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HI,Very niceI have some questions regarding the chemicals used in the method, first of all can you in simple words :D explain the need of every componentFor copper sulfate it is easy and obvious but for the other 2 components, I have no idea!Also is there any alternatives for the Calcium hypophosphite ?I am not expert in chemistry nor even beginner, my knowledge is extremely primitive and I barely know that heating accelerate reactions, nothing more :lol Thanks
Industrial-level quality PCB through hole plating
If you're using dry film, there is no problem - it can be used for tenting holes. But you must take care with lamination - too high temperature or pressure will damage the dry film around holes (I turn the laminator on for ~20-30s, then wait 20s and then insert the pcb, the temperature of rolls is something like 60C). Recommended temperature is 100C, but it depends of the pressure which cannot be adjusted in my case, and 100C damage my dry film.
Hi Appreciate this great article !!having read the article and all the comments , i have manged to plate my vias and holes. I am to apply the dry film photo resist film over the copper clad now and would later expose and develop it. My problem is :-How would i protect the PTH from etching away
Chemical composition of the solution, at the best of my (limited) knowledge is the ammonia complex of copper hypophosphite. Both reactions (at 125 and at 175 degrees) are thermolysis of this complex with the release of copper nanoparticles. During first phase most of the copper is released while second phase is reflow during which copper nanoparticles are joined together. I believe that operational window for both reactions +- 10-15 degrees. Note that I'm not a chemist and here I just repeating what (and how) I did get from papers and from discussions with chemists. So, take this information with care.
Hello, I realized the solution, I ask myself the following questions.What is the chemical composition of the solution?What is the reaction to 125 ° C?What is the reaction to 175 ° C?is there a safety sheet?
Hi Eric. Thanks for the above. I'm keen to follow your instructions and wondering if you could share what quantities of the chemicals you are uesing?
Hi ericmitcDo I understand that I can replace the Calcium Hypophosphite with Sodium Hypophosphite and do the rest as per the recipe and it will work? What do you mean with 4/3 of amount of Copper Sulfate of you Sodium Hyp? I don't understand?I really hope this would work I can not get hold of the Calcium Hypophosphite at all here in South Africa? I am also struggeling to get hold of Ammonium Hydroxide normal Ammonia I can get that they use in cleaning products. Kind Regards
For still interested people trying to do this with Sodium hypophosphite : it works fine! You need to take about 4/3 of the amount of CuSO4 of you Sodium Hyp. :)Greetz,Eric
But by the way I am actually not sure that it will not work with sodium hypophosphite substite the calcium hyp. You will definately have to change the amounts but after what I read it should be possible anyhow
If still interested: there is a way using Sodium Hypophosphite. to make an activator-solution like this one.After some testing and reading through the literatur our Lib, I figured out an easy way that works with stuff that can be freely bought. In germany, like in many other countries its hard to get calcium hyp. when you dont want to order from china for actually at least 100€ (for 1 kg - gets less when order big quantities) with shipping-costs.Well this is no receipe because Im still trying to normalize the procedure with best working parameters, but its at least one possible way to go.You need:sodium hypophosphite, Ammonium Hydroxide Copper-Sulfateand HCL acid,At first we need to get Hypophosphorous acid (the stuff your government won't like because its used to make crystal meth) from the sodium-hypophosphite and the HCL-acid.Therefore you heat the sodium-hyp. to about 80C and put you HCL to it.As a result you'll get Hypophosphorous acid and salt.Cool down the solution to just over 0C for less soluability of salt and filter out the salt. Now you got a good acid with the clou that it can react with copper-salts to copper-hypophosphite, the main part of the reaction that syevtushenko described!But there will be the problem that the Hyp.Acid directly wants to reduce a solution of copper-salts to copper in front of your eyes. That is why you need to make the sulfate-solution not with water but with the ammonium-hydroxid-solution. It builds complexes that cant be reduced this way. So put some of the Copper Sulfate (doesnt matter with hydrated or not) with the ammonium hydroxid together till all the CuSo4 got dissolved. Try to make a nearly saturated solution.Then you put a little hypophosphorous acid to it and stirr.When you go on as described by syevtushenko with putting your clean pcb into it and heating up the stuff, the ammonium hydroxid fastly evaporates and you'll get your nano-copper on the surface.Of course you should use some soap, ethanol or tensides to make a solution that flews easily through the holes like described.If there is still a need for informations, feel free to ask. I hope that someone is helped by these informations that took much time for me to get Kind regards,Eric Pidun
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What is the function of Calcium hypophosphite on the chemical reaction?
Thank you very much for this links. I did this metallization according to the pdf. The results are great! Vias have resistance of 20mR after 50min of electroless plating. Later I did experiments with NaOH instead of sulfuric acid for degreasing solution and borax instead of ammonia in activation solution. These methods also worked and with borax the container has been plated too :D. Solutions can be used several times. Here's the recipe (I didn't try electroplating):1. DegreasingImmerse in H2SO4 (38%) at 95C for 30min1a. DegreasingImmerse inDI water --- 400mlNaOH --- 20gat 45C for 5minrinse with water2. SensitizationDI water --- 200mlHCl --- 2mlSnCl2*2H2O --- 1.4gtemp. 35C for 5minrinse with water3. ActivationDI water --- 180mlNH4OH --- 20ml(NH4)2SO4 --- 10gAgNO3 --- 0.75g3a. ActivationDI water --- 200mlBorax --- 4gAgNO3 --- 0.45gtemp. 35C for 3-5minrinse with DI water4. Electroless copper platingDI water --- 200mlCuSO4*5H2O --- 0.75gEDTA --- 1.89gKOH --- 2.58gTriethanolamine --- 0.2mlK4[Fe(CN)6]3H2O--- 0.1gParaformaldehyde--- 0.58gIt is important that the components were added into the DIwater in the order listed and given sufficient time to dissolve beforethe next component was added.pH 12.5temp. 55C for >20min5. ElectroplatingDI water --- 1lCuSO4*5H2O --- 200gH2SO4 --- 60g <<< volume ?PEG --- 0.5gCuCl --- 0.14gCurrent density 250mA/cm^2temp. room for 50-60min
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