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  • How to Make a Professional Printed Circuit Board: the Complete Guide

    I use Protel 1.61 Autotrax for DOS to design PCBS. Then print on a transparency x 2 with a laser printer, I find two transparencies are enough aligned together, also use the highest resolution available during the process. I have built a UV light box and use that, also developing is the same as you do. I have a tank I keep ferric chloride in with fish tank air bubble agitator and tank heater. When it is etched, I drill with 0.62mm for the ic sockets .7mm for everything else unless the component requires larger holes. I use a PROXXON TBM220 mini drill press and the drills are PCB carbide bits, I have a selection from .5mm to 3mm going up in .1mm steps. I find it is useful to keep the resist on till you finish drilling then as you do take it off with acetone and scrub the board wit...

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    I use Protel 1.61 Autotrax for DOS to design PCBS. Then print on a transparency x 2 with a laser printer, I find two transparencies are enough aligned together, also use the highest resolution available during the process. I have built a UV light box and use that, also developing is the same as you do. I have a tank I keep ferric chloride in with fish tank air bubble agitator and tank heater. When it is etched, I drill with 0.62mm for the ic sockets .7mm for everything else unless the component requires larger holes. I use a PROXXON TBM220 mini drill press and the drills are PCB carbide bits, I have a selection from .5mm to 3mm going up in .1mm steps. I find it is useful to keep the resist on till you finish drilling then as you do take it off with acetone and scrub the board with a stainless steel scouring pad. Once the board is dry I brush the board with a mixture of Rosin flux and isopropyl alcohol , about 30%. This protects the board and makes it easier to solder. When the board is populated, all flux is taken off with 100% isopropyl and replaced with a PCB protection coating. I will try the tinning from Element 14 on my next project, but the rosin flux is cheap, the same as used lubrication in bowing a string instrument like a violin. Regards Robert Scott

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  • Make 4 Useful Things From 9V Dead Battery

    In Australia now the nominal mains supply is 230V and up to 250V 50 Htz . In the US it's 117V nominally at 60 htz. In Europe it is 220V nominally at 50 Htz.

    Yes, I wasn't tricked by anyone just a what if in my own head, but my most unfortunate experience was when I first started in radio in 1962 with a radio B battery of 90V. Lucky I wasn't silly enough to put that on my tongue but two wet fingers were enough. I commenced an apprenticeship in electrical and radio trades in 1965 and found out 240 & 415V shocks were much much worse. You learn to respect electricity otherwise you don't last long on this earth working with electricity, 30mA through the heart are the requirements for ventricular fibrillation followed closely by a trip through the door of no return.

    One would think it was a 117V mains and not 240V otherwise you may not be telling us this story.

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