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Found this: https://www.oemheaters.com/t-immersion-wattage.asp...Might be useful for calculating the wattage necessary for a warming a given amount of water.
Yeah, the 110V requirement on mine isn't great. I currently run a 200 ft all-weather extension cable from my garage to my coop just to power the heat for the water (not ideal.) Additionally, mine has a built in thermostat so that negates any automation with a Pi.I guess 12V @ 400mA seems pretty safe if there is a short (may tickle the chickens a bit.) Do you think the 5 watts: P = I (0.4) x V (12) of heat is enough for a north-eastern climate? My temps can get as low as -15F. How low have you tested yours at?
Oh, sorry I should have specified; I don't submerge it. That heat-wire is designed for wrapping around pipes not inside them:https://www.heatersplus.com/images/nuheat%20plug-in%20drawing.jpg I currently just have it wrapped around my 10 gal bucket a bunch of times and then covered in duct tape. I'll probably add some insulation too, but haven't gotten around to it.
Cool project! I have a similar setup, but went with an external heater (I was afraid of having a heating element IN the water in case of a short)https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B0006VAMRE/ref=o...However, I had freezing problems with the vertical-style water nipples at around 20 F, so I opted for the horizontal style which seem to have lower freezing temps (hasn't gotten that cold in a while to see how low it can go)https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00JXUAD0K/ref=o...If I still have freezing problems in the next couple months I'll have to go your route and go to in-water heaters.
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