT?Since ur amplifier uses +/- 12 Volts as the DC Buss its output linear range is restricted to approximately 10 Volts. if you used the 50 Ohms resistor then your amp gain has to be no more than 1000/50 = 20. a lower value resistor allows u to use a larger amp gain but that reduces the accuracy of the CT because the wire resistance of the CT becomes a major factor.So what resistor did you use?Also instead of a half wave rectification if you used full wave rectification it could help with accuracy and calibration and since you are measuring 50Hz then filtering for 50 Hz on the output would also help. also I don't see a bleeder resistor across the output cap so it becomes a peak detector. perhaps the Arduino input may load it down somewhat. no matter what I have said, I think this is a pretty good project
Great idea. Not new but a good reminder on KISS. thanks for sharing
fantastic but can u build it with those tiny components? not really practical at 0201. perhaps for machine placed projects.
what is the voltage of fuel cells?
i made one of these with germanium transistors 50 years ago using a very low voltage. also made one with Silicon.. NPN+PNP. it had a very long time constant. it was about 15 to 20 minutes before we heard a click. the inductor needs to saturate in this design same as the regular "joule thief" it is really just a simple relaxation oscillator
where did u buy the veneer? I have an antique table with a veneer top that has been damaged and i want to give it a new face.
are the two +12V outputs separately regulated? are they separately regulated from the +5V? somehow i had the impression that there is only one output that is regulated (possibly the high current +5V output)and the rest are just followers except for the 3.3V output. can anyone please comment on my question? i understand power supplies but am not familiar with those in the pc's. also i thought they were all designed as flyback configuration. if so then should one not have at least a minimum load on one output?
sticking a 1Meg Ohm resistor at the comp pin and adding a note that using a different value may be ok.... no it is not ok! you already knew that it did not work but u went ahead and published it. why did u do this? for the contest?
MartinD; I'm sorry for being so harsh in my comment. I thought u were just posting to win the contest. Now as for Loop Comp... No u do not have any and perhaps u should read a little about what it is and what it means. then you will know that I am saying is the truth and not trying to be mean to you. it is much too involved to explain online like this. if it was simple I would try. and it has nothing to do with the TL494. it has to do with the fact that u have an LC filter at the output and u are feeding back to the controller (TL494 or any other). an LC filter is a 2 pole filter and one pole needs to be cancelled and you don't have it anywhere in ur schematic. the op-amps, etc. that u mention do not make compensation. what u have there are merely sensors and they only close ...see more »MartinD; I'm sorry for being so harsh in my comment. I thought u were just posting to win the contest. Now as for Loop Comp... No u do not have any and perhaps u should read a little about what it is and what it means. then you will know that I am saying is the truth and not trying to be mean to you. it is much too involved to explain online like this. if it was simple I would try. and it has nothing to do with the TL494. it has to do with the fact that u have an LC filter at the output and u are feeding back to the controller (TL494 or any other). an LC filter is a 2 pole filter and one pole needs to be cancelled and you don't have it anywhere in ur schematic. the op-amps, etc. that u mention do not make compensation. what u have there are merely sensors and they only close the feedback loop without the Loop Comp.The schematic in the datasheet is incomplete in that they do not show the Loop Comp components. they only mention it when they are suggesting a layout. it was written in 1983 and at that time loop comp was not very well understood by a lot of engineers so it was omitted from the schematic in the datasheet. if u look at some modern day datasheets or app notes you should see the components and design notes of how to do it.
it is a power supply. you supply the input power and it supplies regulated voltage at a different voltage based upon the command that you give it, even if your input power supply voltage changes. he has shown three different outputs relative to the input voltage. one gives a higher output another makes a lower voltage and the third gives a negative voltage. The schematic does not show where the input commands come from. Also he does not show the Arduino code. it looks like a good design but i have not analyzed the closed loop control so who knows?
Now all u need to add is a high voltage source and zap the intruder
WOW!!! again WOW!!!! very nice
Very nice. Congratulations.
Meat Cooking Basics
kasra_sa. thanks for sharing such a good instructible. very good info. Thin wires are only needed because it is difficult to bend thick wires when winding. Electrically it is only needed when running at 20KHz or greater and BLDC only runs below 5KHz.
cooool !!!!!! thanks for sharing
Conclusion & Going Further
Welcome to Arduino
is there a way to make slower burning fuel?
i was obviously just kidding about going back to school.
he means that if there is a short from 230V to the pir sensor. the power supply is a commercial product with Isolation and beyond that there is only low voltage so I don't see how that can happen.
oh by the way now taking JodyF's "advice". I think it is time for you to go back to college and get your engineering degree. I am an electrical engineer and also am a certified electrician and have designed and built dozens of high power and high voltage electrical and power electronics projects. I understand what he is talking about. he is right about safety, however since the project is already in a safe place and out of reach, there is no need to off the deep end.
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