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For a setup that size, you'll need to either use 2 peltier cells in series to increase the voltage, or you need to use a dc step-up converter to go from the approximately 3 volts to the 5 volts needed for USB charging. These step up converters can be found on Amazon for a couple of dollars, or cheaper on ebay if you want to wait for shipping from overseas. This could then be used to charge your phone directly, depending upon the milliamps produced it might be a slow charge for the phone. You might consider using a step-up converter, connected then to either a commercially available USB chargeable battery bank for recharging cell phones, or make your own battery bank charging system for the phone. Good instructable, great work, and good luck!
The actual name for this device is a Mutoscope. Nice work. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutoscope