Can carbon (coal), as in the stuff they use in power plants, be grounded up and used as fertilizer for plants?
Asked by Jais1993 9 years ago
Hi guys, girls 'n robots! I intend to build an electric coal (for my hookah) and I need advice from all you electronic dudes and dudettes! If I use nichrome what length and gauge should I use to achieve the following Specs: 1. 12 V power supply OR 220 VAC (South Africa) 2. Minimum 400 Celsius / 700 Fahrenheit 3. Preferably 600 C / 1112 F The element will be wrapped around a "doughnut" which I will fabricate from heat resistant cement, it will be +/- 2 inches diameter with an inner diameter of about 3/4 inch and 1/2 inch thick, therefore keep in mind that the nichrome must be able to heat all that ceramic. If, during my testing, the nichrome expands sufficiently to short out then I'll cut grooves in the "doughnut" to keep them in their places. In the image orange represents nichrome wire ONTOP of the "doughnut" while yellow is BELOW I am in no way adept at electrickery. As a side note of lesser importance, any ideas on building a circuit to add a dimmer or potentiometer to the mix to regulate the temperature? Thanks in advance!
Posted by Baronrc 8 years ago
I'm a blacksmith in training and i need some coal, i want some, i don't need it but it would help a ton. my father keeps saying that i can get 1000 lbs of coal for $100 but so far, it's all 50 lb bags for $20 on http://www.centaurforge.com, some 12 lbs for $20 on some remote website somewhere someplace in some far recess of the pixelated world of the internet!!! ... i don't mind paying $200 for 1000 lbs, or even a bit more but the problem is, is that i'm in Florida right now. so, i don't know how to get coal cheaper than a buck a pound. right now i'm using lump charcoal and it works fine. but coal gets the metal a bit hotter. so what do i do.
Asked by Blacksmith_by_tradition 5 years ago
Europe, with its smart cars, good public transportation, and high density, is often a beacon of hope for environmentally-conscious Americans. However, since coal remains a relatively cheap source of energy (at least in the short-term...), many European countries are turning to it as oil and gas prices rise, and concerns about energy stability and independence grow stronger. Europe Turns Back to Coal, Raising Climate FearsOver the next five years, Italy will increase its reliance on coal to 33 percent from 14 percent. And Italy is not alone in its return to coal. Driven by rising demand, record high oil and natural gas prices, concerns over energy security and an aversion to nuclear energy, European countries are expected to put into operation about 50 coal-fired plants over the next five years, plants that will be in use for the next five decades. The fast-expanding developing economies of India and China, where coal remains a major fuel source for more than two billion people, have long been regarded as among the biggest challenges to reducing carbon emissions. But the return now to coal even in eco-conscious Europe is sowing real alarm among environmentalists who warn that it is setting the world on a disastrous trajectory that will make controlling global warming impossible.
Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago
In Brennn10's Compact Fluorescent Instructable there was a short discussion about the amount of mercury contained in CFL bulbs. The same topic came up in a mailing list I read, and there was some interesting analysis worth sharing.Statement:The Stranger (the Seattle weekly) has a column called "Dear Science" where the typically quite intelligent author argued that CFL bulbs weren't all that "better" for the environment because inevitable improper disposal put more mercury-n-shit into the environment. So unless you got all your power from a mercury spewing coal plant, you shouldn't use CFL's . And Seattle, getting a majority of it's power from hydro, shouldn't use CFL's.This was called into question for being selective analysis that encourages an attitude of "there's not currently a solution, so keep doing what you're doing", and elicited the following response:Just so I can bore everyone with what I think is the current level of knowledge about mercury and CFLs, here's some of the current information.NRCan did a study on how much mercury is actually in CFLs, and compares them to other typical consumer sources (e.g., watch batteries--if you throw one of them out, you've throw out five times as much mercury as in a CFL):http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca/energystar/english/consumers/questions-answers.cfm#mercuryAfter reading this, I actually worked out these numbers for myself on how CFL savings compare to mercury releases a few months ago. Of course, this is all more environmental destruction brand X vs. brand Y discussion that was being talking about.I was curious about what the numbers work out to, so I went to dig for some data; this is what I came up with.In 1999, about 1.75 trillion kWh were generated by coalEnergy Information Administration Annual Energy Review 1999, Figure 26In 1999, 47.8 tons/year of mercury emissions came out of coal-fired power plants.Source: U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.1999 National Emissions Inventory for Hazardous Air Pollutants.http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/net/1999inventory.html#final3haps.This calcs out to a figure of 0.025 mg mercury per kWhAssuming 5 mg mercury per CFL, the equivalence point is about 200 kWh--a CFL would need to save 200 kWh before getting tossed in the trash. A quick calculation shows that this is about how much a CFL saves in half a year, if it were run 24-7: 75 W for an incandescent; 25 W for an equivalent CFL = 657 vs. 219 kWh/year, or 438 kWh/year difference.Of course, this assumes that the coal mercury emission rate is the same as it was in 1999; I'm not sure if measures have been taken since then to reduce mercury emissions. Also, this is assuming that 100% of the power saved by the CFL would be generated by coal-fired power plants. But even with that assumption, coal is such a large fraction of the power generation (typically about half)--it would jump from six months to a year, instead. Of course, this period gets longer assuming a realistic duty cycle, but still, those numbers all seem to pencil in below typical installed lifetimes of CFLs.Finally, there's a article from Home Energy magazine (behind a subscriber link), where somebody did a similar calculation with more current numbers, I think.http://www.homeenergy.org/article_full.php?id=457&article_title=Understanding_CFLsHome Energy MagazineNovember/December 2007Understanding CFLsby Richard Benware"Although the use of CFLs is steadily spreading, public understanding about how to dispose of them responsibly has not kept pace."Life Cycle BenefitsIn order to disprove the myths about CFLs, let's begin at the beginning. When CFLs are created, manufacturers dose the bulb with a small amount of mercury. This mercury, when electrically stimulated, releases UV light, which subsequently reacts with a phosphor coating to create visible light. Thus mercury is an essential part of every CFL; without it, the bulbs would not produce light. The typical dose of mercury is about the size of a pen tip, and these doses have been getting smaller and smaller. One reason for this is that the laws resulting from the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive have made it illegal for CFLs in Europe to contain more than 5 milligrams (mg) of mercury.In the United States, there are no such laws limiting the amount of mercury in lightbulbs as yet, but members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have voluntarily agreed to limit the amount of mercury in the CFLs that they produce to 5 mg for bulbs of up to 25 watts and 6 mg for bulbs of 25 to 40 watts. The average CFL on store shelves today contains about 4 mg of mercury, and nearly all the CFLs in production contain less than 5 mg. The mercury used in all the CFLs produced in the United States represents 0.18% of the mercury used in all U.S. products andindustrial processes.CFLs do not release mercury as long as they are intact. In fact, they reduce net mercury emissions in the environment by conserving energy. For every kWh of electricity used by consumers, the average power plant emits over 1.5 lb of pollutants. If a 75W incandescent is replaced by an 18W CFL, the CFL will use 456 kWh less energy than the incandescent over its 8,000 hour lifetime. The Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) contains data on the emissions of the average power plant. Using eGRID's information to calculate the average emissions per kWh, we find that this single CFL has prevented the release of 2.72 lb of sulfur dioxide, 1.05 lb of nitrogen oxide, 5.67 mg of mercury, and over 700 lb of CO2.It is important to note that these are the reductions from the average U.S. power plant. The eGRID data show that, on average, nonbaseload emissions tend to be dirtier. And in addition to reducing emissions, CFLs save money for the consumer. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) gives a 2006 average residential electricity cost of $.1008/kWh. Using the example given above, and basing our calculation on this figure, we find that a consumer would save about $46 on energy over the lifetime of the CFL.When these bulbs finally do reach the end of their useful life, there are several pathways they can take. In the best-case scenario, the bulbs are recycled. Recycling rates are increasing, thanks to state regulations -- California and Minnesota have banned altogether throwing CFLs in the trash -- and improved consumer awareness. In 1999, it was estimated that only 15% of all fluorescent lightbulbs were recycled. Currently, that number has increased to around 25%, with higher levels in commercial applications. Since an average of 98.9% of the mercury is successfully recovered in the recycling process, this pathway generates minimal emissions.Even the CFLs that are discarded in the trash are unlikely to release much of their mercury. Although most of them break under current trash disposal methods, some remain unbroken, and will not release any mercury. But those that do break are not likely to release much mercury. EPA estimates that only 0.2% of the remaining mercury in a spent bulb is elemental vapor. The rest of the mercury is in the glass, the phosphor coating, and the electrodes of the bulb. Mercury absorbed in these areas is not readily released. In fact, an EPA study found that only 6.8% of the total mercury in a broken bulb will be released. Since the average bulb on the market today contains only 4 mg of mercury, it will release only about 0.27 mg, even if it breaks when it is thrown in the trash.The only disposal option that could lead to the release of any significant amount of mercury is incineration. Today, many incinerators have advanced mercury control technologies. CFLs disposed of in such incinerators would release up to 90% of their mercury, but those emissions would then be removed by these technologies. Incinerators without these technologies are not capable of removing the mercury. But even after accounting for all of the emissions that occur via all of the routes listed above, CFLs represent a mere 0.01% of total U.S. mercury emissions annually.It is important to note that even if CFLs released all of their mercury, the environment would still be better off than it would be if nobody used CFLs. This is true because the average power plant releases 5.67 mg of mercury to power each 75W incandescent bulb. In short, replacing incandescents with CFLs is a great way to save energy, reduce mercury emissions, and save money (see "Discounting CFLs").
Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago
Hello, after remembering my trip to sovereighn hill when i was 10, and remembering learning how gold bars were made during the gold rush, seeing that a small wood / coal powerd furnace( 1 Metre high 0.7 metres wide) made from clay , was capable of melting gold (melting point 1060 celcius), and having long discusions with my friend as to what method we were to take , in building a sodium furnace, i sugested we build a furnace and make our sodium metal using the deville process involving boiling sodium carbonate and carbon together then passing the metal and monoxide gas through oil. and we agreed on this as we could smelt metals with it also, make grinding media ect, and it would be cheaper than using propane. now that i have decided to make this furnace, based on what i saw when i was 10, i need help designing it correctly, so that it acheives tempuratures in exess of 1300C, the one at sovereigh hill i was told could reach 1500C. at the moment, my idea is that i can build the furnace 1M high and 50cm wide (roughly ), out of bricks and mortar, then fuel it with coal, eventually after being pre ignited by wood. at the base, i plan on having a small vent which i will pump air into using a small inflatable matress inflator, to supp,y the furnace with air. at the top it will have a small round hole in which i will insert things to smelt, which lie inside a ceramic pot .in the case of making sodium via deville proccess, it would have a steel pipe sealed off at the base, reduced at the top running nto a deep cooled oil bath also at the top, there would be two small vents to allow air flow as there air must go somewhere being pumped in. what i need to know, is if htis will work, and if i need to place my ceramic pot right inside the furnace, or just partially in it, as in the diagram of my design. i am asking all this as i have no idea if it will work at this small size, and because i have little experience or knowledge of the potential tempuratures that can be acheived.
Asked by oldmanbeefjerky 6 years ago
I wanted to know how to make a smelting pot to melt different mettle's for projects that I want to do. Also, what type of home object would melt at the fastest speed over coal fire? This process would be used to make miniature figures (dragons, swords, etc) of which I would be able to sell at a market. I have already tried an air dry clay but it broke when I put it in the fire (I used aluminum for the mettle).
Asked by SDPY15 7 years ago
Hey everyone, i was wondering if anyone in the Hollywood-Miramar-Pembroke Pines area of Florida USA has any old scrap iron, steel, charcoal, or coal they do not want and would be kind enough to offer it to me for free or for a reasonable price. I am doing blacksmith work so it would be greatly appreciated. Thanks! Things wanted: Bolts, car springs, brake drums, any kind of bar (round, flat, square, hexagonal, octagonal, etc.) lump charcoal, any large chunks of steel to be used as anvils, any old blacksmith tools such as hammers, etc.... anything donated is appreciated. Thanks again!
Posted by thoraxe 9 years ago
I'm building a brake drum forge, and coal obviously is the fuel of choice. I understand some guys use lump charcoal which they say works well, because anthracite or bituminous coal is hard to come by in some places-- like where I live. Has anyone used just plain, good old fashioned wood? Or has anyone tried wood pellets? In my area, pellets are 10% of the price of either coal or lump charcoal. I have hundreds of trees on my ranch and I use wood for heating my log cabin. With a good air supply, will Douglas fir, other conifers, or even pellets get hot enough for forging? I'm sure wood was used in bygone times in places where there was no coal, but is it a good forging fuel? Does anyone have experience (good or bad) forging with wood? THANKS!!
Asked by HenryFrapp 1 year ago
I would like to cook in my fireplace, but I don't want to have to purchase a dutch oven. I know about the foil method, but could I use recipes meant for dutch ovens in a cast-iron pot, which I could then place on the coals?
Asked by noahh 8 years ago
I have a wall-mounted porcelain coal fireplace from a French chateau. It has isinglass windows, so is amenable to diffused light. BUT, all the electric simulators are too wide to fit. I tried using candles, BAD idea. Then I tried flickering Christmas lights, too constant and not enough color variation. Any ideas? Thank you! -D
Asked by Doc Holliday 3 years ago
Hi can anyone here help me, I have a industrial power drill like power head on a machine I think it might drive my machine via a 1/2" or 3/4" drive. I suspect the drill has been submerged in water on a coal mine in queensland. The brand is called "wolf" from london and from what I have found out they no longer exists. can this machine be restored? thanks ash
Posted by broc113559 5 years ago
Can it dodge fire? Can it dodge coal? Can it last after the dodge? Well you need to make it do this. You can have: Unlimited amount of feet. Any type of plane unless it requires the target. When it will close: At 2013 start of auttum. It is a LONG Reserch, Concept, Paper Airplane contest so take some times!
Posted by wat. 6 years ago
VICTORIA -- Driving and other fuel-dependent activities are about to get more expensive as British Columbia becomes the first jurisdiction in North America to introduce a consumer-based carbon tax.The carbon tax will apply to virtually all fossil fuels, including gasoline, diesel, natural gas, coal, propane, and home heating fuel. B.C.'s carbon tax, the provincial government claims, will be the most comprehensive in the world.full article
Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago
My current access to a forge, is gas. At I've been told that it isn't hot enough to forge weld metals together. I'm curious what kind of fuel i should be using or alternate methods. I understand the process to create the damascus alloy, I just don't know the required forging method. I assume coal/coke would be my best bet. Cheers, Benduy
Asked by benduy 3 years ago
I popped out the plastic top and pryed the magnetic piece off the bottom then set it on the hot coals to burn off any remaing glue. The steel coloured that purple,blue,red colour you get when metal heats up. I was just wondering if it would be safe to use has a small smoking box. I don't want to poison the whole family.
Asked by Kaniduh 8 years ago
I am looking for a decent incarnation of a oil burning stove/furnace/heater. My issue is this....when I load up my woodstove for the day, my house is cold when I return 9hrs later. I recall my father had a gravity fed waste oil stove/heater in his mechanics garage. he did not have to go feed it like his coal/woodstove. Thanks!
Posted by Tolting 4 years ago
I spent the weekend birding with my Dad, all along the North Norfolk coast.I a little less than two days, despite howling winds, biting chills and the first proper snowfalls for years, we clocked up 73 species.Personal highlights were:Glaucous gullTree creeperWater railSnow BuntingBlue, Coal, Great and Long-tail tits all in the same bushAnd beating my dad to both a great spotted woodpecker and a jay.I took photos, but most are blurred by movement and extreme zooming. Others I didn't try because it was too hard to hold the camera still in the wind, or too hard to keep the lens clear enough of snow to take pictures.
Posted by Kiteman 9 years ago
Last night I dreamed of massive Earthly destruction by huge flaming rocks from the sky. It was really, really cool, but rather scary. Black sky, massive and multiple flaming rocks from above impacting with devastating effect (some distance away, but close enough to feel shock-waves). Not like the image, more real and hot-burning coals like (but that's the best I could manage to get for 2 mins of searching)If it happens soon it's a premonition?(I also dreamed that some landlord-bast's had been in while I was out and cleaned my place out of all the junk and important stuff like my furniture, PC etc and moved the stuff out of the shed into my lounge, but that was a completely separate scene and in daylight...)I was glad to wake up!
Posted by lemonie 9 years ago
A solar array, grandstands, aircraft runway, elevator, and an assortment of support vehicles, this epic LEGO creation has it all! Flickr user DeGobbi has created a rolling city out of LEGO blocks and what must have been months of hard work. There's even a back-story to go along with the epic build: "Crawler town roams the barren wastes of a post steam-punk world after cataclysmic climate change do to excessive coal use. Several such cities exist but Crawler town is the most popular due to the Aero 500 hydrogen fuel cell Air races that are held." Yup, looks like he's thought of everything with this build, there's even a place to grab a beer! There are plenty of close ups of the entire project and all the details, you can check them out here.
Posted by mikeasaurus 6 years ago
Ok, so I've got a busted 1st Gen DS, a glitchy Sansa View, a less glitchy Sansa Fuze, a couple Nokia 5230's, a Blackberry 8900, and a couple old Motorolla flip phones. I'm more than sure I can make something of them, but I wanted some advice. I want to make a small player with a dock that acts as extra storage and battery life with extra functions. That can wait though, first I wanna have what would be the brains done. Basically a player with basic functions and a small screen to see artist and song, etc. I'm not sure what to do first though? I'd need an OS of sorts I suppose? I don't know much at all, so this would be one hell of a learning experience.
Asked by coal hund 5 years ago
With the 4th of July quickly approaching and summer heading into full swing, we've selected some of our favorite barbecue-related Instructables. These are not only about the cooking, but also about the whole barbecue experience--from meal accessories to the grill itself. Don't forget about the BBQ PDQ Contest, which is open until July 6th! Ground Beef Burgers For a fresh, from-scratch burger, check out this recipe. You can follow it all the way from grinding the beef to serving the completed burger.   Grilled Stuffed Peppers You can do a lot more with the grill than just making burgers, hot dogs, and chicken. These stuffed peppers are a great way to use your grill for a very different type of meal. Cut A Watermelon No summer barbecue is complete without watermelon— and you can cut your watermelon and remove the seeds at the same time. Jello Fruit Salad This Jello fruit salad brings a sweet, summery touch to go along with your main meal. Make a Pie Crust Trying to make a classic 4th of July apple pie? Use this pie crust and fill with whatever you like to make the perfect pie. Sweet Soy Ribs For a different spin on grilling ribs, try these sweet soy grilled short ribs or use the marinade to coat something else. Frozen Banana Smoothie What could be better than enjoying the summer days with a cold fruit smoothie? This frozen banana smoothie will satisfy anyone at your barbecue. Start BBQ Coals If you're having trouble getting the coals to light for your barbecue, check out these helpful tips to get your grill going strong. Build Your Own BBQ For a slightly larger project, you can make a barbecue area in your own backyard. This professional-looking project would fit in well in any yard. Hobobeque Or, if you want to be questioned by police (or family, friends, neighbors, etc.) you can try the revolutionary hobobeque. No explanation can do it justice, but it would certainly make for an interesting BBQ story. With these BBQ recipes, tips, and ideas, your barbecue can be more enjoyable than ever before.
Posted by joshf 9 years ago
I'm a quality engineer working for a company in Turkey, the company collects the coaldust ( powder form of the coal ) from all the cities of Turkey and makes them briquettes by pressing with very powerful machines. Of course we use some adhesives for mechanical strength of the briquettes. We use CMC (a kind of cellulose) and this material is soluable in water. So our briquettes are not very durable under rain or moisture. Now I have to change the binder or adhesive materials in order to produce waterproof briquettes. I dont know how it's possible. I have to use nontoxic natural materials, and cheap as well. Last week I tried to do something but we were unlucky maybe. I tried to use Technical Gelatin and Alum (Al. Sulphate ) together, the briquettes seemed very good after production but they were not durable when I left them in a cup of water. So I have to find a solution now. Can you help me about that? I'd be very pleased. Thanks.
Asked by enisdogru 7 years ago
Sign-up for our newsletter here. Oct. 25, 2007 Welcome back! There is just a little over a week left for our DIY Halloween 2007 Contest! We know that you're working on your costumes, food, jack-o-lanterns, and scare gadgets now so don't forget to take pictures and write up a fantastic Instructable! Tomorrow we will have a special Halloween newsletter so don't be surprised when you get two e-mails from us this week. For now, check out these great Instructables! Matchsticks Cube (no glue) Make a sweet flammable box out of a few dozen matches. It's the coolest looking fire starter ever.posted by msolek on Oct 23, 2007 The Best Way to Start BBQ Coals If you have trouble starting coals for a BBQ, just grab a hair dryer, point it at the grill, and pull the trigger. No lighter fluid needed.posted by noahw on Oct 23, 2007 Raygun - Steampunk Defense When the air pirates are coming at you it's time to give pacifism a rest and get your weapons ready.posted by aintMichael on Oct 19, 2007 Win a free trip to Maker Faire 2008! DIY CD/DVD 5.25" Bay PC computer cooler Don't let your computer overheat. Use this handy case mod to keep things cool under pressure.posted by DIYSlacker on Oct 19, 2007 Nomad Furniture: A Folding Desk How to build a desk that can hide away when you don't need it.posted by Wade Tarzia on Oct 18, 2007 Ghoul Grabber Build a crawling ghoul that's activated by stepping on a mat. All for just a few dollars of parts.posted by guyfrom7up on Oct 20, 2007 TV Remote Jammer! Keep your roommates from changing the channel by jamming the infrared sensor.posted by Kipkay on Oct 22, 2007 The Laser Cutter Contest is Back! Portrait Gourds Grown in Molds Grow a gourd with your face on it, using this ancient technique from China.posted by TimAnderson on Oct 23, 2007 How to Make Edible Glowing UV Reactive JELLO Make the experience of eating JELLO even creepier with this glowing modification. posted by hairyconiption on Oct 22, 2007 Control real world devices with your PC Learn how to interface a PC and microcontroller. Sense the value of an analog input and control some servos. posted by Dr_Acula on Oct 22, 2007 Now go build something awesome, and I'll see you next week! - Eric
Posted by lebowski 10 years ago
Hey I've been looking into aluminum casting for a while now (done it once or twice with different "furnaces") Now I'm reading alot about lost foam casting (sounds interessting too) But I was thinking; do you think (/have experience) that I could make some kind of "permanent" mold out of some kind of cement/ concrete/ fireclay mixture for casting similar pieces several times?? I was thinking, when you make the furnace(s) you make a cement/ concrete/ fireclay mixture that can withstand the temperature, so shouldn't it be able to withstand the temperature of the aluminum being poured into it also? (and therefor be able to make the mold out of) - I was thinking to use a special type of cement ment for use around a fireplace. What do you know/ think of the idea? - and also; is there any (other) cheap/ "easy" way to make permanent molds for several similar castings? (at home/ the backyard) PS. not important but I've made/ used a coal fired furnace, a gas (butane) fired furnace and now I'm about to build an electrical furnace (for the sake of expence and time of heating up)... I'm trying to make some casting sand/ green sand, but the ingredients looks to be rather difficult for me to gather (In Denmark Europe)
Asked by lordl9999 5 years ago
We're used to thinking about the cost per unit of energy (e.g. $/gallon of gasoline) with the implicit assumption that cost is a rough indicator of what is required to obtain that energy. The Oil Drum has a nice piece on Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and the implications of using low EROI energy sources. To dive right in, it's instructive to think about the EROI of domestic oil production as a function of time:100:1 in 193030:1 in 197011-18:1 in 2000EROI on the Web part 2 of 5, (Provisional Results Summary, Imported Oil, Natural Gas)Energy return on investment, sometimes called EROI and sometimes called EROEI, is thought by many, including myself, to be a critical issue for determining the past, present and future status of human society. It is usually considered in terms of energy return on energy investment, but it can also be considered in terms of energy return on monetary investment. While much of human progress has been attributed, rightfully, to technology, much of that technology has been a means of using more energy for human ends. This is true for fire, knife blades and spear points (energy concentrating devices), the development of agriculture and the increase in its productivity and, essentially all aspects of the industrial revolution.EROI is simply the energy delivered by an energy-obtaining activity compared to the energy required to get it. If the numerator and denominator are expressed in the same units (barrels per barrel, MegaJoules per MegaJoule) the result is a dimensionless ratio, i.e. 100:1 or 10:1). Obviously a higher ratio implies a more desirable fuel than a lower one, other things being equal (which is rarely the case). The concept is extremely simple in theory but often very difficult in execution, mostly because society generally maintains its records in monetary rather than energy terms. Another problem is that the U.S. Government has not supported such studies in a consistent fashion and it is my perception that the quality of some energy records as are kept by e.g. the U.S. Departments of Energy and of Commerce appear to be deteriorating in recent years. Thus deriving the energy cost of getting energy (or most other things) is generally somewhat, and oftentimes exceedingly, difficult. A second problem is that the usual measure of the quantity of a fuel, its heat value, often does not give a full assessment of that fuel's ability to do economic or other work. Most simply electricity and thermal heat from e.g. coal or oil have a great difference in their ability to do work, such as we are willing to trade three or four heat units of coal or oil in a thermal plant for one thermal unit of higher quality electricity. Thus if the input and output fuels are of different quality then it is often thought desirable to weight in some way the inputs and the outputs. A third problem is that it is important to consider boundaries: how large should we draw the boundaries of the energy analysis for the inputs? We will consider these issues in far more detail in later publications but there are many reasons why it is important to make summaries of EROI available at this time even though many uncertainties exist in the numbers that we present here, and indeed with any numbers that might be possible to generate.via jforbess
Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago
Hi !Fishes can't see the water they are in ! That's why I need your personal and external opinions and view.The first source of electricity in my country (France) is nuclear.In a previous forum, I've noticed that a lot of Citizen of USA consider Nuclear energy is too much polluting and too much expensive (democrats candidates for US election reject the idea of more nuclear plants), and that it's not seen as a serious solution to reduce pollution and CO2 emission, etc ... In few words : you seems to dislike it. So, I would like to know why exactly, and that you tell me more about what you think about it.Here it's quite different. Nuclear energy is seen as a mean to be energetically independent. It's a mean to pollute less. And it's almost a local speciality, like are crepes, baguettes and croissants.The main producer is EDF (which stands for Electricite De France (electricity of France)). Until 1999, EDF had the monopoly (and that was better and safer IMHO). Since then, because of EU regulation, we've been forced to open the market ...Here are some data :EDF is one of the world's largest producers of electricity. In 2003, it produced 22% of the European Union's electricity, primarily from nuclear power:nuclear: 74.5%hydro-electric: 16.2%thermal: 9.2%wind power and other renewable sources: 0.1%Its 58 active nuclear reactors (in 2004) are spread out over 20 sites (nuclear power plants). They comprise 34 reactors of 900MW, 20 reactors of 1300 MW, and 4 reactors of 1450MW, all PWRs.---In 2006 :- nuclear : 85.7%- hydro-electric : 5.0%- thermal : 8.1% ( coal : 3.3%, gas : 3.2%, petrol : 1.6% )- others renewable : 0.9% (wind, sun and co)- others : 0.3%---
Posted by chooseausername 10 years ago
What the Candidates Say About Energyhttp://www.energycentral.com/centers/news/daily/article.cfm?aid=9641919RepublicansRUDY GIULIANI: Says "every potential solution" must be pursued, including nuclear power, increased energy exploration and more aggressive investment in alternative energy sources. Says energy independence can be achieved through a strategy that emphasizes diversification, innovation and conservation.MIKE HUCKABEE: Wants to lessen U.S. dependence on foreign oil by pursuing "all avenues" of alternative energy: nuclear, wind, solar, hydrogen, clean coal, biodiesel and biomass.JOHN MCCAIN: Wants to limit carbon dioxide emissions "by harnessing market forces" that will bring advanced technologies, such as nuclear energy, to the market faster. Seeks to reduce dependence on foreign supplies of energy. Wants the U.S. to lead in a way that ensures all nations "do their rightful share" on the environment. As you may know,McCain was AWOL in December on the key Senate vote to secure an 8-yearSolar Investment Tax Credit extension -- and he could have been the hero by casting the 60thvote (it failed 59 to 40 with only McCain being AWOL).MITT ROMNEY: Wants to accelerate construction of nuclear power plants as part of a "robust, cleaner and reliable energy mix." Seeks energy independence not by halting all oil imports but by "making sure that our nation's future will always be in our hands."DemocratsHILLARY CLINTON: Says she's "agnostic" about building nuclear power plants. Prefers renewable energy and conservation because of concerns about nuclear power's cost, safety and waste disposal. Wants to spend $150 billion over the next 10 years to cut oil imports by two-thirds from 2030 projected levels, with some money going toward alternative energy.JOHN EDWARDS: Opposes nuclear power because of cost and safety concerns. Favors creating a $13 billion-a-year fund to finance research and development of energy technologies; wants to reduce oil imports by nearly a third of the oil projected to be used in 2025.BARACK OBAMA: Says the U.S. can't meet its climate goals if it removes nuclear power as an option but says such issues as security of nuclear fuel, waste and waste storage need to be addressed first. Wants to spend $150 billion over the next 10 years to develop new energy sources. Seeks to reduce"oil consumption overall by at least 35 percent by 2030."
Posted by ewilhelm 10 years ago
Hello. I am working on doing an aluminium lost foam casting of a small part. I read although hazardous, some had gotten successful results from using polyurethane foam (great stuff) in a mold, and proceeding as usual. I don't normally use great stuff, so I mixed gorilla glue with 1/3 water, stirred till I had small bubbles, poured into a silicone mold, and got a pretty good few castings that were VERY dense and hardly burned at all. In fact it was practically fire resistant. I threw it on hot coals and it took a long time to shrivel into a hard little mass So next time, I used dollar store foam board next, a la Grant Thompson, but with terrible failures. It seemed the foam board didn't burn very well either. A foam board riser had actually melted off and looked like it floated away in a bubble, although a regular styrofoam block I had cut to shape cast perfectly, but was too thick and the texture was too poor as the foam was so much less dense. It was mentioned in this blog post that someone used acetone to burnout a tricky patten for a lost foam casting, so I figure I have to do the same. My pattern is curing at the moment. But my silicone molds are far more precise and more detailed than my 2d representation I made with a wire cutter. So my question is there another material that is castable but water resistant, like styrofoam, that I could use a solvent to melt out. I can't really do lost wax because I don't have the equipment and live in an apartment and have to do this stuff out on the beach. Also due to family reasons I can't be away from home for the time it takes to do burnouts, 6 hours for a full flask, but that's also the reason why I am doing the shell casting because I can't spend too much time away from the fam. Thanks for your time, sorry if I rambled. And thanks for all here and elsewhere who teach and inspire, even if they don't know they are doing it.
