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10Instructables43,734Views45CommentsItalyJoined February 13th, 2011

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  • Rob Cai's entry Simple Grafting Without Special Tools is a finalist in the Gardening Contest 2017 contest 4 days ago
  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Games 4-in-13 weeks ago
    Arduino VGA Games 4-in-1

    Tetris is here. Now it should work.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Tetris With Arduino Uno3 weeks ago
  • Rob Cai made the instructable Arduino VGA Game Console1 month ago
    Arduino VGA Game Console

    Here it is the second version with some intermediate step.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Games 4-in-11 month ago
    Arduino VGA Games 4-in-1

    Yes sure! I did a newer instructable to do that! see here.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Etch-a-Sketch With Arduino Uno1 month ago
    VGA Etch-a-Sketch With Arduino Uno

    Yes defnitively. For instance the Arduino Due has its own VGA library, see this blog afor instance or the following link https://stimmer.github.io/DueVGA/

    Dear josephchrzempiec, so far it seems that the VGAx library works fine only for Arduno IDE 1.6.4, while it is not fully compatible with elder or newer versions.You can download any old version here. You can install many different versions on your PC. You can, for instance, just download the ".zip" file (click on "windows" instead of "windows installer") and uncompress it where you like. Then copy the VGAx libraries in the libraries folder and just run the "Arduino.exe" file.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Etch-a-Sketch With Arduino Uno1 month ago
    VGA Etch-a-Sketch With Arduino Uno

    Hi josephchrzempiec, sure you can! For a very detailed explanation about the possible color combination, see this link in the VGAx page on GitHub. You can see the color behaviour in this video I did a couple of years ago.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Game Console2 months ago
    Arduino VGA Game Console

    It is possible but the conversion is not straight forward, many commands have a slighly different sintax. I already did it for other games. You can find among my other Instructables Tetris in both versions (VGAx and TVout). Here in #6 you can find Bomber in TVout version.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Game Console2 months ago
    Arduino VGA Game Console

    Dear krummrey, the real bottle-neck for these games is the Arduino lack of SRAM. The AVR microcontroller has only 2048 bytes available to store and manipulate the variables, and the VGAx library stores the screen variables in a 120x60 pixels framebuffer where each pixel needs 2 bits (4 colors), for a total of 1800 bytes. This means that there are only 248 bytes left for the sketch variables. Furthermore, in my experience, one should leave at least 100 bytes free to avoid instabilities. Anybody surely can create more games but most likely they cannot join them in a single sketch.By the way simple sounds effect are already included! Just connect a piezo speaker to pin A0.

    Dear krummrey, the real bottle-neck for these games is the Arduino lack of SRAM. The AVR microcontroller has only 2048 bytes available to store and manipulate the variables, and the VGAx library stores the screen variables in a 120x60 pixels framebuffer where each pixel needs 2 bits (4 colors), for a total of 1800 bytes. This means that there are only 248 bytes left for the sketch variables. Furthermore, in my experience, one should leave at least 100 bytes free to avoid instabilities. Anybody surely can create more games but most likely they cannot join them in a single sketch. By the way simple sounds effect are already included! Just connect a piezo speaker to pin A0.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Simple Grafting Without Special Tools2 months ago
    Simple Grafting Without Special Tools

    Dear anjoze, thank you for the suggestion. I like the idea of the black tape because it prevents the formation of green micro-algae in contact with the cut. anyway this is just a feeling, I do not really know if transparent or black plastic really make a difference.

    Dear Professor-Mousedude, thank you for the comment. I saw your instructable about grafting and it is awsome and very well detailed, I can't help but vote it in the gardening contest!

    Dear beer20, yes you can graft a single branch, but still the best is to use a young and energetic (vertical) one! For instance you can use a newborn branch you get after one year having pruned the tree. You have then many new branches that you need to trim and finally you can graft the ones left. If you leave many original branches, thay get the vast majority of the energy of the tree and your grafting will remain small and week, assuming that it survies at all.

    Thank you for the comment! that's could be a cool idea for a new kind of forniture! Grafting different variety of tree were the main difference is just the wood color, with the target of making uniqe bi-color (or more) wood board! :-)

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  • Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Game Console's weekly stats: 2 months ago
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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Pong With Arduino Uno2 months ago
    VGA Pong With Arduino Uno

    Dear Pruthvi_96, which Arduino IDE do you have? it seems that the VGAx library is fully compatible with IDE 1.6.4

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Games 4-in-13 months ago
    Arduino VGA Games 4-in-1

    Ok, then for B&W you can use the TVout library. My games can be converted for that but the conversion is not straight forward, many commands have a slighly different sintax. I did it (for instance) for tetris. You can find both versions here, among my other instructables.

    Yep! See my reply above, to DYI Circuits

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Games 4-in-13 months ago
    Arduino VGA Games 4-in-1

    Dear fredlb, thank you for the comment, I did not realize before that the latest Arduino software version (IDE 1.8.1) is not compatible. About the picture, if you decide to build a game consolle, such as the one below, if you like you can show it here with a picture.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Games 4-in-13 months ago
    Arduino VGA Games 4-in-1

    dear fredlb, for my curiosity, which version where you using before? A picture will be very appreciated!

    Do you mean "composite video"? In my understanding having a composite color video output (RGB) for the Arduino exceeds its capabilities.

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Etch-a-Sketch with Arduino Uno5 months ago
    VGA Etch-a-Sketch with Arduino Uno

    Dear Jani ChristofferN, thank you very much to use my project for teaching, it is an honour. I had a similar "fuzzy" behaviour at the very beginning of the VGAx libraries tests, and the reason was that I used a not up-to-date Arduino software (or "IDE"). I have actually installed the version 1.6.4, but I think the latest one should work as well. Which version are you using? Let me know if this solves the problem.

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  • Rob Cai's instructable Arduino VGA Games 4-in-1's weekly stats: 5 months ago
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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Pong with Arduino Uno6 months ago
    VGA Pong with Arduino Uno

    well, it is not so simple. If you join two games in the same sketch (each one with its own variables), the Arduino memory is occupied from the whole variables as soon as they are defined, even if you do not really use the ones for the first game when you play to game two. The good news is that many variables can be used for one game or the other, you just need to assign theme one value or another, and this save space. I have a working sketch now where one can choose between pong or breakout, and I plan to add more, but it will take time.

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  • Rob Cai's instructable VGA Etch-a-Sketch with Arduino Uno's weekly stats: 6 months ago
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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Pong with Arduino Uno6 months ago
    VGA Pong with Arduino Uno

    Thank you for the compliment! I think it is not possible, almost each game uses all the available memory for the variables and simply putting two or more games together would overtake the 100% of it. But it would be possible to built a single "consolle" with four buttons and two wheels compatible with all the games, one has just to re-map buttons an potenziometers in the code. I plan to do that as soon as I have time, may be during the Christmas holidays. You just need then to upload the code in the same device.

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  • Rob Cai's instructable VGA Bomber With Arduino Uno's weekly stats: 6 months ago
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  • Rob Cai's instructable Arduino Tetris TVout's weekly stats: 7 months ago
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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Pong with Arduino Uno7 months ago
    VGA Pong with Arduino Uno

    yes, the resistors are required as well.

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  • Rob Cai's instructable VGA Breakout with Arduino Uno's weekly stats: 8 months ago
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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Pong with Arduino Uno8 months ago
    VGA Pong with Arduino Uno

    Dear Pladask, for question 1: the easiest way should be to change in void processInputs() { buttonOneStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_ONE_PIN); buttonTwoStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_TWO_PIN); wheelOnePosition = analogRead(WHEEL_ONE_PIN); wheelTwoPosition = analogRead(WHEEL_TWO_PIN); buttonStatus = buttonOneStatus || buttonTwoStatus; }to void processInputs() { buttonOneStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_ONE_PIN); buttonTwoStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_TWO_PIN); wheelOnePosition = 1023 - analogRead(WHEEL_ONE_PIN); wheelTwoPosition = analogRead(WHEEL_TWO_PIN); buttonStatus = buttonOneStatus || buttonTwoStatus; }I cannot test it at the moment, let me know if it works. For question 2 I have no answer. One of the main issues with the VGAx libraries is to center the picture, the best way is to ...see more »Dear Pladask, for question 1: the easiest way should be to change in void processInputs() { buttonOneStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_ONE_PIN); buttonTwoStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_TWO_PIN); wheelOnePosition = analogRead(WHEEL_ONE_PIN); wheelTwoPosition = analogRead(WHEEL_TWO_PIN); buttonStatus = buttonOneStatus || buttonTwoStatus; }to void processInputs() { buttonOneStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_ONE_PIN); buttonTwoStatus = digitalRead(BUTTON_TWO_PIN); wheelOnePosition = 1023 - analogRead(WHEEL_ONE_PIN); wheelTwoPosition = analogRead(WHEEL_TWO_PIN); buttonStatus = buttonOneStatus || buttonTwoStatus; }I cannot test it at the moment, let me know if it works. For question 2 I have no answer. One of the main issues with the VGAx libraries is to center the picture, the best way is to use the center feature of the monitor, when available. The resolution (120 x 60 pixels) is more or less the maximum for the Arduino Uno capabilities, and it is not possible to use all the monitor surface. The yellow borders are the maximum extension available. When you finish your project I would really appreciate if you can publish here a picture!

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  • Rob Cai commented on Rob Cai's instructable VGA Tetris with Arduino Uno12 months ago
    VGA Tetris with Arduino Uno

    After a looong time, I have finally added the sound. Please find the latest version in the text above. The speaker has to be connected to the analog pin A0.

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