Asked by sk8er6 1 year ago
Calling all cosmonauts, inventors, dreamers, and explorers ...tickets for Yuri's Night Bay Area 2008 arenow on sale!http://yurisnightbayarea.netYuri's Night is back! We're bigger and better than everand we need your help to spread the word!Yuri's Night Bay Area2pm - 2am, April 12th, 2008NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CAThis year the San Francisco Bay Area will be home to the largest Yuri's Night celebration ever. At the NASA Ames Research Center over 8,000 people will join astronauts, artists, musicians, scientists and engineers to learn, celebrate, and pay tribute to our global space heritage; and to celebrate the anniversaries of the first human spaceflight and the first space shuttle mission. Yuri's Night Bay Area 2008 is a one-of-a-kind local community event: a perfect fusion of celebration and tribute, technology expo, Maker Faire, art exhibition, and music festival; all rolled into one. Yuri's Night Bay Area 2008 includes:- A mind-expanding series of speakers, including world-renowned video game designer WILL WRIGHT, creator of SimCity, SimEarth, The Sims, and many other games including his exciting upcoming game of life, evolution, and exploration: SPORE; NASA astrobiologist JONATHAN TRENT, leader of the new NASA G.R.E.E.N. team for green technology research; and SAUL GRIFFITH, head of an innovative new company seeking to harness high-altitude wind energy as a cheap alternative to coal: MAKANI POWER.- A TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE featuring leading Bay Area green technology companies including CALCARS and TESLA MOTORS. Plus, dozens of art and science installations spanning everything from NASA research ROBOTS to the unveiling of the newest fire sculpture by the FLAMING LOTUS GIRLS.- DISCUSSIONS and FORUMS where event attendees will get the chance to take on some big questions surrounding Space Exploration, Radical Sustainability, and the Future of Humanity in our Festival of Ideas.- A world-class lineup of musical artists, ranging from the electronic breakbeat sounds of AMON TOBIN, TIPPER, and JOHN TEJADA to rockin' live performances by FREEZEPOP, PARTICLE, and the very special debut of TELSTAR, featuring PHIL LESH of the Grateful Dead.- Live performances of all kinds, from dance and acrobatics by CAPACITOR (San Francisco's ground-breaking interdisciplinary dance company) to aerial demonstrations featuring Yuri-Gagarin-era AEROBATIC AIRCRAFT.- ...and much, much more! Browse the partial list below!Tickets are available on-line for $40 (plus applicable fees). A limited number of tickets may be available for $50 at the door -- check the website for status. If you are interested in helping out at the event, please fill out the volunteer form on our website.We hope to see you there!- The Yuri's Night Bay Area TeamYURI'S NIGHT 2008 LINE-UPTALKS AND INTERACTIVE EXPERIENCES- NASA SCIENTISTS and ASTRONAUTS- A do-it-yourself SHOW AND TELL by INSTRUCTABLES- WILL WRIGHT, creator of SimCity, SimEarth, and the forthcoming Spore- NASA astrobiologist JONATHAN TRENT, leader of the new NASA G.R.E.E.N. team for green technology research.- A CUSTOM MUSIC INTERFACE CONTEST by CreateDigitalMusic- Leading Bay Area minds including SAUL GRIFFITH, head of MAKANI POWER- ...and MUCH, MUCH MORE!ART AND SCIENCE INSTALLATIONS- The unveiling of the newest work by the FLAMING LOTUS GIRLS- A variety of NASA RESEARCH ROBOTS AND AIRCRAFT- MASSIVE SCULPTURE by MICHAEL CHRISTIAN- VIDEO PROJECTION by KOSHO, CELESTINE STAR, and many others- Amazing water vortex effects by SUFFICIENTLY ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY- Large-scale kinetic art by SWARM- An art in space, space science, and sustainablity-themed S.T.E.A.M. DOCUMENTARY PROGRAM- A space- and sustainablity-themed DOCUMENTARY SCREENING DOME- ...and MUCH, MUCH, MUCH MORE!LIVE PERFORMANCES AND DANCE- CAPACITOR: Live aerial performance and dance- BAD UNKL SISTA: breathtaking costumes and dance-inspired performance- THE VONSTILT FAMILY: Gravity-defying stilt performances- A LIVE AEROBATIC DEMONSTRATION, featuring three unique Yuri-era airplanes flown by three of the best aerobatic pilots in the world.- ...and more!LIVE INSTRUMENTAL AND VOCAL MUSIC- TELSTAR (feat. Phil Lesh, Steve Molitz, and John Molo)- FREEZEPOP (Boston): indie synthpop / new wave- PARTICLE: instrumental space-disco-dance- BLVD w/ SOULEYE: hip-hop, house, & breaks- ZOE KEATING: avant garde looping cello- MJ GREENMOUNTAIN vs. YOSSI FINE: global fusion and afro-tribal funk- CHRISTOPHER WILLITS (12k, Ghostly Intl.): processed guitar soundscapes- GAMELAN X: the intergalactic 17-member percussive melodic marching troupe- LULACRUZA: Argentinan percussion, guitar, and vocals- THE SWEET SNACKS: Ghettotech and big beatELECTRONIC MUSIC- AMON TOBIN (Ninja Tune/Montreal)- TIPPER (UK, special twilight downtempo set)- JOHN TEJADA (LA/palette recordings)- LUSINE (Ghostly Intl., Seattle) : live set- SCUBA (Hotflush Recordings, UK)- DIGITONAL vs. POSTHUMAN (UK): with live violin- [A]PENDICS.SHUFFLE (LA): live set- DERU (Merck, LA): live set- TYCHO (Ghostly, Merck): live set- RANDOM RAB (El Circo): live set- MR. PROJECTILE (Merck): live set- DR. TOAST (False Profit) vs. GANUCHEAU: live
Posted by fungus amungus 10 years ago